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space food technology

about space food technology,containing all details about space food

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space food technology

  1. 1. 6/3/2014 1
  2. 2. 6/3/2014 2
  3. 3. “Space foods are food products specially created and processed for consumption of astronauts in outer space.” 6/3/2014 3
  4. 4. Nutritious Light weight Compact Easily digestible Palatable Physiologically appropriate 6/3/2014 4
  5. 5. View??  Food should be light Well packaged Quick to serve Easy to clean up Must be engineered in a zero gravity environment 6/3/2014 5
  6. 6. • microgravity environment is one in which gravity s effects are greatly reduced • spacecraft and all its contents are in a state of free-fall 6/3/2014 6
  7. 7. • Mercury • Gemini • Apollo • Skylab • Space shuttle • International space station (ISS) 6/3/2014 7
  8. 8. • first space program that sent humans to space. • bite-sized cubes, freeze-dried powders and tubes of semi liquids. • These space foods were unappetizing. 6/3/2014 8
  9. 9. • To bring NASA one step closer to going to the moon • Dehydrated, freeze-dried, and bite-sized foods, coated with gelatine or oil to prevent crumbling • First to use cold water • Simpler rehydration methods were developed • Packaging improved • shrimp cocktail, chicken and vegetables, butterscotch pudding, and apple sauce 6/3/2014 9
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  11. 11. • The first to land men on the moon. • Include thermo stabilized and irradiated foods • First to use hot water • This time that the crew first began to eat from open containers with utensils a. Spoon bowl system b. Thermo stabilized flexible pouch 6/3/2014 11
  12. 12. Water was injected rehydration occurs pressure type zipper was opened food was removed with a spoon 6/3/2014 12
  13. 13. 2 types; 1)a flexible pouch of a plastic and Al foil laminate 2)a can with a full panel pullout lid 6/3/2014 13
  14. 14. • Freezer, refrigerator, warming trays, and a table • Eating a meal on Skylab was more like eating a meal at home • Packaged in specialized containers • Rehydratable beverages were packaged in a collapsible accordion-like beverage dispenser • Other foods were packaged in aluminium cans of various sizes or rehydratable packages.6/3/2014 14
  15. 15. • First device capable of heating foods • Food warmer was built into the dining table ,having serving tray with three food cavities having the ability to warm foods • Underneath three cavities in the trays were warmers that could raise temperatures of foods needing heating to 66˚C • Foods consisted of products such as ham, chilli, mashed potatoes, ice cream, steak and asparagus6/3/2014 15
  16. 16. • Astonishing array of food items • A Galley is provided • A meal tray is used as a dinner plate. The tray attaches to the astronauts lap by a strap or can be attached to the wall 6/3/2014 16
  17. 17. water dispenser and an oven water dispenser which can dispense used for rehydrating foods 6/3/2014 17
  18. 18. • The galley oven is used to warm foods to the proper serving temperature • The oven is a forced-air convection oven • It heats food in containers different in size, shape, and material • Reconstituting and heating 6/3/2014 18
  19. 19. • Lack of water generation • Mainly thermostabilised , irradiated foods • Beverage package is made from a foil and plastic laminate • An adapter is there 6/3/2014 19
  20. 20. An adapter located on the package connect with the galley water may be dispensed into the package water will mix with the drink powder 6/3/2014 20
  21. 21. • The new goal will be to create foodstuffs that last far longer than the 2-3 yr shelf-life • light, edible, transportable, safe and nutritious • a)Hydroponic system b)Aeroponic system 6/3/2014 21
  22. 22. Subset of hydro culture and is a method of growing plants using mineral nutrient solutions, in water, without soil. Benefits I. Potential for a larger variety of food II. Regenerative life support system. 6/3/2014 22
  23. 23. building a simple, low cost plant growth box, known as the Plant Light House constructing 4 hydroponic nutrient plant systems, from 2-liter soda bottles Planting 6/3/2014 23
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  25. 25. • Water Conservation • More Efficient Use of Land • Do not require pesticides • Less Pollution • Less waste 6/3/2014 25
  26. 26. Utilize a high-pressure pump to spray nutrients and water onto the roots of a plant Benefits • Less nutrient solution throughput • Greater control of plant environment • Improved nutrient feeding • More user-friendly 6/3/2014 26
  27. 27. Fuel cell provide electricity Fuel cell convert energy into electricity by chemical reaction By-product is water vapour water vapour condensed into liquid 6/3/2014 27
  28. 28. • Amount of iron in an astronaut’s diet should be less than10 milligrams per day • Amount of sodium in the astronaut’s diet is limited • Scientists use a formula for Basal Energy Expenditure (BEE) • For women, BEE = 655 + (9.6 x W) + (1.7 x H) - (4.7 x A). • For men, BEE = 66 + (13.7 x W) + (5 x H) - (6.8 x A) W = weight in kilograms, H = height in centimeters and A = age in years 6/3/2014 28
  29. 29. • Crewmembers fallout a CFFQ • Report what foods they have eaten during the previous week • Computer results are sent electronically to the ground • Nutrition specialists analyze the data • So they can recommend ways to improve the astronaut’s dietary intake 6/3/2014 29
  30. 30. fulfil the physiological needs a reminder of home a break from work Properties a) High antioxidant activity b) High in water c) Slow energy release d) High in fibre content e) Rich in bio available calcium f) Low in sodium6/3/2014 30
  31. 31. 1. Rehydratable Food 2. Thermostabilized Food 3. Intermediate Moisture Food 4. Natural Form Food 5. Irradiated Food 6. Frozen Food 7. Fresh Food 8. Refrigerated Food 6/3/2014 31
  32. 32. • Water is removed from rehydratable foods to make them easier to store. • Process of dehydration • Also known as freeze drying • Include beverages as well as food items. Hot cereal such as oatmeal is a rehydratable food. 6/3/2014 32
  33. 33. • Heat processed so they can be stored at room temperature • Most of the fruits and fish are thermostabilized in cans • Tomatoes ,grilled chicken and ham 6/3/2014 33
  34. 34. • In IM foods water activity is reduced- prevents microbial growth • Contains 15-30 % moisture • Water present is chemically bound with salt or sugar • Dried peaches, pears, apricots are some IM foods used in space • Packaged in clear, flexible pouches 6/3/2014 34
  35. 35. • Nuts, granola bars, cookies are classified as natural form foods • They are ready-to-eat – packages in flexible pouches • Require no further processing chewy granola bar6/3/2014 35
  36. 36. • NASA first used irradiated meats in 1972 on Apollo • Irradiated meat had higher organoleptic acceptability compared to its thermally processed counterpart • Irradiation process involves cooking, packaging, and freezing the meat products • The meats are irradiated at to a minimum absorbed dose of 44 kGy.6/3/2014 36
  37. 37. • These foods are quick frozen to prevent a build-up of large ice crystals. • Maintains the original texture of the food and helps it taste fresh. • Include quiches, casseroles, and chicken pot pie. 6/3/2014 37
  38. 38. • Fresh fruits and vegetables are minimally processed • Sanitized with a 200 parts per million (ppm) chlorine rinse – to ensure food safety • Air-dried and then placed on a food tray into a fresh food locker • Vegetables like carrots and celery, are packaged in sealable bags 6/3/2014 38
  39. 39. • Oranges, pears, grapefruit, and jalapeno peppers have also flown occasionally. • Bananas and oranges became less popular - because they produce odor • 2 to 3 days for most fresh fruit and vegetable • Fresh fruits metabolize and cannot be sealed in a container • So a controlled atmosphere package 6/3/2014 39
  40. 40. • Foods require cold or cool • Temperatures to prevent spoilage. Examples include cream cheese and sour cream. 6/3/2014 40
  41. 41. Slicing-dicing Cooking Quick frozen Drying trays 6/3/2014 41
  42. 42. Put in vaccum chamber Heat applied Increased temp & decreased pressure Ice crystals boiled off Water vapour condensed back Product become freeze dried 6/3/2014 42
  43. 43. • High Acceptability • Minimum Preparation • Nutritious • Easy Clean-up • Free Choice 6/3/2014 43
  44. 44. 1) Engineered Foods • tube cube .......meal tray 2) Heating Foods • food warmer • galley 3) Refrigerators and Freezers 4) Thermo-stabilized Retort Pouches 5) Irradiated Food 6/3/2014 44
  45. 45. • Space food shelf life depends mainly on packaging • A nine month shelf life minimum • The food package weight for Shuttle is about 0.5 lbs per person, per day 6/3/2014 45
  46. 46. • Combitherm Paxx packaging material for its rehydratable and bite-sized • Five layer co-extrusion of nylon/ethylene vinyl alcohol/tie layer of polyethylene/linear low density polyethylene. • Using modified atmosphere techniques 6/3/2014 46
  47. 47. • The beverage package is a modified Capri Sun package • Dry beverage powder is placed in the package, flushed three times with nitrogen • The package is sealed with the septum adapter in the package 6/3/2014 47
  48. 48. • Pouches used for thermostabilized and irradiated foods are commercial pouches, using US Army specifications for the Meals Ready to Eat program. • Containers, Al cans, and commercial condiment single serving pouches are also used 6/3/2014 48
  49. 49. It is a multipurpose laboratory responsible for space food and package Capabilities of this facility include:- Food product development Food preservation technology Sensory evaluation Menu planning Freeze dehydration Package development Fabrication and design of packaging equipment Physical testing of packages and material Modified and controlled atmosphere packaging6/3/2014 49
  50. 50. Food systems engineers Food scientists Packaging engineers, Registered dietitians, Technicians chemistry Food engineering biology microbiology nutrition 6/3/2014 50
  51. 51. • Pillsbury Co. and the U.S. Army Natick for NASA to make food safer for space travel • HACCP • The U.S. Food and Drug Administration have applied HACCP guidelines for the handling of seafood, juice, and dairy products. 6/3/2014 51
  52. 52. • CHALLENGE !!! provide variety for a 5 year mission • Biggest challenge is SHELF LIFE • Hydroponic • Aeroponic • Application of non-thermal processing 6/3/2014 52
  53. 53. Assessment of the Long-Term Stability of Retort Pouch Foods to Support Extended Duration Spaceflight Patricia M. Catauro and Michele H. Perchonok 6/3/2014 53
  54. 54. To determine the suitability of retort processed foods to support long-duration spaceflight 6/3/2014 54
  55. 55. • Combined sensory evaluations • Physical properties assessment • Nutritional analyses 6/3/2014 55
  56. 56. Material 6/3/2014 56
  57. 57. • Shelf life extrapolation was conducted by the standard ASLT procedure Includes; 1)analytical quantification of quality 2) application of Arrhenius kinetics 3) mathematical prediction 6/3/2014 57
  58. 58. • 4mnth intervals for the 1st 2 year • 6mnth intervals during the 3rd year 6/3/2014 58
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  61. 61. 1)Baseline acceptability of representative products Products were found acceptable to panellists immediately after production with the exception of one vegetable product (Sugar Snap Peas), and both egg products (Vegetable Omelette and Broccoli Souffle). 6/3/2014 61
  62. 62. 2)Quality loss to representative products throughout storage 1) Colour 2) Flavour 6/3/2014 62
  63. 63. 6/3/2014 63
  64. 64. • Flavour change was accompanied by a change in colour • Non enzymatic or Millard browning reactions • With the implementation of non thermal technology off-flavour development in these types of meat products could be avoided 6/3/2014 64
  65. 65. • Fruit and dessert between 1.5 and 5 y • Vegetable side dishes 1 to 4 y • Soups and starch side dishes1.75 to 4 y • Dairy products & vegetarian entrees2.5 to 3.25 y • Meat products with an expected shelf life maximum of 8 y OBSERVATION 6/3/2014 65
  66. 66. • Shelf life endpoints were established for all of NASA’s retorted pouch products. • At ambient storage conditions, shelf life endpoints of the products range from 0 to 96 month,depending on the product formulation. 6/3/2014 66
  67. 67. Development of freeze-dried miyeokguk, Korean seaweed soup, as space food sterilized by irradiation Beom-Seok Song , Jin-GyuPark a, Jae-Hun Kim a, Il Choi a, Dong-HyunAhn b, Chen Hao c, Ju-WoonLee 6/3/2014 67
  68. 68. The purpose of this study was to identify microorganisms in freeze-dried miyeokguk and to sterilize freeze-dried miyeokguk using gamma irradiation 6/3/2014 68
  69. 69. • Dried miyeok • Sea tangle • Chemicals • solvents 6/3/2014 69
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  71. 71. • Samples were irradiated in a cobalt-60 gamma irradiator • Dose rate :- 10kGy/hr 6/3/2014 71
  72. 72. 10gm sample Add 90 ml peptone water Homogenize(2 min) Culturing Plate count agar –total aerobic bacteria 6/3/2014 72
  73. 73. SS agar for salmonella spp 3m petrifilm for E.coli,staphylococcus & coliform Potato dextrose-fungi Spread aliquot agar using spread plate method Incubate bacterial:35˚C-98hrs Fungal:25˚C-5days6/3/2014 73
  74. 74. • Evaluation of total aerobic bacteria,coliform bacteria, Staphylococcus, Salmonella, E. coli, B. cereus, and fungi in miyeokguk & freeze dried miyeokguk • Colonies were not detected within the detection limit of l.00 log CFU/g for any microbial species 6/3/2014 74
  75. 75. • Aerobic bacteria were not detected in any sample just after gamma irradiation above 10kGy • These results indicate that gamma irradiation of 10 kGy is enough to inactivate all microorganisms in the freeze- dried miyeokguk 6/3/2014 75
  76. 76. The result of this study indicate that gamma irradiation at 10 kGy could sterilize freeze-dried miyeokguk without deterioration of the sensory quality of the food 6/3/2014 76
  77. 77. – Space food technology- hope to be adapted in our daily lives on earth – Sooner can see space foods even on the shelves of departmental stores – The day is not so far…………. 6/3/2014 77
  78. 78. Beom-seok song,Jin-Gyu Park,Jae-Hun Kim,Jong-Choi,Dong- HyunAhn.2012. Development of freeze-dried miyeokguk Korean seaweed soup, as space food sterilized by irradiation .Radiation physics and chemistry.81: 1111-1114. Bourland, C.T. 1993.The development of food systems for space. Trends Food Science Technology.4: 271–276. Bourland, C.T. and Smith, M.C.1991.Selection of human consumables for future space missions. Waste manage.76 (9):339- 344. Byun, M.W.1991.Changes in physicochemical properties of salted sea mustard by gamma irradiation.J.Korean Food Hyg.6:165–169. 6/3/2014 78
  79. 79. Cecil,S.R, Woodruff J.G.1963.The stability of canned foods in long-term storage. Food Technology17:639–646. Chaves,J.Q.,Pires,E.S.,Vivoni,A.M.,2011.Geneticdiversity, antimicrobial resistance and toxigenic profiles of Bacillus cereus isolated from food in Brazil over three decades. International Journal of FoodMicrobiology.147:12–16. Chia, S.S., Baker, R.C., Hotchkiss,J.H. 1983. Quality comparison of thermo processed fishery products in cans and retortable pouches. J Food Science.48:1521–1531. Clydesdale ,F.M., Lin Y.D.,and Francis F.J. 1972. Formation of 2- pyrrolidine-5-carboxylic acid from glutamine during processing and storage of spinach puree. J Food Sci. 37(1):45–47. Cooper, M., Douglas, G., and Perchonok, M. 2011. Developing the NASA food system for long-duration missions. Journel of Food Science. 76:40–48.6/3/2014 79
  80. 80. Evan ,S.R.,Gregory, J.F.1981.Thermal degradation kinetics of pyridoxine hydrochloride in dehydrated model food system.journel of food science.46: 555-558. Evert, M.F.,Glaus-Late, KD., and S.D,Bourland, C.T.1992.Food provisioning considerations for long duration space missions and planet inhabitation.technical paper nr 921415,society of automotive engineers,salem,mass.,U.S.A. Farkas,J. 2006. Irradiation for better foods. Trends Food Science Technology. 17:148–152. Hartung, T.E1973.Application of low dose irradiation to a fresh bread system for space flights.journel of food science38:129-132. Kirk.J, Dennison .D. Kokoczka.P.1977.degradation of ascorbic acid in a dehydrated food system.Journel of food science.42: 1274-1279. • 6/3/2014 80
  81. 81. Maya Cooper, Grace Douglas, and Michele perchonok.2011.Developing the NASA food system for long- duration missions Journal of food science.76: 40-47. Nijhuis, H.H., Torringa, H.M., Muresan, S., Yuksel, D., Leguijt, C., Kloek, W. 1998. Approaches to improve the quality of dried fruit and vegetables. Trends Food Science Technology. 9: 13– 20. Patricia, M. Catauro and Michele, H. Perchonok.2011. Assessment of the Long-Term Stability of Retort Pouch Foods to Support Extended Duration Space flight. Journal of food science.76 :40-47. • 6/3/2014 81
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