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Evaluating HRD interventions

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Intro to HRM - Evaluating HRD interventions

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Evaluating HRD interventions

  1. 1. Evaluating HRD Interventions -Please sit with your group members-
  2. 2. Chapter 1 - Review HRD is a set of systematic and planned activities designed by an organization to provide its members with the opportunities to learn necessary skills to meet current and future job demands Major Areas:  Training and development (T&D)  Organizational development (OD)  Career development (CD) Strategic HRD involves: • Needs Assessment • Design • Implementation • Evaluation 2 Allen Grabo – VU University Amsterdam
  3. 3. Chapter 1 – Example Question What capabilities are required of a successful Human Resource Manager in the modern world? • Strategic consultant: • Designer and inventor: • Change mediator: • Career advisor: • Researcher: • Facilitator: A HRD manager facilitates structured learning experience for the employees to enhance productivity. 3 Allen Grabo – VU University Amsterdam
  4. 4. Chapter 1 - Review What capabilities are required of a successful Human Resource Manager in the modern world? • Strategic consultant: The main role of a HRD manager is to guide a company in formulating and planning its strategies in order to achieve organizational goals. HRD managers carry out necessary training programs to improve performance goals of the team. • Designer and inventor: A HRD manager performs various functions of planning to designing strategies and executing them. • Change mediator: A HRD manager acts as a change agent at the time of mergers, acquisitions or takeovers as well as at the time of installing new technologies. People often resist change and reluctant to accept it. HRD managers help employees to cope up with the change. • Career advisor: A HRD manager assists the employees to improve their skills and competencies in order to achieve their career goals. Various learning sessions, workshops, seminars and conferences are arranged by the HRD managers in this purpose. • Researcher: Acts as a researcher by assessing HRD practices and procedures with the help of statistical data in order to determine the effectiveness of the employees and communicate the results to the organization. • Facilitator: A HRD manager facilitates structured learning experience for the employees to enhance productivity. 4 Allen Grabo – VU University Amsterdam
  5. 5. Chapter 2 - Review What factors influence how people behave in the workplace? • External • Work environment • Coworkers • Performance outcomes • Internal • Motivation • Knowledge, skills and abilities 5 Allen Grabo – VU University Amsterdam
  6. 6. Chapter 2 – Example Question Describe at least 3 external factors that influence how people behave in the workplace. 6 Allen Grabo – VU University Amsterdam
  7. 7. Chapter 2 – Example Answers Describe at least 3 external factors that influence how people behave in the workplace. • Economic factor: • Technological factor: • Competition in Industry: 7 Allen Grabo – VU University Amsterdam
  8. 8. Chapter 2 – Example Answers Describe at least 3 external factors that influence how people behave in the workplace. Economic factor: Technological factor: Competition in Industry: 8 Allen Grabo – VU University Amsterdam
  9. 9. Chapter 2 – Example Answers Describe at least 3 external factors that influence how people behave in the workplace. • Economic factor: If the economy is booming and employees have plenty of jobs, then the behavior at the work would be overall happier. On the contrary, there will be fear and anxiousness among employees if the economy is facing recession. That anxiety leads to lower productivity and hamper employee performance. • Technological factor: Day by day advancement in the technology made employees feel regressive and less motivated. Employees resist changing and avoiding learning new things. To avoid this situation, a manager should impart timely updated training to employees. • Competition in Industry: Increased competition within an industry may raise questions on the survival of the company which leads to frustration and less motivated employees. However, employees feel motivated in a stable industry where it is easy to attract customers. 9 Allen Grabo – VU University Amsterdam
  10. 10. Chapter 3 - Review Learning: A change in behavior, cognition, or affect that occurs as a result of one’s interaction with the environment Training creates an environment that maximizes learning: • Trainee characteristics • Kolb’s Learning Styles are most widely used • Motivation is key • Training design • How to implement training (active vs passive, whole vs part) • Over-learning • Feedback • Transfer of training • Aim for fidelity – either psychological or physical • Give people a chance to use the skills in practice 10 Allen Grabo – VU University Amsterdam
  11. 11. Chapter 3 – Example Question From the strategies discussed in this chapter, which two are most commonly used by your team? Can you give an example of how it helped you learn more effectively? • Rehearsal • Elaboration • Organizational • Comprehension • Affective 11 Allen Grabo – VU University Amsterdam
  12. 12. Chapter 3 – Example Answers Rehearsal: Repeating items and copying texts or articles. • Students memorizing topics during examinations are a classic example. • Helps to get accustomed to new information. Helps with retention and understanding • Has global benefits • Allows for the retention of large amounts of information Elaboration: Visualizing an image, writing down and summarizing • When memorization is difficult, keywords or mnemonics can help • Breaks down complex topics • Focus on the conceptual rather than rote repetition 12 Allen Grabo – VU University Amsterdam
  13. 13. Break Time See you in 15 minutes. 13 Allen Grabo – VU University Amsterdam
  14. 14. Evaluating HRD Programs Recall that the strategy for effective interventions consists of four parts: • Needs Assessment • Design • Implementation • Evaluation Assume you have done all this successfully. 14 Allen Grabo – VU University Amsterdam
  15. 15. Now what? 15 Allen Grabo – VU University Amsterdam Assessment Assessneeds Design Implementation Evaluation Prioritize needs Define objectives Select evaluation criteria Develop lessonplan Develop/acquire materials Select trainer/leader Select methods andtechniques Schedulethe program/intervention Determine evaluation design Conduct evaluation of program or intervention Deliver the HRDprogram or intervention Interpret results
  16. 16. Evaluation - Questions The systematic collection of descriptive and judgmental information necessary to make effective training decisions related to the selection, adoption, value, and modification of various instructional activities. • How do you evaluate training and HRD? • What measures can be used to evaluate training? • Is there one best way to evaluate training? • How can the value of HRD be expressed in terms of costs and benefits, or Euros? 16 Allen Grabo – VU University Amsterdam
  17. 17. Goals of Evaluation • Determine whether a program is accomplishing its objectives • Identify the strengths and weaknesses of HRD programs • Determine the cost-benefit ratio of an HRD program • Decide who should participate in future HRD programs • Identify which participants benefited the most or least from the program • Gather data to assist in marketing future programs • Establish a database to assist management in making decisions 17 Allen Grabo – VU University Amsterdam
  18. 18. Requirements in HRD research Pretest and posttest: • Allows the trainer to see what has changed after the training Control Group: • Group of employees similar to those who receive training • Don’t receive training at the same time as those who are trained • Receive the same evaluation measures as the group that is trained Ideal scenario: • Training group and the control group have similar scores before training • Scores for the training group increase after training, while those of the control group remain constant. • This provides fairly strong evidence that the training (and not some other factor) was responsible for the changes on the outcome measures 18 Allen Grabo – VU University Amsterdam
  19. 19. Ethical Issues Confidentiality Informed consent Control group assignment • Use a lottery to assign to control groups • Assure training will be provided to control group later as well if found to be effective Pressure to produce positive results 19 Allen Grabo – VU University Amsterdam
  20. 20. Major problems in evaluation Mono-method bias: • If both reports in a before-and-after evaluation come from the same person at the same time (say, after training), conclusions may be questionable • Respondents may be more concerned about being consistent in their answers than about providing accurate responses Social desirability bias: • Respondents may report what they think the researcher (or boss) wants to hear rather than the truth • Employees may be fearful or embarrassed to admit that they learned nothing in a training program 20 Allen Grabo – VU University Amsterdam
  21. 21. Methods 21 Method Advantages Disadvantages Interview Flexible Opportunity for clarification Depth possible Personal contact High reactive effects High cost Face-to-face threat potential Labor intensive Trained observers needed Questionnaire Low cost Honesty increased if anonymous Anonymity possible Respondent sets pace Variety of options Possible inaccurate data On-job responding conditions not controlled Respondents set varying paces Return rate beyond control Direct Observation Non-threatening Excellent way to measure behavior change Possibly disruptive Reactive effect possible May be unreliable Trained observers needed
  22. 22. Methods 22 Method Advantages Disadvantages Written Test Low purchase cost Readily scored Quickly processed Easily administered Wide sampling possible May be threatening Possible low relation to job performance Reliance on norms may distort individual performance Possible cultural bias Simulation/ Performance Test Reliable Objective Close relation to job performance Time consuming Simulation often difficult High development cost Archival Performance Data Reliable Objective Easy to review Minimal reactive effects Criteria for keeping or discarding records Info system discrepancies Indirect Needs to be converted to usable form May be expensive to collect
  23. 23. Three types of data : Individual performance System-wide performance Economic Data 23 Allen Grabo – VU University Amsterdam
  24. 24. Individual Performance • Test scores, number of units produced • Timeliness, quality of performance • Attendance, Attitudes 24 Allen Grabo – VU University Amsterdam
  25. 25. System-wide performance • Productivity • Rework / Scrap • Customer and client satisfaction • Timeliness 25 Allen Grabo – VU University Amsterdam
  26. 26. Economic Data • Profits • Product liability • Avoidance of penalties • such as fines for noncompliance with laws and regulations • Market share 26 Allen Grabo – VU University Amsterdam
  27. 27. Effectiveness of an HRD program Successful outcomes: • Increased productivity • Timeliness • Cost savings ROI = Results / Training Costs • If ROI < 1, training costs more than benefits accrue • If ROI > 1 benefits accrue • The greater the ratio, the higher the benefit for the organization 27 Allen Grabo – VU University Amsterdam
  28. 28. Kirkpatrick’s Method Reaction • Did trainees like program? • Did trainees think it valuable? Learning • Did they learn what the training objectives said they should learn? Job Behavior • Did they use learning back on job? Results • Has HRD improved organization’s effectiveness? 28 Allen Grabo – VU University Amsterdam
  29. 29. Kirkpatrick’s Method • Most organizations do not collect information on all four types of outcomes • About one-third of organizations use Kirkpatrick’s model • Some feel it only measures what happens immediately after training • Others feel it is more of a taxonomy of outcomes, rather than a framework for evaluating trainings 29 Allen Grabo – VU University Amsterdam
  30. 30. Evaluating Training Transfer • Employees can gain new knowledge and skills through training programs, but learning alone does not mean that a training is effective • Positive transfer of training = extent to which the learning that results from training transfers to the job and leads to relevant changes in work performance (Goldstein & Ford, 2002) • The “transfer problem”: Estimates suggest that only 10 % of training expenditures transfer to the job (for an overview, see Grossman & Salas, 2011) 30 Allen Grabo – VU University Amsterdam
  31. 31. Evaluating Training Transfer Near Transfer • The ability to directly apply on the job what has been learned in training, with little adjustment or modification Far Transfer • Expanding on what has been learned in new and creative ways 31 Allen Grabo – VU University Amsterdam
  32. 32. Baldwin & Ford’s Transfer of Training 32 Ability Personality Motivation Trainee characteristics 1 2 3 4 5 6 Training Inputs Conditions of TransferTraining Outputs Learning and retention Support Opportunity to use Work environment Principles of learning Sequencing Training content Training design Generalization and maintenance
  33. 33. Increasing Transfer • Develop (and follow) clearly stated learning objectives for the training • Maximize the similarity between the training situation and the job situation • Provide ample opportunity during training to practice the task • Identify and label important features of a task • Make sure trainees understand general principles 33 Allen Grabo – VU University Amsterdam
  34. 34. Increasing Transfer • Use a variety of situations and examples, including both positive and negative models of the intended behavior • Provide support back in the work environment, including clear goals, checklists, measurement, feedback, and rewards for using the new behaviors on the job • Provide ample opportunity to perform what is learned back on the job: • The #1 reason cited for low transfer (listed by over 64 percent of trainees) is “lack of opportunity to apply on the job.” 34 Allen Grabo – VU University Amsterdam
  35. 35. Issues with Evaluation How often are HRD programs actually evaluated? • For most company-sponsored training - at the end Less than half of executive MBA programs are evaluated properly • “If it’s Harvard, it must be good!” Most common measures focus on participant reactions • Not always useful • Need to compare performance before and after training Conducting an evaluation is not easy • Many external factors can affect whether employee performance improves • Makes it difficult to evaluate the impact of just the training • HRD managers can be afraid of criticism and program cuts 35 Allen Grabo – VU University Amsterdam
  36. 36. Summary HRD does not take place in a vacuum Research shows that HRD impacts: • Financial performance • Turnover • Absenteeism • Organizational learning Insights from training transfer research show: • HRD interventions matter • But, training alone rarely works 36 Allen Grabo – VU University Amsterdam

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