“Micro manufacturing is the set of processes or techniques
used to fabricate micro components or to create a micro
features on macro/micro parts”.
Micro - (symbol μ)Confirmed in 1960, the terms comes from
the Greek μικρός (mikrós), meaning "small".
There are various types of micro manufacturing process such
as subtractive, additive, mass containing, joining.
These process are sub divided into various process like,
Diamond turning, laser welding, micro drilling, micro
casting, micro molding.
Diamond turning is mechanical
machining of precision element
using laths or derivative machine
tool equipped with natural or
synthetic diamond tipped tool bit.
Diamond turning has been used to
machine microgrooves 2.5-μm
wide by 1.6-μm deep in copper
with 10 mm surface finishing.
Optical elements produce by the
means of diamond turning are used
in optical assemblies in telescope,
video projector, missile guidance
system, lasers etc.
There are tow types of laser
beam welding such as surface
heating, TTIR welding.
Through transmission infrared
(TTIR) welding: It is based on
the concept of passing laser
radiations through one of the
component to be welded while
having the second component
absorb the light at the interface.
This absorption results in
heating and melting of the
interface and allows the part to
Manufacturing at nano scale is known as Nano manufacturing.
One nanometer is one billionth of a meter i.e. 10−9
The term Nano was first proposed by K . Eric Drexler in the
There are two basic approaches to nano manufacturing either
“top-down” or “bottom-up”
Top down approaches is further divided in Focusd beam
lithography and nano imprint lithography
Bottom down approach is divided into CVD and Dip pen
As the diagram shows, the gallium
(Ga+) primary ion beam hits the
sample surface and sputters a small
amount of material, which leaves
the surface as either secondary ions
(i+ or i-) or neutral atoms (n0).
The primary beam also produces
secondary electrons (e−). As the
primary beam rosters on the sample
surface, the signal from the
sputtered ions or secondary
electrons is collected to form an
Nano imprint lithography is a
lithography technique we use to
make nanostructure substrates
The stamps are pressed into
polymeric material (resist) that
was previously deposited on the
When the stamp is filled with
polymer, it is treated by UV
light through the stamp,
obtaining the stamp shape.
A residual layer of resist is left
and can be removed
A metal layer can be deposited
on the sample, when the resist is
removed, the nanoscale metal
structure is left on the substrate.
Chemical vapor deposition (CVD)
is a chemical process used to
produce high quality, high-
performance, solid materials. The
process is often used in
the semiconductor industry to
produce thin films.
In typical CVD,
the wafer (substrate) is exposed to
one or more volatile precursors,
which react and/or decompose on
the substrate surface to produce the
desired deposit. Frequently,
volatile by-products are also
produced, which are removed by
gas flow through the reaction
In DPN the tip of AFM
cantilever as a “pen”, which is
coated with chemical compound
acting as an “ink” and put in
contact with substrate, the
Note that “liquid ink” are
governed by a very different
deposition mechanism when
compared to “molecular ink”.
Molecular ink diffusing from a
nanoscale tip to a surface
through a water ,meniscus.
Fig.1 shows an array of
holes, each measuring
nanometers in length,
was precision-drilled with a
Fig.2 shows, a focused ion
beam created this two-
micron-wide gear, seen here
at 50,000x magnification
Micromanufacturing Engineering and Technology By Yi Qin.
Micro and nano manufacturing By Mark J. Jackson.
Micro fabrication and nano manufacturing By Mark J.
Images imported from Google images.