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1. ethical theories part 1

ethical theories

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1. ethical theories part 1

  1. 1. Theory: a system of ideas intended to explain something Examples?
  2. 2. • Deontologism • Contractarianism • Consequentialism • Egoism • Virtue Ethics • Care Ethics • Empathy Ethics On which corners of the triangle shall we place these theories?
  3. 3. Deontologism Contractarianism Consequentialism Egoism Virtue Ethics Care Ethics Empathy Ethics
  4. 4. Introduction to Ethics The ethical theory that judges the morality of an action’s adherence to a rule or rules.
  5. 5. Introduction to Ethics The ethical theory that judges the morality of an action’s adherence to a rule or rules. What corner will it emphasize?
  6. 6. Introduction to Ethics The ethical theory that judges the morality of an action’s adherence to a rule or rules. N S P
  7. 7. Introduction to Ethics Deontologists live in a universe of absolute moral rules, such as: • It is wrong to kill innocent people • It is wrong to steal • It is wrong to tell lies • It is right to keep promises N S P http://www.bbc.co.uk/ethics/introduction/duty_1.shtml
  8. 8. Introduction to Ethics The ethical theory that judges the morality of an action’s adherence to a rule or rules. N S P What might it be weak in?
  9. 9. Introduction to Ethics Deontologism says: Some kinds of action are wrong or right in themselves, regardless of the consequences. Someone who follows Duty-based ethics should do the right thing, even if that produces more harm (or less good) than doing the wrong thing. People have a duty to do the right thing, even if it produces a bad result. N S P http://www.bbc.co.uk/ethics/introduction/duty_1.shtml
  10. 10. Introduction to Ethics Deontologism: Because of its lack of focus on consequences, deontologism is sometimes called non-consequentialism. N S P http://www.bbc.co.uk/ethics/introduction/duty_1.shtml
  11. 11. Introduction to Ethics Deontologism says: Some kinds of actions are right, despite the motivations or purposes of the person. Easy to fall into mere rule following. Easy to fall into ethical hypocrisy. Hypocrisy: the practice of claiming to have moral standards or beliefs to which one's own behavior does not conform. N S P
  12. 12. Introduction to Ethics Kant’s called this rule: The Categorical Imperative
  13. 13. Introduction to Ethics Testing the Categorical Imperative. Could these be made rules? a. Don’t keep your promises. b. Lie when it helps you. c. Do not murder. d. Do not steal. e. Do not jump the queue. f. Let poor people help themselves. g. Sell all you have and give it to the poor.
  14. 14. Introduction to Ethics Testing the Categorical Imperative: Moral Dilemmas
  15. 15. Testing the Categorical Imperative: Dilemma: Emma Ogden has been suffering from a persistent heart defect her whole twelve-year-old life. Dr. Abdul Hamid conveys to her and her parents that the only chance of survival that Emma has is a risky heart transplant procedure. Emma, who is mature for her age, decides that she does not want to go through with the procedure and accept the consequences which would be death. Dr. Hamid is startled and wants to treat her but is stuck. Dr. Hamid overlook the fact that Emma has stated that she does not want the heart transplant; after all, Emma is still a minor. How can a twelve-year-old know what's best for her in a field that makes their students study for practically twelve years. Dr. Hamid talked to Emma's parents and get the consent to go through with the procedure. But, her parents doesn’t want to go against the wish of Emma.
  16. 16. Introduction to Ethics Strengths of Deontologism: • Emphasizes respect for every human. • Makes some actions always wrong • Provides certainty Weaknesses of Deontologism: • Hard to handle exceptions • Hard to solve conflicting rules • Allows acts that create many bad consequences
  17. 17. Consequentialism
  18. 18. Deontologist Contractarianism Consequentialism Egoism Virtue Ethics Care Ethics Empathy Ethics
  19. 19. Introduction to Ethics The ethical theory that judges the rightness or wrongness of actions based upon the results of conduct.
  20. 20. Introduction to Ethics A type of consequentialism is : Utilitarianism
  21. 21. Introduction to Ethics Utilitarianism focuses on a specific consequence: happiness
  22. 22. Introduction to Ethics The ethical theory that judges the rightness or wrongness of actions based upon the results of conduct. What corner will it emphasize?
  23. 23. Introduction to Ethics Consequentialists strive to maximize goodness. No type of act is inherently wrong - not even murder - it depends on the result of the act. http://www.bbc.co.uk/ethics/introduction/duty_1.shtml N PS
  24. 24. Introduction to Ethics The Appeal of Consequentialism: • It seems sensible to base ethics on producing happiness and reducing unhappiness • It seems sensible to base ethics on the consequences of what we do, since we usually take decisions about what to do by considering what results will be produced http://www.bbc.co.uk/ethics/introduction/duty_1.shtml N PS
  25. 25. Introduction to Ethics Consequentialism says: No rule can tell us what is inherently good or bad. No interior state of the person is relevant to ethical decisions. N S P
  26. 26. Introduction to Ethics Testing Consequentialism: a. Don’t keep your promises. b. Lie when it helps you. c. Do not murder. d. Do not steal. e. Do not jump the queue. f. Let poor people help themselves. g. Sell all you have and give it to the poor.
  27. 27. Introduction to Ethics Testing Consequentialism: Dilemma: Remember the trolley dilemma?
  28. 28. Testing Consequentialism: Dilemma: Emma Ogden has been suffering from a persistent heart defect her whole twelve-year-old life. Dr. Abdul Hamid conveys to her and her parents that the only chance of survival that Emma has is a risky heart transplant procedure. Emma, who is mature for her age, decides that she does not want to go through with the procedure and accept the consequences which would be death. Dr. Hamid is startled and wants to treat her but is stuck. Dr. Hamid overlook the fact that Emma has stated that she does not want the heart transplant; after all, Emma is still a minor. How can a twelve-year-old know what's best for her in a field that makes their students study for practically twelve years. Dr. Hamid talked to Emma's parents and get the consent to go through with the procedure. But, her parents doesn’t want to go against the wish of Emma.
  29. 29. Introduction to Ethics Strengths of Consequentialism: • Flexible • Focuses on happiness • Simple Weaknesses of Consequentialism: • Hard to predict results • Difficult to measure happiness • Difficult to predict others’ behavior • Ignores character, past, fairness
  30. 30. Virtue Ethics
  31. 31. Deontologism Contractarianism Consequentialism Egoism Virtue Ethics Care Ethics Empathy Ethics
  32. 32. Introduction to Ethics Virtue Ethics: the ethical theory that good is what a person with a deep habit or disposition for goodness will choose over time.
  33. 33. Introduction to Ethics What is a “habit”? ‫العادة‬ habit: a settled or regular practice, especially one that is hard to give up
  34. 34. Introduction to Ethics What is a “virtue”? virtue: a virtue is a moral habit that a person needs to live well. https://www.viacharacter.org/sur vey/account/register
  35. 35. Introduction to Ethics What are some examples of virtues? • Wisdom • Justice • Fidelity • Courage • Self-care • Self-control • Honesty • Joy • Peace • Kindness • Love • Tolerance
  36. 36. Introduction to Ethics What are some examples of virtues? • Wisdom – good judgment • Justice -- fairness • Fidelity – care for the close • Courage -- forbearance • Self-care – responsibility to self • Self-control -- restraint
  37. 37. 22 Virtues: Creativity Curiosity Openness Perspective Bravery Wonder Perseverance Honesty Zest Love Kindness Empathy Teamwork Fairness Leadership ForgivenessHumility Self-Control Gratitude Hope Humor Spirituality
  38. 38. Introduction to Ethics “Virtue ethics is person rather than action based: it looks at the virtue or moral character of the person carrying out an action, rather than at ethical duties and rules, or the consequences of particular actions.” http://www.bbc.co.uk/ethics/introduction/virtue.shtml
  39. 39. Introduction to Ethics Virtue Ethics: the ethical theory that good is what a person with a deep habit or disposition for goodness will choose over time. N S P
  40. 40. Introduction to Ethics Virtue Ethics says: No rule by itself is inherently good or bad. Only persons are. No facts by themselves can tell us what is good or bad. N S P
  41. 41. Introduction to Ethics Testing Virtue Ethics: a. Don’t keep your promises. b. Lie when it helps you. c. Do not murder. d. Do not steal. e. Do not jump the queue. f. Let poor people help themselves. g. Sell all you have and give it to the poor.
  42. 42. Introduction to Ethics Strengths of Virtue Ethics: • It centers ethics on the person and what it means to be human • It includes the whole of a person's life Weaknesses of Virtue Ethics: • No clear guidance for moral dilemmas • No clear agreement on what the virtues are http://www.bbc.co.uk/ethics/introduction/duty_1.shtml
  43. 43. Testing Virtue: Dilemma: Emma Ogden has been suffering from a persistent heart defect her whole twelve-year-old life. Dr. Abdul Hamid conveys to her and her parents that the only chance of survival that Emma has is a risky heart transplant procedure. Emma, who is mature for her age, decides that she does not want to go through with the procedure and accept the consequences which would be death. Dr. Hamid is startled and wants to treat her but is stuck. Dr. Hamid overlook the fact that Emma has stated that she does not want the heart transplant; after all, Emma is still a minor. How can a twelve-year-old know what's best for her in a field that makes their students study for practically twelve years. Dr. Hamid talked to Emma's parents and get the consent to go through with the procedure. But, her parents doesn’t want to go against the wish of Emma.

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