>>In 1994 Jill Ellsworth used the term invisible web to refer to the websites that were not registered with any search engines. >>In 2000 Computer Scientist Mike Bergman used the term “Deep Web” in a NewYorkTimes article.
>>Private Web: All content that requires authentication.
>>Contextual Web Content: Location based result by client IP; or; result by previous navigation sequence. >> Limited Access Content: these sites prevents the search engines from creating cached copies. An Internet bot, also known as web robot, WWW robot or simply bot, is a software application that runs automated tasks (scripts) over theInternet.
>>Bad stuff on dark web: illicit drugs, stolen credit card numbers, human trafficking, weapons, copyrighted media and anything else you can think of.
Point is not to let you know about the illegal stuff, but to emphasise on a very crucial
All sorts of people use them for anonymity. Journalists, Politicians, whistle-blowers, dissidents. whistleblower is a person who exposes any kind of information or activity that is deemed illegal, unethical, or not correct Dissident a person who opposes official policy.
TOR- Node based, decentralized anonymity network. US NAVAL Research; 80% of their budget still comes from US Government. Websites have a .onion address
R[i] are network relays. Relay is a Fixed stationor a mobile station that receives signals and rebroadcasts them at the same or a different frequency Your system could be a relay unknowingly.
AES: Advanced Encryption Standard
CircID: ID of the complete circuit Relay: RelayID of a particular Relay Node StreamID: ID of the data stream. Digest: SHA-1 produces a 160-bit (20-byte) hash value known as a message digest. (for integrity checking at the edges of the stream).
Don’t use TOR alone, use some VPN service as well. Preferrably try not to use it on windows.
Rampant Commercialization: Rampant means something unwelcomed, flourishing or spreading unchecked. NSA Revelations: Why are the surveillancing? Because they can.Every govt wants to know what it’s people are saying or thinking. “Information is power”
Snowden: Former CIA employee. Worked on contract bases for “Classified” surveillance programs of NSA.
You’re made to agree to this policy in the end-user agreement, at the tie of installation.
We can change our digital practices such as Email, Search Engines, etc.
DuckDuckGo is a search engine that doesn’t keep track of your searches. Similarly you can use different services.
Doesn’t track your online searches. Good alternate to Google, something you can rely on,
The Deep Web, TOR Network and Internet Anonymity
The Deep Web
PRESENTED BY ABHIMANYU SINGH
1308210005; MIT MORADABAD
Contents of Deep Web
Accessing Deep Web
Deep Web vs. Surface Web
Importance of Anonymity and Privacy
Surface Web is that portion of the World Wide Web that is
indexable by standard search engines.
It is also called the Clear Net, Visible Web or Indexable Web.
Under constant surveillance by the Government and ISPs.
Deep Web is the content that cannot be indexed by
standard search engines.
It is also called the Deep Net, Invisible Web or Hidden
Estimated 400-550 times more data than the Surface Web.
Used by all sorts of people to stay anonymous, including
Journalists, Whistle Blowers, Politicians, etc.
Internet; Deep Web; Dark
Contents of the
WHAT’S INSIDE THE HIDDEN PART OF THE WEB?
Contents  10
• Dynamic pages which are returned in response to a submitted
query or accessed only through a form.
• Pages which are not linked to by other pages
• These pages are referred to as pages without backlinks.
• Sites that require registration and login
• All password protected resources.
Contents  11
• Pages with content varying for different access contexts.
• Sites that limit access to their pages in a technical way using Robots
• Example: Websites secured by Captcha codes.
Limited Access Content
• Content dynamically downloaded from Web Servers via Flash or Ajax
Inside the Deep Web: Content
which is explicitly hidden
Presence of hidden networks such as TOR, I2P, Free net.
The Deep Web may be a Shadow Land of untapped
The bad stuff, as always, gets most of the headlines.
You can find illegal goods and activities of all kinds
through Dark Web
You won’t find this
information in a Google
These kinds of Websites require you to use a special software,
such as The Onion Router, more commonly known as the TOR
TECHNIQUES TO HAVE ANONYMITY AND ACCESS TO
THE HIDDEN WEB
The Onion Router (TOR) 19
TOR Browser Bundle installs into your Web browser and sets it
up to access Dark Websites.
Technically, it is a free software for enabling online Anonymity
and Censorship Resistance.
All websites on the TOR hidden network have a .onion address.
How TOR works? 21
• Data passes through a circuit of at least three different routers.
• The data that passes through the network is encrypted. But at
the end nodes there is no encryption.
TOR Network Circuit 22
• “This browser” is the entry node.
• The system connected in France is the exit node.
• ’Source’ negotiates an AES key with each router.
• Messages are divided into equal sized cells.
• Each router knows only its predecessor and successor .
• Only the Exit router can see the message,
however it does not know where the message is from.
Format of a cell 25
CircID Relay StreamID Digest Len DATA
2 1 2 6 2 498
• TOR implements Perfect Forward Secrecy (PFC) by using AES encryption.
• In AES (Advanced Encryption Standard), a private key is generated and
shared between the two users, and from this key, session keys are
• Original key-pairs are only used for signatures (i.e. to verify the authenticity of
THINGS TO REMEMBER WHILE SURFING DEEP WEB/
while surfing in the Dark Web.
• Never log in with any of your real digital accounts
using TOR, it’ll be against the Anonymity.
• Prevent yourself from getting carried away into illicit
While the inter-relay communications might be secure,
the entry and exit nodes are vulnerable to packet
The exit node decrypts the packet it received from its
sibling on the chain of nodes and receives your full
plaintext request. This can be easily seen by the
operator of the exit node.
Deep Web vs.
WHY ARE WE CONSIDERING THE DEEP WEB?
The Internet is facing 3 main
• Every activity online is under constant surveillance by Government and the ISPS.
• Xkeyscore program! It sees everything.
• If you think something is free, it inevitably isn’t. “If you’re not paying, YOU are the
• Our online activities get tracked and harvested for money.
• You can easily purchase a service which can track and cause harm to you digitally; to a
• All your information is out there vulnerable to Cyber Crime.
Criminals and Stalkers.
“I DON’T WANT TO LIVE IN
A WORLD WHERE
EVERYTHING THAT I SAY,
EVERYTHING I DO,
EVERYONE I TALK TO ,
EVERY EXPRESSION OF
CREATIVITY OR LOVE OR
FRIENDSHIP IS BEING
• The man who is responsible for the NSA revelations.
• He showed the world how everything digital is been
surveillance and recorded by the Governments.
Even Microsoft Windows! 33
We can learn and choose to
• In an age where NSA-type surveillance is
omnipresent and privacy seems like a thing
of the past, the Dark Web offers some relief
to people who prioritize their anonymity.
• By masking our activities, we can prevent
people from monitoring us, following us or
doing us harm.
We’re looking at the end of the internet, as we know it.
It’s growing into a two tier-internet. One being a toll highway
and another being a slow freeway.
But we can do something about it. We can all go Deep Web.
It’s not a place. It’s a state of mind, a way of being; being
Anonymous and safe.
Adrian Lamo’s answer to “What is Deep Web” on Quora.
Alen Pearce TEDx Talks
Kyle Terry TEDx Talks
Alex Winter TEDx Talks