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Pyrolysis is a thermo chemical decomposition
of organic material in to liquid, gases and
char(solid residue)at elevated temperature in
the absence of oxygen(or any halogen).
Temperature : 500-800˚c
Greek word : pyro- ‟ fire”
Involves the simultaneous change of
chemical composition & physical phases.
Process is irreversible.
Pyrolyses process is an endothermic
Feedstock for chemical & material
Biomass is an organic material produced
directly from plants & animals or indirectly
from industrial,commercial,domestic or
Agricultural waste :- crop & vegetable
residuals(rice husk, straw)
livestock :- butchery waste, bone material, dead
forestry :- forest residue, processing waste,
Fishery :- processing waste, fishbone meal,
Industrial & house hold organic residuals :-
sewage sludge, waste food etc.
Types of pyrolysis
Slow biomass heating rates→low
temperatures→lengthy gas and solids
Temperature :- around 500˚C.
Main product :- bio-char.
Yield 60% bio-oil.
Takes only seconds to complete the
Very high heating and heat transfer rates,
which require a finely ground feed.
Residence time of pyrolysis vapours in the
reactor less than 1 sec.
Quenching (rapid cooling) of the pyrolysis
vapours to give the bio-oil product.
Calorific value :- 3500kcal.
The outermost layer of the paddy grain is the
rice husk, also called rice hull.
Still often considered as a waste product in
the rice mill & therefore often either burned
in the open or dumped on wasteland.
Rice husk has high calorific value and often
can be used as a renewable fuel.
Pyrolysis of rice husk
Pyrolysis at 400 - 650 OC
moisture free rice husk sample was taken in
to a perforated holder and was introduced in
to the tube furnace.
The furnace was made air tight & heated
Reactor temperature was recorded using a
Pyrolyses were performed under
A centrifugal pump was set to create &
maintain the vaccum inside the pyrolyser.
Temperature of pyrolyser was varied within
The mixture of liquid & gas was allowed to
come out through vaccum line & set at one
side of the pyrolyser.
The fluid from the pyrolyser was condensed
in a series of ice cooled condenser & bio-oil
Uncondensed gas was blown off.
The solid bio-char was collected from the
pyrolyser as residue at the end of each batch
Advantages of pyrolysis
Low cost technology.
Capable of processing a wide variety of
feedstock's producing gases,bio-
oil,biochemical & charcoal.
Reduces greenhouse gas emissions and
waste going to landfill .
Produces a marketable product (electricity).
Low risk of water pollution .
Low risk of odours .
High recovery rate of resources .
Minimal risk of health consequences .
Commercially proven technology.
Technology is still evolving.
Market are yet to be developed for char
product and pyrolysis liquid.