SCIENTIFIC METHOD ANDSCIENTIFIC METHOD AND
Mukut HazarikaMukut Hazarika
Department of EducationDepartment of Education
Dibrugarh UniversityDibrugarh University
Email :Email : firstname.lastname@example.org@hotmail.com
Man’s Search for KnowledgeMan’s Search for Knowledge
Deductive ReasoningDeductive Reasoning
Inductive ReasoningInductive Reasoning
Scientific MethodScientific Method
Confronted with a problem , man oftenConfronted with a problem , man often
tries to seek its answers from his ortries to seek its answers from his or
other’s personal experiences.other’s personal experiences.
– The person may omit evidences that do not agree withThe person may omit evidences that do not agree with
his opinion.his opinion.
– May use measuring instruments that require manyMay use measuring instruments that require many
subjective estimates.subjective estimates.
– Establishes a belief on insufficient evidences.Establishes a belief on insufficient evidences.
– Fails to observe significant factorsFails to observe significant factors
– Draws improper conclusions owing to personalDraws improper conclusions owing to personal
Deductive ReasoningDeductive Reasoning
Deductive Reasoning, the first systematicDeductive Reasoning, the first systematic
approach to reasoning, is attributed toapproach to reasoning, is attributed to
Aristotle and the Greeks.Aristotle and the Greeks.
Syllogism is a thinking process thatSyllogism is a thinking process that
establish a relationship between aestablish a relationship between a MajorMajor
PremisePremise (a self-evident truth), a(a self-evident truth), a MinorMinor
PremisePremise and aand a Conclusion.Conclusion.
Major Premise :Major Premise : All men are mortal.All men are mortal.
Minor Premise :Minor Premise : B F Skinner is a man.B F Skinner is a man.
ConclusionConclusion :: B F Skinner is mortal.B F Skinner is mortal.
LIMITATIONS :LIMITATIONS :
Not fruitful in arriving at new truths.Not fruitful in arriving at new truths.
Acceptance of incomplete or falseAcceptance of incomplete or false
major premises may lead to amajor premises may lead to a
wrong conclusion.wrong conclusion.
Semantic difficulties may lead toSemantic difficulties may lead to
wrong conclusion.wrong conclusion.
Inductive ReasoningInductive Reasoning
Francis Bacon was the exponent of thisFrancis Bacon was the exponent of this
type of reasoning.type of reasoning.
In Inductive Reasoning a conclusion isIn Inductive Reasoning a conclusion is
reached by observing instances andreached by observing instances and
generalizing from instances to the wholegeneralizing from instances to the whole
– All the evidences may not be possible to beAll the evidences may not be possible to be
– It can not lead beyond generalisation.It can not lead beyond generalisation.
Scientific MethodScientific Method
The scientific Method is attributed toThe scientific Method is attributed to
Charles Darwin.Charles Darwin.
It integrates the most importantIt integrates the most important
aspects of Deductive and Inductiveaspects of Deductive and Inductive
Steps in Scientific MethodSteps in Scientific Method
Identification and definition ofIdentification and definition of
the problem.the problem.
Formulation of a hypothesis.Formulation of a hypothesis.
Implication of hypothesisImplication of hypothesis
through deductive reasoning.through deductive reasoning.
Collection and analysis ofCollection and analysis of
Verification, acceptance,Verification, acceptance,
rejection or modification of therejection or modification of the
‘‘Research may be defined as theResearch may be defined as the
systematic and objective analysissystematic and objective analysis
and recording of controlledand recording of controlled
observations that may lead toobservations that may lead to
the development ofthe development of
generalisations, principles, orgeneralisations, principles, or
theories, resulting in predictiontheories, resulting in prediction
and possibly ultimate control ofand possibly ultimate control of
events.’ Best and Kahn (1989)events.’ Best and Kahn (1989)
‘‘Scientific Research is systematic,Scientific Research is systematic,
controlled, empirical, and criticalcontrolled, empirical, and critical
investigation of hypothetical propositionsinvestigation of hypothetical propositions
about the presumed relations amongabout the presumed relations among
natural phenomena.’ Kerlinger, F.N. (1978)natural phenomena.’ Kerlinger, F.N. (1978)
‘‘Research is an inquiry process that hasResearch is an inquiry process that has
clearly defined parameters and has as itsclearly defined parameters and has as its
aims the discovery or creation ofaims the discovery or creation of
knowledge, or theory building; testing,knowledge, or theory building; testing,
confirmation, revision, refutation ofconfirmation, revision, refutation of
knowledge and theory; and / orknowledge and theory; and / or
investigation of a problem for localinvestigation of a problem for local
decision-making.’ McClure and Herssondecision-making.’ McClure and Hersson
Research is ‘an objective,Research is ‘an objective,
impartial, empirical and logicalimpartial, empirical and logical
analysis and recording ofanalysis and recording of
controlled observations that maycontrolled observations that may
lead to the development oflead to the development of
generalizations, principles orgeneralizations, principles or
theories, resulting to sometheories, resulting to some
extent in prediction and controlextent in prediction and control
of events that may beof events that may be
consequences or causes ofconsequences or causes of
specific phenomena.’ Kohl (1984)specific phenomena.’ Kohl (1984)
Research ProcessResearch Process
Selection of broad Research Problem andSelection of broad Research Problem and
defining it.defining it.
Formulation of Research QuestionsFormulation of Research Questions
Selection of Research Method, Design,Selection of Research Method, Design,
Sample, Tools and Techniques.Sample, Tools and Techniques.
Field work – data collection.Field work – data collection.
Analysis and interpretation of data,Analysis and interpretation of data,
drawing conclusions.drawing conclusions.
Reporting the results.Reporting the results.
Characteristics of ResearchCharacteristics of Research
(Best and Kahn)(Best and Kahn)
Research is directed towards the solution of aResearch is directed towards the solution of a
Research emphasizes the development ofResearch emphasizes the development of
generalisations, principles, or theories that will begeneralisations, principles, or theories that will be
helpful in predicting future occurrences.helpful in predicting future occurrences.
Research is based upon observable experience orResearch is based upon observable experience or
empirical evidence.empirical evidence.
Research demands accurate observation andResearch demands accurate observation and
Research involves gathering new data fromResearch involves gathering new data from
primary or first hand sources or using existingprimary or first hand sources or using existing
data for a new purpose.data for a new purpose.
Research is characterized by carefully designedResearch is characterized by carefully designed
Research requires expertise.Research requires expertise.
Research strives to be objective.Research strives to be objective.
Research involves the quest forResearch involves the quest for
answers to unsolved problems.answers to unsolved problems.
Research is characterized by patientResearch is characterized by patient
and unhurried activity.and unhurried activity.
Research is carefully recorded andResearch is carefully recorded and
Research sometimes requiresResearch sometimes requires
Aims of Educational ResearchAims of Educational Research
Finding truth.Finding truth.
Testing hypothesis(es).Testing hypothesis(es).
Establishing relationship(s).Establishing relationship(s).
Verification and testing of existing facts, theories,Verification and testing of existing facts, theories,
principles etc.principles etc.
Revision of existing theories.Revision of existing theories.
Finding solutions to problems / questions.Finding solutions to problems / questions.
Providing a scientific basis for planning, decision-Providing a scientific basis for planning, decision-
making, policy formulation, policy revision etc.making, policy formulation, policy revision etc.
Predicting behaviours, forcasting outcomes,Predicting behaviours, forcasting outcomes,
events etc.events etc.
NEED FOR RESEARCH INNEED FOR RESEARCH IN
Through research we can widen the basic corpusThrough research we can widen the basic corpus
of knowledge in different aspects of Education.of knowledge in different aspects of Education.
Education is considered both as a science and anEducation is considered both as a science and an
art. Research helps us to gain knowledge aboutart. Research helps us to gain knowledge about
its ‘Science’ and ‘Art’ aspects.its ‘Science’ and ‘Art’ aspects.
Research helps us to gain true knowledge in aResearch helps us to gain true knowledge in a
faster but accurate manner.faster but accurate manner.
The concept of Education is not static butThe concept of Education is not static but
dynamic. To cope up with the changing needsdynamic. To cope up with the changing needs
one needs to do research.one needs to do research.
Research in education helps us to cope up withResearch in education helps us to cope up with
the rapid scientific and technologicalthe rapid scientific and technological
Types of ResearchTypes of Research
(on the basis of objectives)(on the basis of objectives)
Fundamental, Basic or PureFundamental, Basic or Pure
Applied Research.Applied Research.
Action Research.Action Research.
Fundamental or Basic ResearchFundamental or Basic Research
Main objective is to generate newMain objective is to generate new
knowledge and to develop theoriesknowledge and to develop theories
or principles.or principles.
Carried out generally in a controlledCarried out generally in a controlled
Application of principles and theoriesApplication of principles and theories
is secondary consideration here.is secondary consideration here.
Applied ResearchApplied Research
It aims at exploring the extent ofIt aims at exploring the extent of
applicability of new knowledge – theories,applicability of new knowledge – theories,
principles, generalizations etc. to a novelprinciples, generalizations etc. to a novel
Its main purpose is improving a product orIts main purpose is improving a product or
a process – testing theoretical concepts ina process – testing theoretical concepts in
actual problem situations.actual problem situations.
Most of the educational research areMost of the educational research are
applied research as they are mainlyapplied research as they are mainly
concerned with testing of theories inconcerned with testing of theories in
teaching-learning processes andteaching-learning processes and
instructional materials.instructional materials.
Action ResearchAction Research
Action Research is a purposeful and goal orientedAction Research is a purposeful and goal oriented
activity undertaken by practitioners with theactivity undertaken by practitioners with the
purpose of improving and modifying theirpurpose of improving and modifying their
practices with a view to achieve better results.practices with a view to achieve better results.
Action Research is focused on immediateAction Research is focused on immediate
application, not on the development of theory orapplication, not on the development of theory or
on general application.on general application.
Its findings are evaluated in terms of localIts findings are evaluated in terms of local
applicability, not universal validity.applicability, not universal validity.
Its main purpose is to improve school practicesIts main purpose is to improve school practices
and also to improve those who try to improve theand also to improve those who try to improve the
Types of ResearchTypes of Research
(on the basis of approach)(on the basis of approach)
Qualitative Research andQualitative Research and
Quantitative Research.Quantitative Research.
Qualitative ResearchQualitative Research
– The approach is inductive.The approach is inductive.
– Its focus is on specific situations, institutions,Its focus is on specific situations, institutions,
communities, groups of people etc.communities, groups of people etc.
– Its focus is on causes, interpretations andIts focus is on causes, interpretations and
implications rather than quantitative scores,implications rather than quantitative scores,
measurement and statistical analysis.measurement and statistical analysis.
– It emphasizes on personalized experiencesIt emphasizes on personalized experiences
rather than structured tools.rather than structured tools.
– It is generally based on smaller number ofIt is generally based on smaller number of
Understanding the meaning of broad terms likeUnderstanding the meaning of broad terms like
attitude, prejudice, organizational climate etc,attitude, prejudice, organizational climate etc,
Understanding the context in which someUnderstanding the context in which some
behaviour / phenomenon takes place,behaviour / phenomenon takes place,
Identifying an anticipated behaviour,Identifying an anticipated behaviour,
Understanding the process,Understanding the process,
Developing causal explanations,Developing causal explanations,
In-depth study to find out the factors of aIn-depth study to find out the factors of a
particular behaviour or phenomenon,particular behaviour or phenomenon,
Studying inter-relationships between variousStudying inter-relationships between various
factors responsible for a behaviour or afactors responsible for a behaviour or a
Freud developed his theory of psychoanalysisFreud developed his theory of psychoanalysis
through qualitative research.through qualitative research.
Practical UsesPractical Uses
Generating theories that areGenerating theories that are
Conducting formative evaluation,Conducting formative evaluation,
intended to improve the existingintended to improve the existing
practices rather than to simplypractices rather than to simply
assess the value of programme orassess the value of programme or
product being evaluated.product being evaluated.
Engaging in collaborative researchEngaging in collaborative research
with practitioners.with practitioners.
Types of Qualitative ResearchTypes of Qualitative Research
Phenomenological ResearchPhenomenological Research
Ethnographical ResearchEthnographical Research
Case StudiesCase Studies
Historical ResearchHistorical Research
Philosophical ResearchPhilosophical Research
Quantitative ResearchQuantitative Research
Characteristics :Characteristics :
– The approach is deductive.The approach is deductive.
– The sample studied is large.The sample studied is large.
– The emphasis is on precision in describingThe emphasis is on precision in describing
– The emphasis is on numbers rather thanThe emphasis is on numbers rather than
– A relationship between variables is anticipatedA relationship between variables is anticipated
which is tested on the basis of data collected.which is tested on the basis of data collected.
– An attempt is made to convert the data intoAn attempt is made to convert the data into
mathematical form.mathematical form.
– Tools used are to be such as to yield data inTools used are to be such as to yield data in
numerical form.numerical form.
– The conclusions drawn from the sampleThe conclusions drawn from the sample
are applicable to the total populationare applicable to the total population
which the sample represents.which the sample represents.
– It helps in objective study ofIt helps in objective study of
– Data can be analysed on a computerData can be analysed on a computer
and hence inferences can be drawnand hence inferences can be drawn
– These can be easily replicated andThese can be easily replicated and
results can be verified.results can be verified.
– Personalized ingenuity and skill is lessPersonalized ingenuity and skill is less
required for data collection.required for data collection.
Standardization of tests.Standardization of tests.
Identifying characteristics of a groupIdentifying characteristics of a group
in quantitative terms.in quantitative terms.
Measurement of the effect of theMeasurement of the effect of the
experimental variables.experimental variables.
Comparison of the characteristics ofComparison of the characteristics of
Studying the relationships betweenStudying the relationships between
the variables.the variables.
Types of Quantitative ResearchTypes of Quantitative Research
Experimental ResearchExperimental Research
Quasi-Experimental ResearchQuasi-Experimental Research
Correlational StudiesCorrelational Studies
Rules to Define a Problem:Rules to Define a Problem:
Be sure that the topic chosen is neitherBe sure that the topic chosen is neither
too vague nor too broad in scope.too vague nor too broad in scope.
To make the problem clearer and moreTo make the problem clearer and more
understandable state it as a questionunderstandable state it as a question
which requires a definite answer.which requires a definite answer.
Carefully state the limits of the problem,Carefully state the limits of the problem,
eliminating all aspects and factors whicheliminating all aspects and factors which
will not be considered in the study.will not be considered in the study.
Define any special terms that must beDefine any special terms that must be
used in the statement of the problem.used in the statement of the problem.
An Analysis of the Question PapersAn Analysis of the Question Papers
of the B.Ed. Examination ofof the B.Ed. Examination of
Dibrugarh UniversityDibrugarh University
Significance of the Study:Significance of the Study:
Title of the Study:Title of the Study:
Objectives of the Study: The mainObjectives of the Study: The main
objectives of the present study is toobjectives of the present study is to
analyse the question papers of theanalyse the question papers of the
B.Ed ExaminationB.Ed Examination
The specific objectives of the studyThe specific objectives of the study
To make an item-wise analysis ofTo make an item-wise analysis of
the Question papers of the B.Edthe Question papers of the B.Ed
Examination of Dibrugarh UniversityExamination of Dibrugarh University
on the Following aspects:on the Following aspects:
Weightage given to differentWeightage given to different
Coverage of the syllabus.Coverage of the syllabus.
Weightage given to different formsWeightage given to different forms
Nature of options in the questionNature of options in the question
Difficulty level of questions.Difficulty level of questions.
Appropriateness of marks allotted toAppropriateness of marks allotted to
different questions.different questions.
To study the views of the B. EdTo study the views of the B. Ed
Examinees on the question Papers.Examinees on the question Papers.
To study the opinion of the TeacherTo study the opinion of the Teacher
Educators on the Question papers ofEducators on the Question papers of
the B.Ed Examination.the B.Ed Examination.
To provide suggestive measures toTo provide suggestive measures to
improve the question papers of theimprove the question papers of the
B.Ed Examination.B.Ed Examination.
Delimitations of the study:Delimitations of the study:
The study is delimited to the external TheoryThe study is delimited to the external Theory
Question papers of the B. Ed Examination only.Question papers of the B. Ed Examination only.
Question papers on Internal Sessional tests andQuestion papers on Internal Sessional tests and
Laboratory Practical Examination are not takenLaboratory Practical Examination are not taken
into consideration for the present study.into consideration for the present study.
The study is also delimited to analyse theThe study is also delimited to analyse the
question papers of the B.Ed. Examination of thequestion papers of the B.Ed. Examination of the
new course only.new course only.
Question papers of the B.Ed Examination of 2005Question papers of the B.Ed Examination of 2005
and 2006 are selected for the present Study.and 2006 are selected for the present Study.
Data are collected only from the B.Ed ExamineesData are collected only from the B.Ed Examinees
of 2006 for the present tudy.of 2006 for the present tudy.
Method of Research FollowedMethod of Research Followed: The: The
normative survey method is considered tonormative survey method is considered to
be the most appropriate method for thebe the most appropriate method for the
present study.present study.
Population of the studyPopulation of the study: The population: The population
of the present study comprises of all theof the present study comprises of all the
candidates of the B.Ed examination, 2006candidates of the B.Ed examination, 2006
(New Course) of Dibrugarh University, held(New Course) of Dibrugarh University, held
in the month of July, 2006.in the month of July, 2006.
Sample of the studySample of the study: Considering: Considering
the objectives and nature of data tothe objectives and nature of data to
be collected, purposive samplingbe collected, purposive sampling
technique has been adopted for thetechnique has been adopted for the
Tools and Techniques usedTools and Techniques used: Tools: Tools
and techniques used in a researchand techniques used in a research
study depends upon the purpose ofstudy depends upon the purpose of
the study and nature of data to bethe study and nature of data to be
Content analysis of the QuestionContent analysis of the Question
Papers of the B.Ed examinationPapers of the B.Ed examination
(2005 and 2006)(2005 and 2006)
A questionnaire for the B.EdA questionnaire for the B.Ed
Examinees prepared by theExaminees prepared by the
The questionnaire consists of bothThe questionnaire consists of both
open ended and closed endedopen ended and closed ended
questions. It includes the followingquestions. It includes the following
Coverage of syllabusCoverage of syllabus
Clarity and preciseness of the questionsClarity and preciseness of the questions
Printing error in the question papersPrinting error in the question papers
Scope of selective readingScope of selective reading
Types of questionsTypes of questions
Higher level questionsHigher level questions
Marks allotted to questionsMarks allotted to questions