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Pyrolyses

pyrolyses

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Pyrolyses

  1. 1. PYROLYSiS AJNAALAVUDEEN 2011-06-001
  2. 2. Pyrolysis  Pyrolysis is a thermo chemical decomposition of organic material in to liquid, gases and char(solid residue)at elevated temperature in the absence of oxygen(or any halogen).
  3. 3. Characters??  Temperature : 500-800˚c  Greek word : pyro- ‟ fire” lysis-‟seperatingˮ.  Involves the simultaneous change of chemical composition & physical phases.
  4. 4.  Process is irreversible.  Pyrolyses process is an endothermic process.
  5. 5. Pyrolytic products  fuels Feedstock for chemical & material industries  bio-char Gases(methane,hydrogen,carbondioxide,ca rbonmonoxide).
  6. 6. Materials used?? coal animal waste food scraps paper rubber biomass
  7. 7. Biomass  Biomass is an organic material produced directly from plants & animals or indirectly from industrial,commercial,domestic or agricultural products.
  8. 8. Agricultural waste :- crop & vegetable residuals(rice husk, straw) livestock :- butchery waste, bone material, dead animals. forestry :- forest residue, processing waste, sawdust. Fishery :- processing waste, fishbone meal, dead fish. Industrial & house hold organic residuals :- sewage sludge, waste food etc.
  9. 9. Types of pyrolysis 1.Slow pyrolysis 2.Fast pyrolysis
  10. 10. Slow pyrolysis Slow biomass heating rates→low temperatures→lengthy gas and solids residence times. Temperature :- around 500˚C. Main product :- bio-char.
  11. 11. Fast pyrolysis  Yield 60% bio-oil.  Takes only seconds to complete the pyrolyses.  Very high heating and heat transfer rates, which require a finely ground feed.  Residence time of pyrolysis vapours in the reactor less than 1 sec.  Quenching (rapid cooling) of the pyrolysis vapours to give the bio-oil product.  Calorific value :- 3500kcal.
  12. 12. Rice husk  The outermost layer of the paddy grain is the rice husk, also called rice hull.  Still often considered as a waste product in the rice mill & therefore often either burned in the open or dumped on wasteland.  Rice husk has high calorific value and often can be used as a renewable fuel.
  13. 13. Pyrolysis of rice husk hhhbgg jig k Rice husk Pyrolysis at 400 - 650 OC Uncondensed gas kchar Gaseous mixture sorting drying condensation Bio-oil
  14. 14. PROCESS  moisture free rice husk sample was taken in to a perforated holder and was introduced in to the tube furnace.  The furnace was made air tight & heated electrically.  Reactor temperature was recorded using a digital thermometer.  Pyrolyses were performed under vaccum.(710-720mm Hg).
  15. 15.  A centrifugal pump was set to create & maintain the vaccum inside the pyrolyser.  Temperature of pyrolyser was varied within 400-650°C.  The mixture of liquid & gas was allowed to come out through vaccum line & set at one side of the pyrolyser.  The fluid from the pyrolyser was condensed in a series of ice cooled condenser & bio-oil was obtained.
  16. 16.  Uncondensed gas was blown off.  The solid bio-char was collected from the pyrolyser as residue at the end of each batch of pyrolysis.
  17. 17. Advantages of pyrolysis Simple. Low cost technology. Capable of processing a wide variety of feedstock's producing gases,bio- oil,biochemical & charcoal. Reduces greenhouse gas emissions and waste going to landfill .
  18. 18. Produces a marketable product (electricity). Low risk of water pollution . Low risk of odours . High recovery rate of resources . Minimal risk of health consequences . Commercially proven technology.
  19. 19. Disadvantages  Technology is still evolving.  Market are yet to be developed for char product and pyrolysis liquid.
  20. 20. THANK YOU

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