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Microfiber Technology

Microfiber is a new age cleaning. Microfiber is a very fine synthetic fibre composed of 2 polymers, polyester and polyamide (nylon) which combine in a single thread; usually the composition is 80 % / 20 % but 70% / 30 % is also common.

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Microfiber Technology

  1. 1. Advanced Yarn Manufacturing Azmir Latif, MSc in textile Engineering Microfiber WHAT IS GREENMANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY (MICROFIBER)? This is a unique technology in producing microfiber yarn to skip dyeing process,thus minimizing pollution to environment. Most of our microfibers are produced under Green Manufacturing Technology. DEFINATION & COMPOSITION Microfiber is a new age cleaning. Microfiber is a very fine synthetic fibre composed of 2 polymers, polyesterand polyamide (nylon) which combine in a single thread; usually the composition is 80 % / 20 % but 70% / 30 % is also common. HUMAN HAIR V/s MICROFIBER Wool is the most thick textile fibre existing in nature: size is 18-24 micron; Cotton has normally, a size of 13.5 micron; silk is the most thin natural Fibre existing in nature: size is 12 micron; a human hair has a size of 300 Micron; microfiber is 100 times finer than a human hair, size is 3-5 micron & sometimes even less. Micron is the thousandth part of the millimetre and it is used as the unit of measurement of fibres diameter. CHARACTERISTICS OF MICROFIBERS  Polyester has an electrostatic effect that captures and retains dust  Polyamide has an absorptive capacity that, when combined with water or cleaning solution,facilitates and allows the removal of dirt, grease and bacteria on any surface without leaving watermarks or stains  The result of the capillary effect created between polyesterfilaments and polyamide core is a very high absorbency  It can take various forms: non woven, woven, knitted  Less consumption of chemical  Can be used on all surfaces. ADVANTAGES OF MICROFIBERS  Labour Savings Up To 30%  Easier And Faster Than Conventional Mopping System  Minimum Training Required  Better Cleaning  Improved Dust Removal  Improved Cleaning Action
  2. 2. Advanced Yarn Manufacturing Azmir Latif, MSc in textile Engineering  Improved Bacteria Removal (Up To 95%)  Reduces Cross Contamination  Easier To Use  Lighter Weight Than Conventional Mops  Better Control Of The Mop  Eliminates Lifting Of Heavy Mops And Cleaning Solutions  Eliminates Frequent Changing Of Solution (Less 80%)  Safer  Less Solution Left On The Floor(Because To The Fine Pores)  Scratch & Streak-Free Material  Product Saving  Microfiber Mops Outlast Conventional Mops  Can Be Laundered A Minimum Of 300 + Washings  Energy Saving  Cost Less To Wash And Dry Microfiber Mops Than Conventional Mops  Dry Without Heat LAUNDRY INSTRUCTIONS  Wash at high temperature 200°f/95°c  Wash with othermicrofiber products  For best results keep them separate from other textiles because the microfiber may pick up loose fibres  Do not use bleach as it may shorten fibres life  Do not use fabric softener as it tends to take away the positive charge. If, by mistake fabric softenerwas used wash again with water only  Do not use chlorine  Tumble dry It has been said that microfiber technology is arguably the most significant product innovation to the cleaning industry in the last century. Not only has microfiber proven to reduce time and energy on certain tasks, it is environmentally friendly and rarely requires the use of chemicals. Research has also shown that using microfiber may reduce the potential for back, shoulder and elbow injuries, limiting workman’s compensation claims. “Departments who are using micro-fiber technology understand and appreciate its many features,” says Dave Gruebel, sales manager at Texas Feathers, Brownwood, Texas, manufacturer of various cleaning tools for the jan/san industry. “It is those who are reluctant to change from their traditional cotton cloths and mops that need to be trained on the benefits of microfiber.”
  3. 3. Advanced Yarn Manufacturing Azmir Latif, MSc in textile Engineering What is microfiber At first glance; the microfiber cloth appears to be no different than other cotton cloths. Both have similar thickness and feel, but when comparing the two it’s apparent that microfiber may be a step ahead of its cotton counterparts. “The major difference between microfiber and cotton cloths is that microfiber strands are so small the human eye can barely see them,” says Tom Peglowski, general manager at Norton Abrasives, Worcester, Mass., manufacturer of abrasive products and solutions. Microfiber is a synthetic fiber made up of a blend of polyester and polyamide or nylon. These materials are bundled together to form a strand that when examined under a microscope appears in the shape of a star. Those bundles are then split into ultra-fine single fibers using a specific combination of chemicals, heat and agitation. The fibers are finally woven together to make the finished microfiber product. Research shows that it is the amount of splits that determines the quality of the microfiber. The splitting process breaks down each fiber into a very thin strand, estimated to be at least one- sixteenth the size of a human hair. When woven together these strands create a surface area covered with millions of spaces between the fibers to trap moisture, dirt and debris. (See diagram below.) “The strands curled ends will also reach into cracks and crevices, picking up and removing dirt, holding it inside the pad,” says Judy Cline, director of microfiber cleaning at Rubbermaid, Winchester, Va., manufacturer of products and system solutions for a variety of cleaning categories. Traditional cleaning tools such as rope mops and cloths “won’t reach into these crevices, but will instead push the dirt around,” she adds. Research has also shown that static charge aids in the effectiveness of microfiber cleaning. “The millions of fibers rubbing together produce a static charge that attracts the dirt, pulling it in and trapping it until the cloth or pads are washed, at which time the charge is broken and the dirt is released,” according to Chris Schran, president of Fountain Valley, Calif.-based REDCO, manufacturer of various microfiber products and accessories. Benefits of microfiber use Although many departments can benefit from microfiber, health care facilities have been quick to embrace this newer technology. In an effort to reduce cross contamination between patient rooms, some state laws require that housekeeping department’s change out the mop and/or chemicals and water after every room. Using microfiber flat mops, this requirement isn’t difficult to meet. Because flat mops are smaller and lighter (roughly three pounds when wet) than traditional string mops (between eight and 10 pounds when wet), more mops can be carried on carts and easily changed between rooms. Pushing and lifting less weight with the microfiber flat mops has also proven to reduce worker injury.
  4. 4. Advanced Yarn Manufacturing Azmir Latif, MSc in textile Engineering Some argue that the microfiber flat mop is not only more ergonomic and productive, but cleans better overall. “String mops create a lot of splattering on baseboards and very little grout cleaning,” says Bruno Niklaus, marketing communications manager at Unger Enterprises, international manufacturer of professional cleaning tools based in Bridgeport, Conn. “String mops push the water into the grout while the microfiber flat mop’s looped fibers grab and drag the dirt out.” In addition to cleaning floors, flat mops can be used on walls and ceilings. Microfiber cloths and mitts have been developed for smaller surfaces such as counters, windows and mirrors. Also, some manufacturers have come out with wands that use microfiber products for harder-to-reach surfaces. “Wherever you would use a mop or rag, you could successfully substitute microfiber technology,” says BlandMurphy, U.S. international sales representative at Jones Yarn, Humboldt, Tenn., manufacturer of Speeds microfiber technology. Because microfiber is so versatile, some manufacturers have expanded their product line to include microfiber scrubbers, general purpose, soft cloths, etc., to target specific tasks. Users should be aware of the variety of microfiber products on the market, and understand that not all can be used for every application. For example, if a scrubbing cloth were used on a plastic finish, the cloth may scratch the surface. A soft cloth should be used in this situation. Manufacturer guidelines will help users identify and avoid these trouble areas. Care and life expectancy The life expectancy of a microfiber product will depend on a number of factors. The first is the quality of microfiber composition that is used. The care that is given to the cleaning and storage of the product will also affect its life span. If cared for properly, microfiber can be laundered anywhere from 100 to 500 times. According to some manufacturers, the product itself will fall apart long before the microfiber becomes ineffective. Of course, this is assuming that the product is properly used and cared for. When using microfiber, there are very few applications that require the use of chemicals. Studies show that because of its technology, microfiber will clean more effectively when used dry than traditional products do when using chemicals. In situations where chemicals are required, manufacturers have come up with a few recommendations for combining the two: “Dampen the pad or cloth before using it, but do not ‘wet’ it,” says Schran. “If too much water or chemical is used, the crevices that are designed to attract and hold dirt will fill with liquid.” Niklaus adds that very few chemicals can harm microfiber, but it is important to stay away from
  5. 5. Advanced Yarn Manufacturing Azmir Latif, MSc in textile Engineering acids. “Watch for warning labels. If the chemical indicates that it will harm plastics, it will most likely harm microfiber.” Regardless of the use of chemicals, the laundering of microfiber products will also impact its life span. Laundering microfiber isn’t much different than washing other cleaning products. As long as detergents have an overall pH of under 11, which is standard in most detergents, any soaps can be used in the cleaning process. While washing, steer clear of harsh bleaches, which will break down the fibers and hinder the microfiber’s effectiveness. “It is important also to remember that microfiber should be washed in temperatures that do not exceed 200 degrees,” says Cline. “For drying, you want a temperature between 130 and 140 degrees, max.” Temperatures higher than these could potentially harm the product. Once detergent and temperature are determined, it is important to be conscious of what other products are included in the wash load. Although there are no restrictions as to what can and can’t be washed with microfiber, there are “best practice” recommendations. “One common mistake is to wash microfiber with products that are prone to lint,” says Peglowski. “If this happens, the microfiber will continue working in the laundry and will collect that lint, making the cleaning process ineffective.” Fabric softener will have a similar effect. Microfiber may collect particles from the softener sheet, clogging up the crevices in the cloth. Softeners might also reduce and possibly eliminate the static charge that makes microfiber effective. Cost of microfiber The initial cost of microfiber products may be higher than what many departments are prepared to pay, but manufacturers guarantee significant savings over time. Before implementing a program, it is important for departments to consider life-cycle savings, reduction in chemical purchases, water bills, laundry services and reduced labor costs. Comparing current expenses to costs associated with microfiber will give departments a good idea of long-term savings. It is also important to consider the fact that housekeeping departments are constantly being asked to do more with less. Products such as microfiber will help staff productivity and efficiency – saving time and money in the long run. Many manufacturers will work with housekeeping departments to figure out the estimated cost savings, as well as how to implement the new system. “We offer a variety of free training seminars to our customers,” says Murphy, “because change is difficult and unless you train them on the advantages of microfiber, they aren’t going to want to
  6. 6. Advanced Yarn Manufacturing Azmir Latif, MSc in textile Engineering use it.” Although there is still some resistance among members of the housekeeping industry, microfiber technology continues to gain momentum. Industry sources expect that as more information becomes available, microfibers product offerings will expand well beyond the existing cloths, mitts and flat mops. In fact, some manufacturers are already in the planning phase for new applications to be released this year. “We are beginning to work beyond the realm of conventional cleaning and moving into specialty cleaning areas,” says Cline. “I think microfiber technology is a trend that will continue to take off.” Arguably, no single material has had a larger impact on the landscape of car care than microfiber. From plush to waffle weave, glass towels to wash pads, and even more recently polishing pads, microfiber has changed how we detail and the results that are possible. No one who takes their detailing seriously is without at least a small collection of microfiber products in their garage, but despite its wide-spread use there is still a lack of understanding for many as to how to properly care for this important, and many cases expensive, part of your car care regimen. UNDERSTANDING THE MATERIAL Its always important to understand the material you are caring for first and foremost. No sense in delving into the aspects of cleaning and care if you lack a basic knowledge of what you are actually caring for. While microfiber can be comprised of many parts, most commonly in the automotive cleaning and care world we use a combination of polyesters and polyamides. These tiny man-made fibers are around 1/100th the diameter of a human hair. Let that sink in for a moment... or to help you put it into perspective that is approximately the same ratio between the diameter of a crayon and a hula hoop! So understand that while you might see a collection of fluffy tufts when you look closely at your towels on a microscopic level there is a very veryvery fine, but consistent and strong strand there. For the mostpart all microfiber will share an identical structure, regardless of weave. How the fibers are woven
  7. 7. Advanced Yarn Manufacturing Azmir Latif, MSc in textile Engineering will impart different characteristics to the material (plush for delicate surfaces, waffle weave for drying, flat for glass, etc) Each fiber has a star like structure and all strands are virtually identical across the entire surface of a towel. This leads to a consistently soft towel that performs the same regardless of fold or what portion is in contact with the surface. The 'pocket-like' features on each strand allow microfiber to trap small particles, dirt, moisture and debris making them very effective for cleaning as well as other tasks. For the purposes of this writeupits key to understand that these features also make cleaning difficult when the fibers become full of any substance trapped deep within the fibers structure. Magnified cross section of an individual microfiber strand THINK ABOUT WHAT CONTAMINATION IS IN YOUR MICROFIBER? The types of contamination found in automotive detailing towels will be far different than the soil and grime found in other towels found around your home. While a dish towel might have a combination of last nights spaghetti sauce and that mystery food goo from the fridge, your detailing towels will be full of polish, wax, and sealant residues. Because of this the type of detergent you choose is important.
  8. 8. Advanced Yarn Manufacturing Azmir Latif, MSc in textile Engineering Dedicated microfiber cleaners are going to provide the most effective solution to removing detailing related residues simply because they are (mostly) formulated to break down the stubborn contamination left behind. By design a wax or sealant is supposed to resist detergents and heat... thats essentially what defines a good product for use on your paint - its ability to withstand the elements and car washing. Regular laundry soaps are still an effective option - most good detergents can remove most anything you find, or at the very least break them up enough to be effective. We've all seen the TV commercials where brand X removes grass stains, wine stains, ground in dirt - but I haven't seen one yet that says it'll remove carnauba wax and polymer sealants. The option to avoid, and one incorrectly recommended by amateurs all over the web, are 'delicate' detergents like woolite. Products in this category are lacking in the areas needed to really remove all the residues found in your towels. Sure, if you need to clean a silk shirt or delicate unmentionables by all means reach for your woolite, but we're dealing with tough residues embedded deep into very tiny fibers - use a detergent capable of getting the job done. While microfiber is important, and should be cared for appropriately, it is fairly durable stuff and can handle stronger detergents to make sure they are 100% clean. Weaker detergents will continually leave behind a small amount of detailing contamination, leading to a slow buildup and eventually hampered performance. REGULAR CLEANING: Your microfiber accessories should be cleaned after every use. While it might be tempting to let that drying towel sit and use it again next weekend you run the risk of contamination causing swirls or letting something set into the towels that will be more difficult to remove later. Cleaning microfiber is usually the least enjoyable part of a detail, but in the end staying on top of your laundry just ensures that your towels will be at their best and ready when you are. TOWELS:
  9. 9. Advanced Yarn Manufacturing Azmir Latif, MSc in textile Engineering  Always separate your dirtiest towels, like those used to clean wheels or for metal polishing, from your 'good' plush and drying towels to avoid cross contamination and wash them in separate loads.  Keep cotton and other materials out of the wash loads. Wash microfiber only with other microfiber.  Use a dedicated microfiber detergent or a dye free/perfume free liquid laundry soap - no powders or granulated.  Set washer to a warm water setting. Some heat is required to break down waxes and polishes. Cold settings will not clean towels as effectively.  If your washer is equipped with an extra rinse cycle, use it.  Microfiber can be machine dried if you prefer, use a low heat setting and NO FABRIC SOFTENER. Air or line drying is also an option, be sure to do this somewhere the towels cannot be contaminated with dust or lint. PADS & APPLICATORS:  Just like with towels, separate any extremely dirty or contaminated pads from the group and wash separately.  Wash pads and applicators separate from towels. The foam backing and velcro can become snagged and damaged during agitation by a towel in the same load.  Use a brush to break up heavy, caked in, polish residues on pads before washing.  Dedicated microfiber detergents are preferred, but if using regular laundry soap make sure its dye/perfume free.  Set washer to a warm setting, not hot. Pads have a glue membrane that is sensitive to high heat so stick to warm, but not hot wash water settings.  If your washer is equipped with an extra rinse cycle, use it.  Air dry all pads and applicators on a wire rack to maximize airflow and expedite drying. HEAVY STAINS AND CONTAMINATION: No matter what there is going to be occasions where a towel becomes extremely contaminated or stained from either something you removed from a vehicle (grease, oil, tar, etc) or it becomes saturated with a product to the point there is some discoloration. In these situations pre-treating or at the very minimum pre-soaking the microfiber to keep these stains from setting in is key. Obviously, you can't stop mid-detail and clean your microfiber accessories, so here are some quick tips to help with heavier contamination on the fly.  Any towel that becomes heavily soiled with grease, oil, brake dust, etc - spray liberally with a mixture of APC Concentrate (anywhere from full strength to 4:1 should be effective). Soak the heaviest contamination and rub the towel against itself to agitate, then set aside for cleaning later.
  10. 10. Advanced Yarn Manufacturing Azmir Latif, MSc in textile Engineering  Pre-soaking towels will help start the cleaning process long before you get around to doing your detail laundry. Prep a wash bucket with clean water and add 2-3oz of APC Concentrate. As towels become too dirty to continue using toss them into the pre-soak bucket. Place a grit guard, upside down and ON TOP of the towels after they've been put in the mix to hold them in the solution.  Brush pads after use with a stiff brush to break up polish residues. Pads can also be added to your pre-soak bucket if desired. MICROFIBER STORAGE: Where your towels are kept when they are not in use is just as important as how they are cared for, so make sure you have a solution for keeping your towels out of harms way and dust free between uses. Plastic storage totes are an inexpensive solution - the lid will keep your towels from collecting dust in an area like a garage and will also minimize the amount of crawly insects that might find a new home buried in all that plush softness. Always be sure your microfiber is completely dry before storage. Mildew will form on towels in some climates if they are even slightly damp. This is especially true of microfiber applicators and pads. The foam backing and cores is a magnet for moisture avoid using air tight containers for anything with a foam core or backing unless you are completely confident it is dry all the way thru. BOILING YOUR TOWELS: Over time your microfiber may become contaminated past the point it can be completely cleaned using traditional methods. Typically this will present itself during use - drying towels will begin to feel less absorbent. Plush towels may lint slightly or smear products more than remove them. This is an indication that the fibers are 'full' either from residues deposited during use or things like fabric softener accidentally introduced during cleaning. In any event, if your towels begin to loose their performance or just don't feel as good as they did new boiling is the solution, the last resort, to bring them back. NOTE: this process applies only to towels and microfiber without foam cores or backing.  Fill a large cooking pot approximately 2/3rd full of water and bring to a boil  Add approximately 1oz of distilled white vinegar per gallon of water and stir  Place a few of the towels to be treated into the pot, maintaining a slow boil
  11. 11. Advanced Yarn Manufacturing Azmir Latif, MSc in textile Engineering  Stir continuously with a large spoon, avoid letting the towels rest against the bottom or sides for too long  After about 60-90 seconds in the boil, remove the towels using tongs and rinse under cool water  Wash using the "Regular Cleaning" guidelines outlined earlier and they should be as good as new. Should boiling fail to bring absorbancy to a towel or the towel continues to lint then you are most likely dealing with a towel at the end of its lifespan. Retire the towel to less important tasks and replace with a new one for future use. Most microfiber should give you many years of regular use before needing to be replaced, but eventually it will break down. PARTING THOUGHTS: As in all areas of detailing taking care of your towels means they'll serve you well for a long time. Taking the time to properly clean and care for your microfiber will maximize performance and extend the life of your towels so you get the most out of your investment. While it might sometimes be hard to admit that one of your favorite towels has outlived its useful life or has become too contaminated to be effectively care for your car, that doesn't mean they have no use at all. A towel retired from detailing can still serve purposes in your garage for years to come. Keeping a separate tote or bag of retired microfiber around your garage or house will make sure that even after car care your towels continue to give you some value for the money you spent on them. Microfiber…Answering the Tough Questions Microfiber cleaning, a promising new approach, is getting widespread attention among professionals. The enthusiasm that accompanied the first wave of claims and promises led to trail and adoption of the tools and systems by healthcare, hospitality, schools and offices. With next generation microfiber tools coming to market, environmental services professionals have enough experience with the technology to ask tougher questions about microfiber performance. In some instances, the benefits of microfiber have been oversold. More often, however, disappointing results with microfiber cleaning are due to insufficient attention to these variables:
  12. 12. Advanced Yarn Manufacturing Azmir Latif, MSc in textile Engineering human factors, incorrect product choices, and unsuitable processes. Like every good tool, when used properly by an adequately trained operator, microfiber does deliver superior results. This is a technology with a bright future. Not all microfiber is created equal. At the heart of microfiber is the fiber itself. The term technically applies to fiber that is 1.0 denier or smaller. The smaller the denier measure, the finer and more effective the microfiber. Superior microfiber measures 0.13 denier. (A single ounce of 0.13 denier microfiber has more than 1200 miles of surface area!) Currently you will find both split and un-split fibers sold as “microfiber”. Splitting is a process that increases the surface area of the fiber by creating microscopic hooks, which enhance microfiber’s dust and dirt holding ability. unsplitmonofiliments
  13. 13. Advanced Yarn Manufacturing Azmir Latif, MSc in textile Engineering pre-split blended filiments split filaments showing increased surface area and optimal retention of fine particles. The Human Factor There are two kinds of people in the world: those who embrace learning new tasks with optimism and gusto (there are about 12 of those people), and everybody else. The term “resistance to change” applies to most people, and cleaning professionals are no exception. And the harder the sell on the benefits, the more entrenched the resistance can become. Anyone hoping to convert their facility to microfiber cleaning ignores this at their peril. You cleaning staff does
  14. 14. Advanced Yarn Manufacturing Azmir Latif, MSc in textile Engineering not want to hear that they aren’t cleaning well enough, or that they are cleaning improperly. Successful managers have addressed this matter by insisting that microfiber suppliers come to the table with engaging training activities and materials. Truly creative approaches include giving staff members free microfiber products, encouraging them to use them at home. Given the combination of training and practice, microfiber makes its own friends, proves its value. And practice at home makes perfect on the job. The Right Stuff The wave of new microfiber product innovations is a clear indication that superior results require specialized tools. One particular weave of microfiber cloth is optimal for cleaning glass; another is the most effective tool for dusting. Dusting deserves further mention. The outright superiority of microfiber for the task of grabbing and holding minute dust particles creates impressive opportunities to improve cleaning and indoor environmental quality. Specialized dusting tools – flexible wands with extendable poles ensure that previously difficult-to-reach areas are accessible to effective cleaning. You can ensure your success by purchasing from a manufacturer that offers a full array of microfiber tools and equipment. The following chart specifies products according to cleaning task: FOR THIS JOB: USE THIS: Picking up large spills Fringed high absorbency pad w/pedal wring bucket - note that the best tool for puddle pick- up may still be a traditional blended string mop Scuff marks on floors Microfiber pad with integrated non-abrasive scrubber pad Cleaning/scrubbing on stone or textured flooring Microfiber pad with scrubber strips Applying floor finish Trapezoid White w/Blue Stripes Finish Pad Cleaning walls, windows or other hard to reach areas 11” Microfiber Wet Pad, Frame and Extension Handle – for ultimate control; use w/pedal wring bucket Cleaning remote areas where access to water is limited Treat pads ahead of time in water tight “disinfecting” bucket Effectively dusting hard to reach areas with lots of cracks and crevices Use a flexible microfiber dusting tool (attach to extension handles as needed) Dusting large open areas Use microfiber frame and pad 24-48” wide Dust mopping where large debris or “dust bunnies” Microfiber dust pads with fringe Dusting live or artificial plants Use Microfiber mitts to eliminate chemicals and minimize damage to plants Manual cleaning and wiping of glass, stainless Smooth texture microfiber blue cloths helps
  15. 15. Advanced Yarn Manufacturing Azmir Latif, MSc in textile Engineering steel, and other smooth, relatively non-porous surfaces control/eliminate streaking Care and Feeding Change your oil, check the tire pressure, top off the fluids – a little care and your car will go for miles. The same is true of microfiber. Although care of microfiber pads and cloths is not difficult, it can be mishandled. In fact, most equipment problems can be traced to some type of mishandling. The following chart identifies several of the more common issues that arise: SYMPTOM CAUSES REMEDY Floors streaked after mopping/hazy film on floor Insufficient dusting prior to mopping Improper dilution of floor cleaning chemical Using pads too wet Be sure to dust mop w/microfiber ahead of damp mopping Convert to automatic proportioner and/or have chemical supplier check and adjust dispenser Start w/no more than 32 oz of liquid/5 wet pads in disinfecting or press wring buckets or double wring pads in pedal wring buckets, rotating them 180 degrees between wringings Dusting Pad hard to push Encountering moisture Utilizing a dusting pad for mopping Use blue wet pad. This will still dust better than traditional dust mops and will absorb moisture and continue to glide Pad shrinkage Excessive Dryer Temperature Pads should shrink no more than 10% the first time laundered and not shrink after that. If still shrinking, adjust dryer temperature to at or below 140º F. Tool doesn’t hold pad Degraded pad backing from excessively high detergent pH or chlorine bleach. Slightly melted pad backing from excessive heat in dryer Hook strips are worn or Buy new pads and follow laundering instructions Replace pads and adjust dryer to at or below 140º F. Replace hook strips Pads should be replaced after 300-500 laundry cycles,
  16. 16. Advanced Yarn Manufacturing Azmir Latif, MSc in textile Engineering chemically degraded Pad is simply worn out depending on use and laundry conditions Handle/frame connection breaking Excessive force when trying to remove scuff marks Use microfiber pad with integrated non-abrasive scrubber pad Wet mops difficult to wring Lack of proper wringer equipment Purchase equipment designed to wring microfiber flat mops Floor finish specked or gritty Chemical and/or physical residue on the floor prior to finish application Utilize microfiber dusting pads just before applying finish to remove chemical residue, lint, grit, hair, etc. Floor finish gloss inconsistent and/or finish not adhering to the floor Same as above Same as above Trouble keeping grout lines clean on ceramic tile, quarry tile and other hard, porous or textured floors without water based floor finish Leaving dirty water in lines during cleaning process Use microfiber pad with scrubber strips to loosen soil and immediately wick it into the microfiber, leaving grout lines clean. Staff won’t adapt to change Resistance to change is usually result of lack of understanding and/or “fear of the unknown” Have your microfiber supplier schedule a training seminar that effectively educates and trains staff Methods of Manufacturing Microfibers HarshaniWijendra Sri Lanka Institute of Textile & Apparel Technology (SLITA) a) Dissolved type Microfibers of this type are manufactured from bi-component fibres (see below for details) with different types of polymers. Comparatively thick bi-component filaments containing different types of incompatible polymers are spun, and the fabric is made using them. When the fabric is treated chemically with solvent, one component is dissolved and removed, and the other component remains as the microfibre. Polyester and nylon microfibers can be made by this method. Commercial production has been reported to use 20/80% ratios of soluble/insoluble polymers to produce a bi-component filament of up to 2 dtex fineness, and a final dissolved filament with linear density of about 0.50 dtex. The main considerations for selection of suitable polymer component are:
  17. 17. Advanced Yarn Manufacturing Azmir Latif, MSc in textile Engineering  High solubility;  Stability at extrusion temperature;  The polymers’ rheological properties should be compatible at extrusion temperature;  It should be recoverable for use, so that the cost of solvent and soluble polymer is affordable;  It should be non-toxic, non-corrosive, and non-polluting. The various combinations of soluble/insoluble polymers reported to form fibres successfully are polystyrene/polyamide and polystyrene/polyester. b) Split type Themicrofibers of this type are obtained by physically or chemically treating the bi-component filaments containing two types of polymers and splitting them into different types of filaments. It is easier to split the Segment in filament from itself than in the fabrics. Suitable polymer combinations for splittable bi-component filament spinning are polyamides/polyester and polyester/polyolefines. The main considerations for selecting the polymer combinations are as follows:  The polymers must be incompatible;  The polymer should have reasonably similar melt at common extruder temperature;  The polymers should have weak adhesivity. c) Direct spun type Thismicrofibre is directly manufactured by melt spinning. For this method, highly selected polymerization, polymer, spinning conditions, and drawing conditions are required. Special melt spinning dynamics should be considered for the production of low linear density polyester by the direct extrusion method. When polymers have similar dynamic viscosities at the given temperature, the polymer with the lower dynamic viscosity permits the spinning of finer fibres. This result has been attributed to the lower spin-line tension generated when spinning polymers with lower dynamic viscosity. It is postulated that the important parameter in the production of finer PET fibre is the spin-line tension level, which must be kept low in order to obtain finer fibres. The increase in take-up velocity and the fibre line length between the spinnered and the take-up device increase the spin-line stress level, and therefore the minimum fineness attainable increases. There are the following areas where microfilament spinning requires care:  The die-swell formation must be minimized by using the lowest possible melt viscosity at the capillary entrance, and by limitation of the horizontal component of the elastic melt expansion spinnerets’ exit.  In the solidification phase, the quenching air must not stress the filament. Therefore, the hole distance and the arrangement of the spinneret holes must allow the turbulence-free quenching air stream to penetrate the whole filament bundle.  Processing all filaments equally in order to obtain evenness in density.
  18. 18. Advanced Yarn Manufacturing Azmir Latif, MSc in textile Engineering  After solidification, the individual capillaries should be guided side by side in one layer. Due to the large number of fine capillaries which forma microfilament yarn, the stationary guides become problematic, and crossing of capillaries may result in deviations in linear density and drawing failures. (d) Super-drawing technique In this technique, no molecular orientation is involved. Staple fibre with linear density less than 0.5 dtex can be produced with high drawing ratios. This technique is based on the principle that yarn can be stretched as much as 10-75 times; much beyond their conventional draw ratios (3-6 times) if the drawing is carried out at a minimum crystallizing temperature and at special selected drawing conditions, including the temperature range and the type of heating the fibre. (e) Sheath-core spinning method. In this method, two different polymers are mixed, melted, and mix-annealed under specified conditions. The conjugate fibre comprising of a concentric circular sheath and a core is manufactured, and the sheath portion is removed to form ultra-fine fibres. (f) Some other methods; 1. Flash-spinning method 2. Solution flash-spinning 3. Emulsion-spinning method 4. Jet-spinning method 5. Centrifugal-spinning method 5. Turbulent forming method 6. Conjugate-spinning method Fibers for Microfiber: Bi-component fibers; Are co-extruded with two different polymers in the cross-section. This allows the fibre to use the properties of both materials, and vastly expands the array of possible fibre performance characteristics. Bi-component fibres are available in staple, filament, and microfibre forms. Typical bi-component fibre types are presented in Figure 1.
  19. 19. Advanced Yarn Manufacturing Azmir Latif, MSc in textile Engineering Fig 1: Bi-component fibers Specialty Cross-Sections A modified cross-section can provide added functionality, such as unique luster or moisture transport. These cross-sections are available in staple, filament and microfibre forms, and in most cases, are also available as bi-component fibres. Typical microfibers with special cross-section shape, commonly used, are presented in Figure 2; many applications find especially the hollow fibres. Fig 2: Specialty Cross-Sections
  20. 20. Advanced Yarn Manufacturing Azmir Latif, MSc in textile Engineering Melt spinning process diagram Processing of Microfibers Carding It has so far proved impossible to card microfibers at production rates which are comparable with conventional type of fibres, and so the cost per unit weight of production is much greater. In carding it is density of carding wire points. Winding and warping All guide surfaces must be very smooth and in the best mechanical condition, as microfilaments are likely to break more easily than regular filament. The frictionless rotating discs type of tension devices are desired to minimize the drug. Sizing Warp sizing of microfibres should ideally be done on single-end sizing machines to minimize filament breakage at splitting rods. If single-end sizing is not available, then a pre-dryer is essential. The size pick up on microfibre yarn is higher and it is also more desirable. The size recipe should be decided by trial and error determining. Weaving Generally the tensions should be kept as low as possible. Weft yarn for air jet or water jet looms will need some finish to perform at maximum efficiency. GreenCore Products (Lignocellulosic Microfibers) GreenCore has proprietary technology and intellectual property in the field of Natural (lignocellulosic) Fiber reinforced thermoplastics. Our combination of pending patents and know- how include: Process, Materials Selection, and Formulations. Natural Fiber thermoplastics are biocomposite materials that typically combine Wood or Agro fibers (such as Hemp, Flax, Wheat, Kenaf, etc.) with Thermoplastic polymers. Historically,
  21. 21. Advanced Yarn Manufacturing Azmir Latif, MSc in textile Engineering several challenges have prevented manufacturers from producing high-performance injection moldable natural fiber composites:  Controlling fiber form, morphology and aspect ratios  Achieving proper dispersion and compatibility due to hydrophilic nature of fibers  Utilizing cost effective, quality controlled, and sustainable natural fibers Our NCell™ Microfiber Technology addresses these challenges. Lignocellulosic Microfibers Our technology is based on in-situ generation of Lignocellulosic Microfibers. Such fibers have high aspect ratios and surface area, enabling improved composite mechanical properties. We are able to produce such microfibers in a cost effective manner and from a variety of raw materials. In addition, we have developed a proprietary process and supply-chain for carefully selecting and engineering our fiber material characteristics. In parallel to generating such Microfibers, dispersion is a key challenge. Our unique manufacturing process allows us to effectively disperse the microfibers while maintaining proper morphology and properties. This is due to a combination of mixing technology and chemical process aids. Ultimately, our combination of raw material selection, microfiber generation and unique process form the pillars of our core technology. Natural Fiber Composites platform Our first market introductions are NCell™ Polypropylene based compounds, however our platform technology and IP cover thermoplastic polymers from commodity polyolefins to engineering and bio-based resins. Our microfiber technology is further applicable to a variety of Lignocellulosic sources from wood to agro-fibers. ViewGreenCore Products basedon NCell™ Microfiber Technology.
  22. 22. Advanced Yarn Manufacturing Azmir Latif, MSc in textile Engineering X-Ray MicroCT images depicting NCell™ (top) vs. poor dispersion in conventional Wood Plastic Composite. (bottom) Large wood fiber agglomerates cause stress concentrations and lower mechanical performance. Microfiber Dispersion
  23. 23. Advanced Yarn Manufacturing Azmir Latif, MSc in textile Engineering