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Micro and nano manufacturing


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Information about micro and nano manufacturing.......

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Micro and nano manufacturing

  2. 2.  “Micro manufacturing is the set of processes or techniques used to fabricate micro components or to create a micro features on macro/micro parts”.  Micro - (symbol μ)Confirmed in 1960, the terms comes from the Greek μικρός (mikrós), meaning "small".  There are various types of micro manufacturing process such as subtractive, additive, mass containing, joining.  These process are sub divided into various process like, Diamond turning, laser welding, micro drilling, micro casting, micro molding.
  3. 3.  Diamond turning is mechanical machining of precision element using laths or derivative machine tool equipped with natural or synthetic diamond tipped tool bit.  Diamond turning has been used to machine microgrooves 2.5-μm wide by 1.6-μm deep in copper with 10 mm surface finishing.  Optical elements produce by the means of diamond turning are used in optical assemblies in telescope, video projector, missile guidance system, lasers etc.
  4. 4.  There are tow types of laser beam welding such as surface heating, TTIR welding.  Through transmission infrared (TTIR) welding: It is based on the concept of passing laser radiations through one of the component to be welded while having the second component absorb the light at the interface.  This absorption results in heating and melting of the interface and allows the part to be welded.
  5. 5.  Manufacturing at nano scale is known as Nano manufacturing. One nanometer is one billionth of a meter i.e. 10−9  The term Nano was first proposed by K . Eric Drexler in the 1970s.  There are two basic approaches to nano manufacturing either “top-down” or “bottom-up”  Top down approaches is further divided in Focusd beam lithography and nano imprint lithography  Bottom down approach is divided into CVD and Dip pen lithography.
  6. 6.  As the diagram shows, the gallium (Ga+) primary ion beam hits the sample surface and sputters a small amount of material, which leaves the surface as either secondary ions (i+ or i-) or neutral atoms (n0).  The primary beam also produces secondary electrons (e−). As the primary beam rosters on the sample surface, the signal from the sputtered ions or secondary electrons is collected to form an image.
  7. 7.  Nano imprint lithography is a lithography technique we use to make nanostructure substrates  The stamps are pressed into polymeric material (resist) that was previously deposited on the substrate.  When the stamp is filled with polymer, it is treated by UV light through the stamp, obtaining the stamp shape.  A residual layer of resist is left and can be removed  A metal layer can be deposited on the sample, when the resist is removed, the nanoscale metal structure is left on the substrate.
  8. 8.  Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is a chemical process used to produce high quality, high- performance, solid materials. The process is often used in the semiconductor industry to produce thin films.  In typical CVD, the wafer (substrate) is exposed to one or more volatile precursors, which react and/or decompose on the substrate surface to produce the desired deposit. Frequently, volatile by-products are also produced, which are removed by gas flow through the reaction chamber.
  9. 9.  In DPN the tip of AFM cantilever as a “pen”, which is coated with chemical compound acting as an “ink” and put in contact with substrate, the “paper”.  Note that “liquid ink” are governed by a very different deposition mechanism when compared to “molecular ink”.  Molecular ink diffusing from a nanoscale tip to a surface through a water ,meniscus.
  10. 10. Nano Applications Nano Robots
  11. 11.  Fig.1 shows an array of holes, each measuring approximately 125 nanometers in length, was precision-drilled with a computer-controlled focused ion beam.  Fig.2 shows, a focused ion beam created this two- micron-wide gear, seen here at 50,000x magnification Fig.2
  12. 12.  Micromanufacturing Engineering and Technology By Yi Qin.  Micro and nano manufacturing By Mark J. Jackson.  Micro fabrication and nano manufacturing By Mark J. Jackson.  Images imported from Google images.