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The Process
• Manufacturing Progression
– Fiber to fabric
– Fiber to yarn to fabric, carpeting, trimming
• Fiber, yarn con...
Fibers
The basic raw materials used in textile production are fibers,
either obtained from natural sources (e.g., wool) or...
How do you identify fiber or fabric
content?
• Labels
• Hand
• Appearance
• Burn test
Lotus Fiber
Spider silk
Spider Silk Fabric at the Museum
of Natural History
Classification of Fibers
• Natural or manufactured
• General chemical type such as protein, etc
• Generic names, such as c...
Trade names
How we describe fibers
• Fiber length
• Texture
• Hand
• Elasticity
• Luster
• Resiliency
• Strength
• Flammability
• Resi...
Natural Fibers
Protein
• Silk
• Wool
• Mohair
• Horsehair
Mineral
Asbestos
Glass
Cellulosic
• Cotton
• Flax
• Jute
• Hemp
...
Protein Fibers
• Silk
• Wool
• Mohair
• Horsehair
Silk Characteristics
Source
• Obtained from cocoon of the silk worm
Appearance
• Translucent
• Lustrous
• Only natural fil...
Silk con’t
Pro
• Luxurious
Con
• Rots when exposed to unfiltered sunlight
• Moths eat
• Flat fabrics that do not hide dirt
Silk Cocoons
Filament Fiber
Reeling
Silk Taffeta
Raw Silk
Tassel Fringe
Wool silk
Wool
Wool Characterics
Source
• Fleece of sheep
Appearance
• Crimp
• Scales
• Low light reflection
Physical properties
• Resili...
Wool con’t
Pro
• Inherently flame retardant
• Resistant to wrinkling, abrasion and soiling
Con
• Moth eat
• Rough hand
• L...
Wool velvet
Wool rugs
Wool and the environment
• Maintain the animal to maintain the
fiber but animal has other uses such as
lanolin and food.
•...
Mohair
Mohair Characteristics
Source
• Angora goat
Appearance
• Similar to wool but more lustrous
Pro
• more luxurious than wool
...
Velvet
Horsehair
Horsehair characteristics
Source
• Horses tails
Appearance
• Individual hairs
• White (can be dyed) or black
Physical prop...
Sources of Plant Fibers
Seed
–cotton
Stem
–Linen, ramie, jute, hemp
Leaf
–Sisal, coir
Cotton Characteristics
Source
• Obtained from cotton boll
Appearance
• ½ to 2” long
Physical properties
• Strong
• Lacks r...
Cotton con’t
Pro
• Plentiful, inexpensive and the most widely used fiber
Con
• Environmental impact through use of pestici...
Cotton
Bedding and table linens
Linen
Linen characteristics
Source
• Obtained from the stem of the flax plant
Appearance
• Long
• irregular
• Looks like bamboo ...
Linen con’t
Pro
• Crisp hand
• Texture
• No lint
Con
• Wrinkles
• Breaks like a twig
Additional Plant Fibers
Sisal and Jute
Green Plant Fibers
Bamboo and Hemp
Plant fibers in wall coverings
Bast and Leaf Fibers and the
environment
• More environmentally friendly than cotton
– Little or no pesticides and less wa...
Manufactured Fibers
Rayon and acetate
• developed to replace parachute silk for WWI
• Natural substance (cellulose) in a m...
Extruding manufactured yarn
Rayon yarn
Rayon or Viscose Characteristics
Source
• Chemically altered wood pulp
Appearance
• Translucent
• Lustrous
Physical proper...
Synthetics
Pros
Durable
Resistant to moths
Resistant to mildew
Hydrophobic
Flexibility
Less expensive
Cons
Plastic hand
St...
Acrylic
Acrylic Characteristics
Source
• Chemical
Appearance
• Soft
• Light weight
Physical properties
• Not as strong as nylon or...
Nylon Characteristics
Source
• Chemical
Appearance
• flexible , engineered into different shapes and can be de-lustered
Ph...
Olefin Characteristics
Source
• Chemical
Appearance
• flexible , engineered into different shapes
Physical properties
• St...
Polyester
Polyester characteristics
Source
• Chemical
Appearance
• flexible , engineered into different shapes and can be de-lustere...
• Most widely used manufactured fiber
• Residential fabrics to save costs, commercial for performance
• Non-yellowing wind...
Healthcare
Yarn
Yarn Defined
Any form of spun, twisted or extruded fibers, natural or
manufactured, that can be used in weaving, knitting,...
Two main types
spun filament
Hand spinning
Plied Yarn
Two color plied yarn
Characteristic of yarn
• Fineness of yarn numerical identification.
Different systems for different fibers.
Synthetics den...
Novelty yarns
• Slub yarn
• Boucle
• Chenille
• dupioni
Slub Yarn
Boucle
Boucle yarn in a fabric
Chenille yarn
Fabric with chenille
Metallic Yarn
Lycra/Stretch Fabric
Discuss
• Manufacturing progression
• How can you identify fibers in a fabric?
• How important is the “hand” of a textile ...
Discuss
• What are the challenges faced by the design
profession in selecting and specifying interior textile
products?
• ...
Review General Textiles
• Definition textiles, they are made from fibers that
are processed into yarn, then woven, knit, o...
Review Fiber
• The basic raw materials used in textile production are fibers,
either obtained from natural sources (e.g., ...
Review yarn
• Yarn
Any form of spun, twisted or extruded fibers, natural or
manufactured, that can be used in weaving, kni...
Fiber and yarn
Fiber and yarn
Fiber and yarn
Fiber and yarn
Fiber and yarn
Fiber and yarn
Fiber and yarn
Fiber and yarn
Fiber and yarn
Fiber and yarn
Fiber and yarn
Fiber and yarn
Fiber and yarn
Fiber and yarn
Fiber and yarn
Fiber and yarn
Fiber and yarn
Fiber and yarn
Fiber and yarn
Fiber and yarn
Fiber and yarn
Fiber and yarn
Fiber and yarn
Fiber and yarn
Fiber and yarn
Fiber and yarn
Fiber and yarn
Fiber and yarn
Fiber and yarn
Fiber and yarn
Fiber and yarn
Fiber and yarn
Fiber and yarn
Fiber and yarn
Fiber and yarn
Fiber and yarn
Fiber and yarn
Fiber and yarn
Fiber and yarn
Fiber and yarn
Fiber and yarn
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Fiber and yarn

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Fiber and Yarn

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Fiber and yarn

  1. 1. The Process • Manufacturing Progression – Fiber to fabric – Fiber to yarn to fabric, carpeting, trimming • Fiber, yarn construction, fabric construction all contribute to the appearance and performance of a textile.
  2. 2. Fibers The basic raw materials used in textile production are fibers, either obtained from natural sources (e.g., wool) or produced from chemical substances (e.g., nylon and polyester).
  3. 3. How do you identify fiber or fabric content? • Labels • Hand • Appearance • Burn test
  4. 4. Lotus Fiber
  5. 5. Spider silk
  6. 6. Spider Silk Fabric at the Museum of Natural History
  7. 7. Classification of Fibers • Natural or manufactured • General chemical type such as protein, etc • Generic names, such as cotton, used on product labels • Trade names, such as antron nylon, marketing purposes
  8. 8. Trade names
  9. 9. How we describe fibers • Fiber length • Texture • Hand • Elasticity • Luster • Resiliency • Strength • Flammability • Resistance to sunlight
  10. 10. Natural Fibers Protein • Silk • Wool • Mohair • Horsehair Mineral Asbestos Glass Cellulosic • Cotton • Flax • Jute • Hemp • Bamboo • Sisal • Coir
  11. 11. Protein Fibers • Silk • Wool • Mohair • Horsehair
  12. 12. Silk Characteristics Source • Obtained from cocoon of the silk worm Appearance • Translucent • Lustrous • Only natural filament fiber Physical properties • Strong, has the tensile strength of steel Yarn types • Tram, highest grade and most common. Filaments grouped and twist. • Dupioni, two cocoons become affixed • Raw, sericin not removed • Tussah, from wild uncultivated silk worm
  13. 13. Silk con’t Pro • Luxurious Con • Rots when exposed to unfiltered sunlight • Moths eat • Flat fabrics that do not hide dirt
  14. 14. Silk Cocoons
  15. 15. Filament Fiber
  16. 16. Reeling
  17. 17. Silk Taffeta
  18. 18. Raw Silk
  19. 19. Tassel Fringe
  20. 20. Wool silk
  21. 21. Wool
  22. 22. Wool Characterics Source • Fleece of sheep Appearance • Crimp • Scales • Low light reflection Physical properties • Resiliency • Resistant to abrasion • Resistant to soiling • Inherently flame retardant Yarn types • Woolen • Worsted
  23. 23. Wool con’t Pro • Inherently flame retardant • Resistant to wrinkling, abrasion and soiling Con • Moth eat • Rough hand • Lacks luster
  24. 24. Wool velvet
  25. 25. Wool rugs
  26. 26. Wool and the environment • Maintain the animal to maintain the fiber but animal has other uses such as lanolin and food. • Renewable resource. Can shear annually
  27. 27. Mohair
  28. 28. Mohair Characteristics Source • Angora goat Appearance • Similar to wool but more lustrous Pro • more luxurious than wool Con • More expensive than wool
  29. 29. Velvet
  30. 30. Horsehair
  31. 31. Horsehair characteristics Source • Horses tails Appearance • Individual hairs • White (can be dyed) or black Physical properties • Extremely strong and abrasion resistant Yarn type • Individual hairs, cannot be spun into continuous yarn Pro • Strong, abrasion resistant and can be washed with soap and water Con • Narrow • Hard hand • Expensive and requires expert upholstering
  32. 32. Sources of Plant Fibers Seed –cotton Stem –Linen, ramie, jute, hemp Leaf –Sisal, coir
  33. 33. Cotton Characteristics Source • Obtained from cotton boll Appearance • ½ to 2” long Physical properties • Strong • Lacks resiliency • Cool hand • hydrophilic Yarn types • Combed • Carded • Mercerized (finish)
  34. 34. Cotton con’t Pro • Plentiful, inexpensive and the most widely used fiber Con • Environmental impact through use of pesticides and water. GM crops might benefit
  35. 35. Cotton
  36. 36. Bedding and table linens
  37. 37. Linen
  38. 38. Linen characteristics Source • Obtained from the stem of the flax plant Appearance • Long • irregular • Looks like bamboo when viewed under a microscope • Lustrous when finished (calendared) Physical properties • Strong • Lacks resiliency Yarn types • none
  39. 39. Linen con’t Pro • Crisp hand • Texture • No lint Con • Wrinkles • Breaks like a twig
  40. 40. Additional Plant Fibers Sisal and Jute
  41. 41. Green Plant Fibers Bamboo and Hemp
  42. 42. Plant fibers in wall coverings
  43. 43. Bast and Leaf Fibers and the environment • More environmentally friendly than cotton – Little or no pesticides and less water – Bamboo, jute and fast growing and highly- renewable
  44. 44. Manufactured Fibers Rayon and acetate • developed to replace parachute silk for WWI • Natural substance (cellulose) in a manufactured process Synthetics Poly, nylon, acrylic, olefin • Not possible until scientist could look into a fiber with a microscope to mimic the molecular structure. • Plastics invented from sludge, a byproduct of oil refinery
  45. 45. Extruding manufactured yarn
  46. 46. Rayon yarn
  47. 47. Rayon or Viscose Characteristics Source • Chemically altered wood pulp Appearance • Translucent • Lustrous Physical properties • Strong • Lacks resiliency Yarn types • Filament • Spun Pro • Flexible • Soft hand • Luster Con • Weaker when wet
  48. 48. Synthetics Pros Durable Resistant to moths Resistant to mildew Hydrophobic Flexibility Less expensive Cons Plastic hand Static electricity Pilling Hydrophobic
  49. 49. Acrylic
  50. 50. Acrylic Characteristics Source • Chemical Appearance • Soft • Light weight Physical properties • Not as strong as nylon or poly Yarn types • spun Pro • Mimics spun natural fiber yarns • Outdoor fabrics, solution dyed acrylic (Sunbrella is trade name) Con • Plastic hand • Not as resistant to abrasion as polyester and nylon
  51. 51. Nylon Characteristics Source • Chemical Appearance • flexible , engineered into different shapes and can be de-lustered Physical properties • Strong • Resistant to abrasion • Resilient Yarn types • Spun • Filament Pro • Resilience which makes it ideal for floor covering • Resists mildew and insects Con • Pills more than polyester • Static electricity
  52. 52. Olefin Characteristics Source • Chemical Appearance • flexible , engineered into different shapes Physical properties • Strong • Resilient Yarn types • Spun Pro • inexpensive • Bulky, light weight Con • Scratchy • Plastic hand • Not resistant to sunlight • Static electricity
  53. 53. Polyester
  54. 54. Polyester characteristics Source • Chemical Appearance • flexible , engineered into different shapes and can be de-lustered Physical properties • Strong • Resistant to abrasion • Resists pilling more than nylon • Highly resistant to sunlight Yarn types • Spun • Filament Pro • Resists mildew and insects • Trevira, trade name for flame retardant poly Con • Hydrophobic so difficult to clean • Static electricity
  55. 55. • Most widely used manufactured fiber • Residential fabrics to save costs, commercial for performance • Non-yellowing window treatments such as sheers • Excellent resistance to sunlight • Green, Can be made from recycled plastic bottle Polyester
  56. 56. Healthcare
  57. 57. Yarn
  58. 58. Yarn Defined Any form of spun, twisted or extruded fibers, natural or manufactured, that can be used in weaving, knitting, or knotting.
  59. 59. Two main types spun filament
  60. 60. Hand spinning
  61. 61. Plied Yarn
  62. 62. Two color plied yarn
  63. 63. Characteristic of yarn • Fineness of yarn numerical identification. Different systems for different fibers. Synthetics denier. • Degree of twist per inch contributes to the strength and the hand. • Texture • Different spinning systems such as woolen/worsted, carded/combed
  64. 64. Novelty yarns • Slub yarn • Boucle • Chenille • dupioni
  65. 65. Slub Yarn
  66. 66. Boucle
  67. 67. Boucle yarn in a fabric
  68. 68. Chenille yarn
  69. 69. Fabric with chenille
  70. 70. Metallic Yarn
  71. 71. Lycra/Stretch Fabric
  72. 72. Discuss • Manufacturing progression • How can you identify fibers in a fabric? • How important is the “hand” of a textile product? What effects the hand? • What do cotton and rayon have in common and how do they differ? • What qualities do all synthetic fibers have in common?
  73. 73. Discuss • What are the challenges faced by the design profession in selecting and specifying interior textile products? • What are some of the fabric performance predictors that we have learned so far?
  74. 74. Review General Textiles • Definition textiles, they are made from fibers that are processed into yarn, then woven, knit, or nonwoven fabrics. • Three aspects that contribute to a textiles appearance and performance are fiber, yarn construction, fabric construction
  75. 75. Review Fiber • The basic raw materials used in textile production are fibers, either obtained from natural sources (e.g., wool) or produced from chemical substances (e.g., nylon and polyester). • Two main categories of fibers, natural and manufactured. • How can you identify fibers in a fabric? • Four classifications of fiber – Natural and manufactured – Chemical name – Generic name – Trade name • Characteristics of all of the fibers in the power point.
  76. 76. Review yarn • Yarn Any form of spun, twisted or extruded fibers, natural or manufactured, that can be used in weaving, knitting, or knotting. • The difference in spun and filament yarns. Spun yarns have short fibers that have been twisted together into one continuous strand. Filament is extruded into one continuous strand. • A plied yarns are yarns made from twisting together two or more singles yarns. This is done to make a stronger more uniformed yarn. • The higher the twists per inch the stronger the yarn and the harder the hand.

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