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A glance over cellular Communication systems and BSS network equipment

This presentation is for everyone who wants to get into the mobile communication market.
Whether you are an undergraduate, fresh, or making a career shift, this presentation will prepare you to take your first step in in the mobile communication market by giving you a glance over all communication systems since the 1948 till date and all BSS sites' equipment.
By the end of the presentation, you should be able to build your own site!

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A glance over cellular Communication systems and BSS network equipment

  1. 1. 1 Orange Restricted A glance over cellular Communication systems and BSS network equipment Presented by Ahmed Nabeeh Jan. 2018
  2. 2. 2 Orange Restricted Contents 1) Introduction 2) Mobile communication systems 3) Cellular sites equipment 4) Our scope and KPIs
  3. 3. 3 Orange Restricted Do cell phones cause cancer? Introduction
  4. 4. 4 Orange Restricted What about cell towers? Introduction
  5. 5. 5 Orange Restricted What about cell towers? Introduction
  6. 6. 6 Orange Restricted Communication Or Telecommunication? Introduction
  7. 7. 7 Orange Restricted Telecommunication/Communication systems basic elements Introduction Telecommunication systems can be categorized based on: 1) The medium used to convey the signal 2) The type of communication between the Tx and Rx
  8. 8. 8 Orange Restricted Introduction Communication systems based on the medium used to convey the signal
  9. 9. 9 Orange Restricted What is a Tx medium? Introduction It’s a substance (Solid, Liquid, Gas, or Palasma) that can propagate energy (Mechanical, Electrical, or EM) waves What are the Tx mediums’ types? 1. Guided (Wired): 2. Unguided (Wireless)
  10. 10. 10 Orange Restricted Introduction Wired WirelessVS Pros: 1)Interference and Noise 2)Security Cons: 3)Controlled medium 1)Mobility 2)Flexibility Pros: 1)Mobility 2)Flexibility Cons: 1)Interference and Noise 2)Security 3)Controlled medium
  11. 11. 11 Orange Restricted Introduction Communication systems based on the type of communication between the Tx and RX
  12. 12. 12 Orange Restricted Introduction 1) Simplex 2) Half Duplex 3) Full Duplex
  13. 13. 13 Orange Restricted Introduction Let’s design a wireless communication System CoverageCapacity Security Quality Compatibility Delay
  14. 14. 14 Orange Restricted History of Mobile communication systems 1) Mobile Phones (1946) 2) 1st Generation Cellular system (1971) 3) 2nd Generation Cellular system (1989) 4) 3rd Generation Cellular system (2001) 6) 5th Generation Cellular system (2020) 5) 4th Generation Cellular system (2010)
  15. 15. 15 Orange Restricted Mobile communication systems Mobile telephones service (1946) 1) Extremely heavy and bulky handsets 2) Single cell system 3) Analogue system
  16. 16. 16 Orange Restricted Mobile communication systems 1st generation Cellular system (1989) 1) Hand-held but still heavy 2) Cellular system 3) Analogue system
  17. 17. 17 Orange Restricted Mobile communication systems 2nd Generation Cellular system (1989) 1) Hand-held 2) Digital system 3) Roaming
  18. 18. 18 Orange Restricted Mobile communication systems 2nd Generation Cellular systems 1) GSM 2) DAMPS and IS-95 3) PDC
  19. 19. 19 Orange Restricted Global system for mobile communication Unlike radio and T.V, the mobile system is both a two way communication system and its resources are on-demand shared resources How can we achieve that?
  20. 20. 20 Orange Restricted Global system for mobile communication Access Techniques Duplex Transmission GSM uses TDMA/FDMA techniques to achieve the maximum possible capacity from resources sharing and FDD to achieve duplex transmission
  21. 21. 21 Orange Restricted Global system for mobile communication Enhancing the system capacity by applying the following: 1) Frequency reuse over hexagon cell shape 2) Directional/Omi-Directional antennas 3) Different cell sizes based on the capacity, quality, and coverage requirements Omni-DirectionalDirectionall
  22. 22. 22 Orange Restricted Global system for mobile communication GSM system Architecture: Something is missing?
  23. 23. 23 Orange Restricted Global system for mobile communication GSM system phases and adaptions: 1) Phase 1 (1989) 2) Phase 2 (1995): Introducing DCS1800 3) Phase 2+ (1996): Introducing PCS 1900 4) Phase 2+ (1998): Introducing GSM-R and GPRS 5) Phase 2+ (2000): Introducing EDGE
  24. 24. 24 Orange Restricted Global system for mobile communication GSM maximum data rate is 9.6 kbps We need more data! Fix your network! 1) GPRS (2.5G) and EDGE (2.75G) were introduced to provide higher data rates 2) Unlike GSM, GPRS and EDGE are both PS systems 3) GPRS and EDGE use the same GSM network hierarchy, but they introduce two new nodes from the NSS side 4) GPRS uses multiple T.Ss per user to achieve high data rates (up to 160Kbps) 1) SGSN 2) GGSN = MSC = G-MSC 5) Edge uses multiple T.Ss and different modulation scheme (8PSK) to reach data rates up to 384Kbps
  25. 25. 25 Orange Restricted Mobile communication systems 3rd Generation Cellular system (2001) 1) Green handsets 2) Multimedia services 3) Video calls
  26. 26. 26 Orange Restricted Mobile communication systems 1) UMTS (WCDMA) 2) CDMA-2000 3rd Generation Cellular systems
  27. 27. 27 Orange Restricted UMTS System 1) New access technique 2) Uses both FDD and TDD
  28. 28. 28 Orange Restricted UMTS System Network architecture
  29. 29. 29 Orange Restricted UMTS System Provides data rates up to 2 Mbps, Theoretically! Location Mobility
  30. 30. 30 Orange Restricted UMTS System Evolution Provides data rates up to 2 Mbps, Theoretically! We need more data! Fix your network! 1) HSDPA:Uses 16QAM in the DL to reach speed up to 7.2 Mbps 2) HSUPA:Uses 64QAM in the DL and 16QAM in the UL to reach speed up to 5.7 Mbps in the UL 3) HSPA+: Uses 64QAM in both the DL and UL and 2x2 MIMO to reach speed up to 42 Mbps and 11.5 Mbps in the DL and UL respectively
  31. 31. 31 Orange Restricted Mobile communication systems 4th Generation Cellular system (LTE) (2010) 1) Streaming services 2) IoT
  32. 32. 32 Orange Restricted LTE System 1) New access technique 2) Uses both FDD and TDD
  33. 33. 33 Orange Restricted LTE System Network architecture
  34. 34. 34 Orange Restricted LTE System Evolution • Provides data rates up to 100 Mbps • LTE advanced (4.5G) was developed to provide data rates up to 1 Gbps by using higher MIMO systems (4x4) and (8x8)
  35. 35. 35 Orange Restricted Mobile communication systems summary
  36. 36. 36 Orange Restricted Cellular site equipment Let’s build a site!
  37. 37. 37 Orange Restricted Cellular site equipment 01 02 03 Radio Transmission Power & Cooling 04 Tower & Housing
  38. 38. 38 Orange Restricted Cellular site equipment 1) Radio includes everything at the site that is used to provide coverage including equipment, cables, and Antennas
  39. 39. 39 Orange Restricted Cellular site equipment 1) Radio Equipment
  40. 40. 40 Orange Restricted Cellular site equipment 1) Radio cables Baseband IF and RF Power
  41. 41. 41 Orange Restricted Have you seen me before?
  42. 42. 42 Orange Restricted Cellular site equipment 1) Radio antennas Directional Omni-Directional
  43. 43. 43 Orange Restricted How dangerous is your MW? Cellular site equipment
  44. 44. 44 Orange Restricted Cellular site equipment 2) Transmission includes everything at the site that is used to connect the BSS network to the core network including equipment, cables, and antennas
  45. 45. 45 Orange Restricted Cellular site equipment 1) Transmission Equipment SDH PDH V-SAT& HSDSL
  46. 46. 46 Orange Restricted Cellular site equipment 2) Transmission Antennas MW antenna Satellite antenna
  47. 47. 47 Orange Restricted Cellular site equipment 3) Power and Cooling include everything at the site that is used to power up the radio and Transmission equipment including power source, cooling system, and power system
  48. 48. 48 Orange Restricted Cellular site equipment 3) Power and Cooling Power Source Generator Commercial power Solar Cell
  49. 49. 49 Orange Restricted Cellular site equipment 3) Power and Cooling Power System Rectifier Backup batteries GDP and DC boxes
  50. 50. 50 Orange Restricted Cellular site equipment 4) Towers & Housings are used for antennas mounting and equipment protection respectively
  51. 51. 51 Orange Restricted Cellular site equipment 4) Towers Tower Sub-Tower Pole/Mast Mono Pole Palm Tree
  52. 52. 52 Orange Restricted Cellular site equipment 4) Housing Shelter Enclosure Enclosure
  53. 53. 53 Orange Restricted Cellular site equipment
  54. 54. 54 Orange Restricted AM/FM Those are radio bands, right? Or are they?
  55. 55. 55 Orange Restricted Network Modernization and Expansion Quality Issues Access Teams’ Scope Network Availability
  56. 56. 56 Orange Restricted
  57. 57. 57 Orange Restricted Thank You

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