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Slums presentation


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About slums

Published in: Engineering
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Slums presentation

  1. 1. 1
  4. 4. CONTENTS 1. Introduction 2. Why study of slums is important for us? 3. Causes of slums 4. Characteristics of slums 5. Effects of slums 6. Slums clearance 7. Works of improvement 8. Open plot scheme 9. Slum clearance and rehousing 10. Prevention of slum formation 11. Resources for slum clearance pfogramme 12. How to control slum impact on our socity? 4
  5. 5. 1. INTRODUCTION • The areas characterized by substandard housing conditions within a city are known as the slums. • The prime characteristic of a slum is substandard housing • The substandard housing conditions should be taken in a relative social sense referring to actual living conditions with reference to a given time in a specific country. 5
  6. 6. 1. INTRODUCTION (Cont…) • In general, a slum is an overcrowded poverty- stricken area having lack of open spaces and presence of unhealthy residential structures. • The formation of slum converts the land into a place of vices and miseries and more or less it results into the state of hell on the surface of earth. • A scholar has rightly observed that “God made the world, man made the town but devil made the slum”. 6
  7. 7. 2. WHY STUDY OF SLUM IS IMPORTANT FOR US? • These are haphazard developments, for mitigating their different impacts their study is important. • For protection and improvement of new or old town`s residential people`s life style. • For better planning of new residential areas. 7
  8. 8. 3. CAUSES OF SLUMS 1. Decentralization: When it take place, the rich and middle class people move out to the extended portions (scope) of the town and thus the poor people are left unattended in the overcrowded central area of the town. 2. Economic conditions: the most important characteristic in slums is poverty. This is fact that people live in slums because they cann’t afford to pay the rent set up by the market conditions. 3. Improper use of land: if the land fit for the residence are used for industries or vice-versa, the slums may be formed. 8
  9. 9. 3. CAUSES OF SLUMS (Cont…) 4. Lack of zoning: if the town is not divided into suitable zones and development is allowed to take place at random, the slums may be created. 5. Migrants: the persons migrating from the surrounding areas may occupy, usually illegally, the vacant or empty places in or outside the city. The colonies of squatters may result into slums. 6. Repairs and maintenance: if cheap houses, constructed by the land owner for the purpose of collecting rents, are not properly maintained, the formation of slums may develop. 9
  10. 10. 4. CHARACTERISTICS OF SLUMS 1. Appearance: This is the universal mark of slum and its unpleasant appearance offends the eyes. The structures appear to be deteriorated and to be over-age. 2. Fire hazards: The slum area is often exposed to fire accidents and resultant damages. 3. Health and sanitation: The slum is characterized by low standard of sanitation. It also refers an area of high sickness and death rates. 10
  11. 11. 4. CHARACTERISTICS OF SLUMS (Cont…) 4. Income criteria: the slum is a poverty area and it occupied by people of the lowest income group of the society. 5. Morals/ Ethics: the socially disorganized slum may prove be an area of delinquency, crime and vice. 6. Overcrowding: the slum is overcrowded with buildings or the buildings are overcrowded with people, both the conditions Predominate in the slum. 11
  12. 12. 5. EFFECTS OF SLUMS The effects of slums on the town life are manifold. They can be briefly mentioned as follows: 1. Absence of amenities: the surrounding area of slums is lacking in essential amenities in required proportions because of overcrowding. 2. Health: the persons residing in slums are easily attacked be various types of diseases. 3. Surrounding locality: the working of institutions like library, school, hospital, etc., located nearby slums is seriously affected. 12
  13. 13. 5. EFFECTS OF SLUMS (Cont…) 4. Undesirable spot/ Place: the slums as such on a city plan forms undesirable spots and in a sense, disturbs the appearance of good features of a city plan. 5. Working conditions: it is not possible to work peacefully in slums because the whole area is full of noise, traffic congestion, smoke, dust and darkness. 13
  14. 14. 6. SLUMS CLEARANCE The process of improving the existing conditions of slums is known as the slum clearance and the main four objects of taking up slum clearance programmes can be enumerated as follows: i. To bring down the disparity in the living standards of the people of various classes. ii. To prevent the occurrence of epidemics in the town or city. iii. To provide the absolute basic minimum standards of essential amenities for a healthy living. iv. To remove the ugly spots or slums from the map of town or city. 14
  15. 15. 6. SLUMS CLEARANCE (Cont…) Following are the two methods by which slum clearance programmes can be effected: 1. Complete removal method 2. Improvement method. NOTE: it should, however, be remembered that the slum clearance, if not properly carried out, does not abolish slums, but on the contrary, it shifts and spreads them. 15
  16. 16. 6. SLUMS CLEARANCE (Cont…) 1. Complete removal method: in this method, the ill-constructed houses are demolished and only those which are really good are retained. The open spaces are left are used for widening of roads, providing recreation grounds or building new houses of approved standards. the slums clearance by this method, proves to be too costly and further , the people who are dishoused are to be provided with alternative housing facilities. The following two important factors should be considerd: a. The degree of public health hazards involved. b. The economic potential of the land i.e., the full use to which the land can be economically exploited after removal of the slum. 16
  17. 17. 6. SLUMS CLEARANCE (Cont…) 2. Improvement method: it is observed that certain areas where slums are due to poor drainage arrangement and insanitary environments need not necessarily be demolished, but improve the existing slums area. the improvement project are as follows: i. Amenities: in addition to widening of roads, the public utility services such as water, drainage and electricity should also be made adequate for the affected area. ii. Legal aspects: the legal formalities required to implement the slum clearance project should be strictly followed to correct the mistakes are made. It include publication and circulation of the slum clearance project. 17
  18. 18. 6. SLUMS CLEARANCE (Cont…) iii. Transit camps: when a slum clearance scheme is taken in hand, the persons occupying the slums will have to be dishoused. The transit camps in the form of semi- permanent or temporary buildings are constructed in some other parts of the town to accommodate such persons temporarily till their new houses are built. iv. Unauthorized persons: To arrest the unauthorized persons to take advantage during the transit period, it is desirable to issue the slum dweller, who is qualified to get a tenement after slum improvement scheme. 18
  19. 19. 7. WORKS OF IMPROVEMENT Following improvement works are include in the improvement project of slum area: i. Construction of open or covered drains ii. Necessary repairs iii. Opening up or paving of courtyards iv. Provision of additional or improved fittings v. Provision of bathing place, water taps and light points vi. Realignment of streets vii. Removal of rubbish and debris viii. Miscellaneous including the demolition of any building or any part of building for executing any of the works mentioned above 19
  20. 20. 8. OPEN PLOT SCHEME In this scheme, the available open land is suitably subdivided and allotted to slum dwellers. key points of the scheme are as follows: a. The area of the plot should not exceed 20m^2 to 25m^2, so that the scheme may not attract the better off classes. b. The individual lessees may be provided with the possible alternative design for the construction of small houses. c. The plot should be given on long term lease with necessary condition for cancellation and re-entry in case of breach of terms of the lease document. 20
  21. 21. 9. SLUMS CLEARANCE AND REHOUSING The complete removal of slum has been recognized as the ultimate objective and slum improvement has been considered as an immediate alternative to give relief to the slum dwellers. The main five difficulties to be encountered while pursuing the slum clearance programme are as follows: a. Constraint of resources b. High cost of alternative sites near place of work c. Lengthy & time consuming procedures of the acquisition of slum area d. Low rent paying capacity of the slum dwellers with the result that the subsidized rents may also prove to be too high e. Unwillingness of the slum dweller to move from the areas selected for clearance. 21
  22. 22. 9. SLUMS CLEARANCE AND REHOUSING (Cont…) Following are some measures which may be adopted to make the slum clearance and rehousing schemes successful: a. The slum rehabilitation scheme may be combined with some commercial schemes so as to make it self-supporting in finance. b. The minimum carpet area including sanitary conveniences may be decided for a family. c. The state Govt. should make enough provision in the budget every year for the construction of minimum houses for the slum population. 22
  23. 23. 10. PREVENTION OF SLUM FORMATION Some of the important measures which can be taken to effectively prevent the slum formation are as follows: i. Cheap housing: sufficient number of subsidized cheap houses should be made available to the poor people. ii. Compulsion to employers: the employers of a good number of labourers may be forced to provide housing accommodation for their staff. iii. Construction of buildings: certain rule and regulation may be framed and strictly enforced to restrict the coming of buildings of subnormal standards. iv. Rent restrictions: if provision is made to restrict the increase of rent, the tenants will be protected. V. Unauthorized construction: the law should be adopted to remove unauthorized construction of buildings, it may help in prevention of slum formation. 23
  24. 24. 11. RESOURCES FOR SLUM CLEARANCE PROGRAMMES The slum clearance works require considerable fund and the resources for the successful implementation of the scheme should be properly analyzed and arranged. Some of the possible measures to augment the slum clearance scheme are as follows: a. Distribution of national housing cess for rural and urban housing b. Granting interest free loans for a period of 30 to 40 years c. Relaxation of the provision for loans by the life insurance corporation d. Surcharge on urban properties, etc. e. Lottery funds. 24
  25. 25. 12. HOW TO CONTROL SLUMS IMPACTS ON OUR SOCIETY • The well planned society should have it`s separate road ways and slums should not use society`s roads. • Society should have it`s own facilities like sewage system, water supply and others. • The green belt or boundary of town should be able to separate the town`s area to surrounding area. • The town periphery should be based upon wide area because by taking this step there will large distance between town`s boundary and slums. 25
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