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  1. 1. Grammar for PET: Infinitive or –ing form? Katie Dirksmeier
  2. 2. Infinitives and gerunds: One, the other, or both?  What is an infinitive?  What is a gerund?  Gerunds can also be called…  When do we use each of them?  Example sentences?
  3. 3. Infinitive or gerund? (verb + verb)  You decide whether to use the infinitive or the gerund depending on:   The first verb that you used What you want to say  In this presentation:  Verbs that are always/only followed by the infinitive  Verbs that are always/only followed by the gerund  Verbs that can be followed by either the gerund or infinitive without a change in meaning  Verbs that can be followed by either the gerund or infinitive with a change in meaning depending on which is used
  4. 4. Verbs that are followed by the infinitive Discussion Verbs Optimistic Verbs Hope Expect* Plan Agree Wish Want Promise Would like* Would love* Help* Offer Intend Aim Ask* Remind** Pretend Appear Convince** Tell** Teach** Invite** Warn** Order** Instruct** Urge** >We promise to do our chores after dinner. Hypothetical Verbs Persuade** >My mom reminded me to take out the trash on my way out. Unfulfilled Verbs Fail Need* Seem Refuse >She pretended to be asleep. >Sam refuses to eat anything that isn’t green. Think of some example sentences with the starred verbs: What do you notice? Why do you think they are starred?
  5. 5. Verbs (+ object) + infinitive form  Followed by infinitive and sometimes have object:   Ask Expect            >meaning w/object?  Help Want Would like Would love Would hate Would prefer When do you use an object pronoun? Example? Followed by infinitive and ALWAYS have object:        Force Instruct Invite Order Persuade Remind Teach Tell Warn The object can be in the form of the passive voice…
  6. 6. Verb + Infinitive: Negative form  They agreed to leave.  Change stay.” the sentence so it means “They agreed to  In the negative, the form becomes: OR verb1 + not + infinitive verb1 + object + not + infinitive (if there is an object)
  7. 7. Expressions with the Infinitive  To be about  Peter was about to start his homework when the phone rang.  To do (one’s) best  I did my best to arrive on time, but somehow I was late again.  To make up (one’s) mind  Sally made up her mind to do whatever necessary to win the contest.  To set out  Gary packed his things and set out to make the long journey back to the campsite.
  8. 8. Gerund (-ing form) Pessimistic Verbs Other Discussion Verbs Avoid Consider Dislike Discuss Deny Recommend Miss Suggest Quit Insist on Regret Other Verbs That Are Followed by the Gerund Form Admit Imagine Delay Involve Enjoy Keep Feel like Mind/Not Mind Finish
  9. 9. Verb + Gerund: Negative form  I dislike having a lot of homework.  Can you make this sentence negative so that it means you enjoy having lots of assignments?  In the negative, the form becomes: verb1 + not + gerund
  10. 10. Expressions with the Gerund Form  To be against  Michael was against cheating of any kind.  To be interested in  Over the summer, Erica became very interested in knitting and sewing.  Can’t stand  Alex can’t stand talking during movies and always tries to silence anyone chatting in the cinema.  To look forward to I look forward to hearing from you soon.
  11. 11. Verbs Followed by Infinitive or Gerund  We can use either the infinitive or the gerund with little or no change in meaning:  Begin  Continue  Like  Love  Prefer These verbs MUST have an object when used with the infinitive…Why? •Advise •Allow •Encourage •Forbid  Hate •Permit  Start •Recommend
  12. 12. Verbs with Meaning Changes:  Remember to:   Remember to lock the door. = an action that is necessary.  Remember –ing:   I remember locking the door. = an action in the past.
  13. 13. Verbs with Meaning Changes:  Forget to:   Don’t forget to phone me. = an action that is necessary.  Forget –ing:   I’ll never forget meeting her. = an action in the past.
  14. 14. Verbs with Meaning Changes:  Try to:   Try to get to the concert as soon as possible so you get a seat. = if you can, something you should do  Try –ing:   Try adding a bit more salt to make the spinach taste better. = an experiment, suggestion
  15. 15. Verbs with Meaning Changes:  Stop to:   She stopped to eat some chocolate. = she stopped because she wanted to eat some chocolate  Stop –ing:   She stopped eating chocolate. = she no longer eats chocolate; an activity that is no longer occurring, finished, or paused
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