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Ayub khan

By Group In Uet Taxila

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Ayub khan

  1. 1. Group Members Izza Azam 15-SE-13 Tuzak Rehman 15-SE-91 Ayesha Majid 15-SE-65 Aamir Shehzad 15-SE-69 Jawad Arif 15-SE-99 Ahsan Abdul Salam 15-SE-67
  2. 2. Ayub khan(Leaders are not made they are born as a leader)
  3. 3. Izza Azam 15-SE-13 Introduction Martial Law Legal reforms Foreign policy
  4. 4. 2/7/2016 • Early life • Education • Appointed Commander-in-Chief in 1951. • Became a powerful political figure • the government of Iskander Mirza was unpopular and the political situation was chaotic. • People were in despair • 7 October 1958, martial law was declared by President Iskander Mirza. Introduction Military Career Martial Law
  5. 5. • Ayub Khan removed Iskander Mirza and took on the office of President. • this event was known as the Glorious Revolution a) Legal reforms • introduced the Muslim Family Laws on March 2, 1961 b) Foreign policy • allied Pakistan with the global U.S. military alliance against the Soviet Union. • Economy improved but increased inequality in the distribution of wealth. President of Pakistan REFORMS INTRODUCED BY Ayub Khan
  7. 7. 1) RELATION WITH SOVIENT UNION • relations deteriorated and improved again due to several events. • In 1961, the Soviets agreed to begin exploring for oil and In 1963, the Soviet government loaned Pakistan 11 million pounds • In April 1965 an official visit was paid on trade and oil exploration • In January 1966 the Soviet Union hosted a peace conference between India and Pakistan at Tashkent • In 1968 the Soviet Union began to supply arms to Pakistan against America 2) RELATION WITH CHINA
  8. 8. • In 1963 “talks between China and Pakistan to settle their border dipute’’ “announced a series of trade agreements’’ and “PIA began regular flights to China’’ • In 1964 China made a statement supporting Pakistan’s policy in Kashmir • During the 1965 war China supplied military aid and applied diplomatic pressure on India 3) RELATION WITH BRATIAN • Relations with Britain got strained due to Relations with Britain got strained • However Britain played an important role to resolve 1965 war dispute • Britain had criticized India for crossing the international boundary on 6 September 1965
  9. 9. RELATION WITH USA  In 1958, General Ayub Khan stated that we are “the most allied ally” of the United States”.  This shows that during this era Pakistan became more pro-west.  Ayub Khan believed that Pakistan could not make progress unless the Kashmir problem was solved, which was not possible without the help of the Western Bloc.  On the other side the United States aims were to help Pakistan and to maintain her independence in an area threatened by communism.
  10. 10. • Karachi was unsuitable for various purposes for location, business • In 1967, Islamabad was officially made the capital. • It is a modern and carefully planned city. CONCLUSION OF AYUB FOREIGN POLICY • His cultivation of China angered the US • The war increased the socio-economic problems. Therefore, Ayub Khan was not very successful in his foreign policy. Shifting of Capital
  11. 11. TUZAK REHMAN 15-SE-91  Economic Condition And Role Of Ayub Khan  Five Year Plans  Monetary Policy  Initial Reforms  Decade Of Development  Industrial Reform
  12. 12. Economic Condition And Role Of Ayub Khan  Have no Economic weapon to fight the battle of recovery  No industries to speak, almost no industrial raw material and no significant industries and commercial groups  Difficult to see that how Pakistan Economy could grow more rapidly  The 1950’s was the period of apparent stagnation and mounting economic problems  Between (1958-62) Ayub Khan introduce a number of reforms that improve the Economic Condition of Pakistan Five Year Plans First Five Year Plan:(1955-60)  Not implemented properly, but in 1958 the government renewed its commitment of planning by establishing the planning commission Second Five Year Plan:(1960-65)  The plan encouraged private entrepreneurs to participate in those activities where a great deal of profit could be made
  13. 13. Monetary policy is the process by which the monetary authority of a country controls the supply of money to ensure price stability and general trust in the currency.  The year 1959-60 marked the beginning of development of Country  It include gradual liberalization of import policy and introduce of bonus policy scheme  From this period government granted liberal concessions to the private sectors to establish industries in the country. Resulting an increase in monetary supply  First Plan (1955-60)-The monetary expansion amounted to Rs 1.95 Billion  Second plan(1960-65)-The money supply increased by Rs 2.80 Billion  The Bank credit both in the private and public sector expanded to Rs 1.62 Billion during the first and during the second plan period it was equal to Rs 4.77 Billion Monetary Policy
  14. 14. Improved law and order. made new capital of Pakistan (Islamabad) . made Price control list INITIAL REFORMES took steps to eradicate the smuggling asked to return black money
  15. 15. Ayub Khan era was generally known as ‘Decade of Development’.  The decade which saw growth at ~ 5.82%.  This was the decade during which Pakistan’s manufacturing base became sizeable  An automobile industry  A cement industry  Heavy manufacturing industries.  Manufacturing growth, standing at 8.51% in the history of Pakistan. DECADE OF DEVELOPMENT Pakistan established
  16. 16.  In February 1959, the Government announced a new industrial policy of “Gradual liberalization of economy” to pave way for smooth industrial growth.  Main emphasis on the utilization of raw materials available in the country .  The extreme bureaucratic restraints were removed by a more market-oriented approach INDUSTRIAL REFORMS
  17. 17. Establishment of Financial and Development Corporations  Pakistan Industrial Development Corporation (PIDC) was set up with a capital of R.s 1 billion.  It was put in charge to promote the following industries: – Jute Paper-board and newsprint – Heavy engineering – Fertilizers – Sugar – Cement – Textiles, etc. Four new estates for small industries were established in Bahawalpur, Gujarat, Larkana Peshawar
  18. 18.  In October 1958 the government took several measures to check the rising spiral of prices.  Price control covers a large no of consumer good and industrial raw material.  These measures lead to fall in prices and improvement in supply position of a large no. of article 1959-60 1969-70 6.1% 7.6% Price Control
  19. 19. • Investment Promotion Bureau  Set up in April 1959.  To attract foreign investment for the establishment of new industries  To solve problems of foreign investors in the matter finding land, water, power, etc.  Supply of credit  Credit was liberally provided to the industrial sector by both the commercial banks & the specialized credit institutions,  e.g. Industrial Development Bank of Pakistan (IDBP).  Foreign Aid and Loans  Loans were taken from more industrialized western countries, particularly the USA, Germany and the UK.  These played a dominant role in the industrial and economic development of Pakistan.  Without that aid, the remarkable growth in that era could not be possible.
  21. 21. EDUCATIONAL REFORMS After the Report of the Commission on National Education which identified the importance of education as an investment in national growth:  PRIMARY EDUCATION  SECONDARY EDUCATION  NEW CURRICULUM  BUILDING NEW INSTITUTES  TECHNICAL EDUCATION.  UNIVERSITY DEGREE COURCES  IMPROVED SCIENTIFIC EDUCATION  CIVIL DEFENCE TRAINING
  22. 22. AGRICULTURE REFORMS -LAND REFORMS -GREEN REVOLUTION  LAND REFORMS  Land Reform Comission:Appointed in October, 1958  A person could not own more than either 500 acres of canal irrigated land or 1000 acres of unirrigated land.  UTILIZATION OF RESUMED AREA  CREATION OF POOLS  ABOLITION OF JAGIRS  PROTECTION TO TENANTS  RIGHTS FOR TENANTS  THREE MAJOR DAMS WERE BUILT.  AGRICULTURE DEVELOPMENT BANK WAS SET UP  LOANS FOR FARMER
  23. 23. GREEN REVOLUTION (GROWTH IN AGRICULTURE) 1959- 64 3.7% 1965-70 6.3% PHASES OF GREEN REVOLUTION The phenomenal increase in growth took place in two phases. ▶ 1. 1960-1965 ▶ Main cause of the growth was the increase in irrigation facilities, mainly tube wells. ▶ Between 1960-65, about 25,000 tube wells were installed, each costing R.s. 5000- 12000 and the farm area serviced by tube wells doubled. ▶ 2. 1966-1970 ▶ Growth took place mainly because the expanded irrigation facilities were supplemented by the technology package of ▶ High yielding varieties (HYV) seeds, ▶ Chemical fertilizers and ▶ Pesticides. • 91%Wheat Production • 141%Rice Production
  24. 24. TRADE REFORMS Introduced in 1959. Focus on indirect controls on imports and on domestic prices of other goods. A number of measures were taken on import licensing that made market forces more important in determining the ownerships of import licenses.
  25. 25. EXPORT BONUS SCHEME • Introduced in 1959. • A flexible and fascinating device which was used both to subsidize exports and to allow a safety valve on imports, while maintaining the basic structure of import controls and the official exchange rate at its existing level. • Over 1959-64, total imports increased much more rapidly than exports or GNP, and the composition of imports continued to shift towards the import of capital goods and processed intermediate goods. Export of raw jute 60% in 1958 20% in 1968 Exports of cotton and jute textiles 8.3% in 1958 35% in 1968
  26. 26. Open General Licensing Scheme  Allowed newcomers to enter the trading sector.  A large amount of foreign exchange was allocated to the OGL, and the new traders made substantial profits and gains from possessing import licenses. FREE LIST  Permitted the import of certain goods without any license.  The Free List was extended over time from four items to fifty in 1964
  27. 27. Aamir Shehzad 15-SE-69  Indus Water Treaty  Space Program  Constitution Of 1962  Presidential Election
  28. 28. Indus Water Treaty Background World Bank Involvement Clauses of Treaty Affects On Economy
  29. 29. Space Program  President Ayub Khan, who was very close to Dr. Abdus Salam  Established Pakistan's National Space Agency, Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission (SUPARCO) on September 16, 1961. Ayub Khan also appointed dr. Abdus Salam as its head  It was Ayub Khan's administration when National Aeronautics and Space Administration began training of Pakistani scientists and engineers in the NASA's headquarters  President Ayub Khan was eager to make Pakistan as space power, that is why he appointed a noted aeronautical engineer and military scientist, Air Mar. Gen. W. J. M. Turowicz as Pakistan's Rocket Program head  Gen. W. J. M. Turowicz efforts led Pakistan to developed ballistic missiles series by its own in the future  General W. J. M. Turowicz had led a series of Rehbar Sounding Rockets fired from Pakistani soil. However, after Ayub Khan's removal from office the Space Programed was frozen for more than 2 decades
  30. 30. Constitution Of 1962 Background  On 17 February 1960 Ayub Khan appointed a commission to report on the future political framework for the country  The Commission was headed by the former Chief Justice of Pakistan, Muhammad Shahabuddin, and had ten other members, five each from East Pakistan and West Pakistan, composed of retired judges, lawyers, industrialists and landlords.  The report of the Constitution Commission was presented to President Ayub on 6 May 1961 and thoroughly examined by the President and his Cabinet. In January 1962, the Cabinet finally approved the text of the new constitution.  It was promulgated by President Ayub on 1 March 1962 and finally came into effect on 8 June 1962. The Constitution contained 250 articles divided into twelve parts and three schedules.
  31. 31. Written Constitution Rigid Constitution Name of the Country National Language Islamic Provisions Unicameral Legislature Presidential Form of Govt Freedom of Judiciary Fundamental Rights Islamic Ideology Council Emergency Provisions Powers of President Silent Feature Of Constitution
  32. 32. ELECTIONS 1965 Background  Presidential elections were held in Pakistan on 2 January 1965. The vote was held amongst the 80,000 "basic democrats", who were members of the urban and regional councils.  Elections for the Presidency were to take place in January 1965. Ayub Khan was nominated by a new party, the Convention Muslim League, which he had helped form.  The five opposition parties all agreed to support Mohtarma Fatima Jinnah.
  33. 33.  It is believed that had the elections been held via the direct method, Fatima Jinnah would have won. The Electoral College consisted of only 80,000 Basic Democrats, who were easily manipulated. The importance of this election lay in the fact that a woman was contesting the highest political office of the country. The orthodox religious political parties, including the Jamaat-e-Islami led by Maulana Maududi, which had repeatedly declared that a woman could not hold the highest office of a Muslim country.  There were riots in Karachi and East Pakistan in which 20 people were killed. Results
  34. 34. Jawad Arif 15-SE-99 Address Of Ayub Khan Indo Pak War Of 1965 Tashkent Agreement Nuclear Issue
  35. 35. Address of Ayub Khan Before 1965 War "My dear countrymen, in this hour of trial you have to remain absolutely calm. You must know that each one of you has to perform a supreme duty which demands complete dedication and devotion… Be prepared to strike and to strike hard; for the evil which has raised its head against your borders is doomed to destruction. Go forward and meet the enemy. God is with you..."
  36. 36. Indo Pak War 1965 ▶ General Ayub Khan arriving to take command of the Pakistan Army (1951) The turning point in his rule was the Indo-Pak War of 1965, Despite many repulsed Indian attacks, the war adversely affected Pakistan's then rapidly developing economy and it ended in a settlement reached by Ayub at Tashkent, called the Tashkent Declaration. ▶ The settlement was perceived negatively by many Pakistanis and led Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto to resign his post and take up opposition to Khan. ▶ According to Morrice James, "For them [Pakistanis] Ayub had betrayed the nation and had inexcusably lost face before the Indians." ▶ The war also increased opposition in East Pakistan [Now Bangladesh] where the Awami League headed by Sheikh Mujibur Rahman sought more autonomy for the province ▶ General Ayub Khan, who had assumed office of the commander in chief in 1951, supported Governor General Ghulam Muhammad when he dismissed the first constituent assembly on the grounds "The constituent assembly being power hungry and having a tendency of being corrupt”
  37. 37. ▶ Moulvi Tamizuddin, the first speaker of the assembly, challenged the dismissal. ▶ Sindh court accepted the appeal but the Federal Court dismissed the Sindh court judgment as the "Doctrine of necessity". Later on the decision has been the basis of all autocratic adjustments in Pakistan. ▶ These were the years when Pakistan allowed the US to establish a USAF communications monitoring facility near Peshawar at Badaber and use its air space and air bases to conduct high-altitude spy-flights over the USSR. Due to this, and the soon-to-follow U2 incident led Pakistan into an open hostility with the USSR
  38. 38. Tashkent Agreement 4th Jan, 1966 Important clauses of the declaration  The President of Pakistan and the Prime Minister of India agreed to cultivate good friendly and neighborly relations according to the Charter of the United Nation. Under the UN Charter, they will use their energies to resolve their problems in a peaceful way.  The President of Pakistan and the Prime Minister of India agreed to withdraw from the war.  They agreed not to interfere in each other’s internal affairs.  Both leaders agreed to discourage all those actions which could be harmful for the other country and encourage those which could promote the friendly relationship between the two countries.
  39. 39. ▶They agree that Higher Commissioners of Pakistan and India should come back to their posts and make efforts for future developments of both countries ▶They agree to make efforts for increasing bilateral trade and strengthening economic ties between the two countries. They also agreed to enhance communication and cultural information with each other. ▶Both leaders agreed to make some law of repatriation for the prisoners of war. ▶They agreed that in future they will discuss the problems of refugees also. They also agreed for an agreement to return the property taken by the either side because of the conflict.
  40. 40. NUCLEAR ISSUE  Pakistani civilian nuclear programme started in 1956 under the government of Prime Minister of Pakistan, Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy.  When Ayub Khan imposed martial law in Pakistan, Pakistani Civilian Nuclear Programme was freezed till 1972.  On December 11, 1965, President Ayub Khan had a brief meeting with Pakistani nuclear engineer Mr. Munir Ahmad Khan (late) at the Dorchester Hotel in London.  The meeting was arranged by Foreign Minister of Pakistan, Mr. Zulfikar Ali Bhutto.  Munir Ahmad Khan estimated the cost of nuclear technology at that time, were not more than 150 million dollars.  Ayub Khan clearly refused it to Munir Ahmad Khan's offer and said that Pakistan was too poor to spend that much money.
  41. 41. Ahsan Abdul Salam 15-SE-67  Final year in office  Legacy  Criticism against ayub khan  Conclusion
  42. 42. Final year in office  opened up negotiations  increasing pressure from Bhutto and Bhashani  handed over control of Pakistan by Yahya khan Death 19 April 1974 BhuttoBhashani
  43. 43. Legacy Agriculture development Family planning Export revenues Relation with united states
  44. 44. Criticism against ayub khan  Government corruption and nepotism  Criticisms of his sons and family's personal wealth  Presidential elections against Fatima Jinnah  Gohar Ayub's corruption  Increasing price of sugar Conclusion  man of great determination but lacking the quality of ‘listening to others.  He always did what he thought better in the light of his own experience.  His regime can be characterized with some developments but he couldn’t maintain the national harmony among the distant provinces of Pakistan
  45. 45. In Remembrance of General Ayub Khan
  46. 46. Thank you