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Planning utopia: From Howard to Post-Covid via harlow

As part of our studio virtual Friday Talks and Drinks, Louise Mansfield revisited the utopian visions of new towns, drawing on a range of examples from the work of Ebenezer Howard to our own more contemporary re-interpretations of Garden City principles.

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Planning utopia: From Howard to Post-Covid via harlow

  1. 1. The Utopic vison of the Garden City is as much as spatial idea as a social one. Could it hold valuable lessons for how we plan communities in light of the Covid-19 pandemic? Friday Talks: Planning Utopia from Howard to post-Covid via Harlow Louise Mansfield, Director 28 Aug 2020 SLIDESHARE Allies and Morrison
  2. 2. Ebenezer Howard
  3. 3. 1898 1902
  4. 4. 1898 1902 Established co-operative building firm General Builders Ltd 1891 17 branches established with interest in sites 1897
  5. 5. Charles Booth London povery mapping: 1898-1899
  6. 6. Network of cities
  7. 7. Focus on satellite cities
  8. 8. The Goldilocks of cities
  9. 9. Self sufficient
  10. 10. Rational layout of uses
  11. 11. Land value capture Co-partnership housing trust Tenants take a share in the company’s capital Entitled to a share in profits All houses would be held in common by the Society Reinforce personal interest in prosperity of the whole
  12. 12. LETCHWORTH GARDEN CITY 1903 PARKER AND UNWIN DESIGN
  13. 13. 94 1905 1918 howard’svision allowed space for grand boulevards and avenues around a centralpark – to give residentsspace that may have been lacking in cities.the plansabove illustratethe developmentof the town streetswith the differentshades of blue indicating completed development at each stage.the town centrewas neverdeveloped in accordance with the original masterplan,which has contributed to some of the issues the town centrefacestoday. initialdevelopmentfocused upon key junctions in the emerging town.this included norton way south, station road, pixmoreand Broadwateravenue.the cottageexhibition sitewas next to the newstation. the vision for letchworth Garden city focused on the provision of quality and affordablehousing so the town did not develop around a commercial centre– this was introduced later. parking. Five possibleredevelopment areas were proposed including around commerce avenue and the wynd. development of rear servicing areas behind eastcheapand the leys was proposed to allow for pedestrianisationof thesestreets. the area between leys avenue, eastcheapand Gernon road was designated for redevelopment in the late1960s and the central area shopping centre was developed in 1975and containedtwo supermarketsand a multi storey car park.the wyndwas refurbishedin 1980 retainingmost of the original buildings and pedestrianisingthe street which has remained in a similarformto this day. leys avenue and eastcheap were resurfacedand the widths of the roads restricted,parking bays introduced and traffic calming was introduced in the late1980s/1990s. 95 1931 at this point,more housing was developed andlinks to the a1 strengthened to improve accessto the town,but some gaps remained in the core. By now, the Broadwaywas complete, along with BroadwayGardensand the radialroutesleading fromthis. . 1953 theremainingtown centreplots and housing around norton common were developed by1953 . 1903 1905 1918 1931 1953
  14. 14. 92 Dual aspect
  15. 15. LETCHWORTH GARDEN CITY HERITAGE FOUNDATION RENTAL INCOME HOMES AND BUSINESSES £4M CINEMA LANDSCAPING HOME GRANTS BUS SERVICE GALLERY Land value capture
  16. 16. 1 the wynd masterplan &l e tc h w o r t h tow n centre implementation plan Key issues report september 2011 Allies and Morrison Urban Practitioners
  17. 17. discussing comments on the wynd adding comments to the town centre map town centremodel
  18. 18. BRENTHAM GARDEN SUBURB 1901 680 houses and flats in LB Ealing First suburb built on co-partnership principles
  19. 19. PARTY! THEBRENTHAM CLUB TUESDAY31 DECEMBER• 8.00pm-1.00am 'Through the Decades' Disco Hot Food & Glass of Fizz MEMBERS£25 • NON -MEMBERS £30 . . '),',-v.,:.,· ti.•l · _-.I_,r . ....·-(tI lfl,1 ,';, · ,,1,'(ll(' Road. Ealing. W.) I NP Ti,•r.1, A.c1e!ai11 www brentt,arnclub c[) uk w;-.-.,.., to.kf'lrn r .om/br c nthar nc lub ,•··' '' . .· ♦ ' , ·' ,:-, I _A
  20. 20. Stepped building lines Framed views: communal space Framed views: distinctive buildings Symmetry and set pieces
  21. 21. INTERNATIONAL INFLUENCE FROHNAU, BERLIN DRESDEN, GERMANY MANNHEIM, GERMANY GARBATELLA, ITALY SVIT, SLOVAKIA TAPIOLA, FINLAND ZELENOGRAD, RUSSIA MEZAPARKS, LATVIA ADELAIDE, AUS CANBERRAM AUS CHRISTCHURCH, NZ JACKSON HEIGHTS, NYC FOREST HILLS, QUEENS FAIRVIEW, NEW JERSEY CHATHAM VILLAGE, NJ RESTON, VIRGINIA KAPUSKASING, ONTARIO TEL AVIV, ISRAEL OTA, TOKYO, JAPAN ANSAN, S KOREA
  22. 22. ANSAN PLANS 1984 INDUSTRY HOMES COMMERCIAL
  23. 23. ANSAN 2018
  24. 24. Combined scenario: Bridges 결합된 시나리오: 활발한 거리를 이용한 연결 Combined scenario: Cultural links 결합된 시나리오: 문화의 연결고리
  25. 25. THE UK’S NEW TOWNS PHASE 1 NEW TOWNS Stevenage, Hertfordshire Crawley, Sussex Hemel Hempstead Harlow, Essex Newton Aycliffe, County Durham Aycliffe New Town)[6] Peterlee, County Durham Easington New Town Welwyn Garden City and Hatfield Basildon, Essex Bracknell, Berkshire Corby, Northamptonshire
  26. 26. HARLOW, ESSEX
  27. 27. Church Town Hall Arts Centre Theatre Civic Hall Law Cour 1947DESIGN Westgate House Rank House TownHall Terminus House 1977 DESIGN
  28. 28. EXPANSIOJ':,( STUDY t96J ,., I ROAD P A T T E R N ) '-
  29. 29. THE PLAN • Town Centre Major Neighbourhood Cenlres Neighbourhood Sub-Centres @ Industrial Centres cc County College College of Further Education Secondary Schools Primary schools FE sJ = SS Special Schools Radial & Orbital Roads _ Town Radial Roads • - - • Major Town Roads - - - · Minor Town Roads Diagrammatic Master Plan
  30. 30. Residential Centres Industry Key Town Centre Temple Fields The Stow Old Harlow Pinnacles Staple Tye Bush Fair
  31. 31. Residential original Residential since plan Centres original Centres since plan Industry original Industry since plan Key Town Centre Temple Fields The Stow New Hall Old Harlow Pinnacles Staple Tye Bush Fair
  32. 32. /) r I r r r ' / o r- f'J. I/ .,, / --- ) (1 _./ / I cy' I ' I . '· .. - . . - · · :1 1'' .. ·4" /. . ;.' '
  33. 33. Fourth Avenue MistleyRoad BrooksideElizabethWay Harolds Road Church End Seymours RedWillow Moorfields Joyners Field Brockles Mead Deerpark Jerounds Holly Field Lodge Canons Brook Wooding Grove Lane The Hornbeams Foldcroft Herons Wood Canons Gate Rectory Wood Morley Grove Upper Park Peacocks Altham Grove The Stow Quarry Spring Willowfield Kingsland Abbotsweld Long Banks Barley Croft Lower Meadow Latton Green Queensgate Orchard Croft Halling Hill Parsonages Leys Long LeyThe Downs The Dashes Field Oldhouse Halling Croft Hill Home Close Church Leys Brays Mead The Fortunes Primrose Field Readings Sakins Croft Spinning Wheel Mead Upper Mealines Priory Croft Longfield Little Brays Little Brays Great Brays Spencers Croft North Grove Ladyshot Berecroft Spruce Hill Tunnmead Cooks Spinney Ram Gorse RoydonRoad Flex Meadow BarrowsRoad Horsecroft Road Coldharbour Road LovettRoad Park Hill LaneEnd Tickenhall Drive Albert Doulton CloseBentley Drive Malkin Drive Chelsea Gardens Davenport Abbeydale Close KingsdonLane Fenton Hadley Grange Grange Station Road Tany’sDell School StAlbans School Burnt Mill School The Spinney Ladyshot School Broadfields School Harlow College The Downs School Hare Street School Passmores School Latton Green School Parringdon School Stewards School St Luke’s School Jerounds School Katherines School Kingsmoor School St James School Harlow Fields School Little Parndon School St Marks School William Martin Pear Tree Mead School Mark Hall School and Sports Centre Fawbert and Barnard’s School Harlowbury School St Nicholas School Churchgate C Of E Aided Primary School Pureford Green School New Passmores School Holy Cross School Church Langley Primary School Westbury Rise The Henry Moore Gardens Primary School Potter Street Primary School Commonside School Katherines Bynghams Brookside Water Lane School Sumners Kingsmoor Milwards School The Maples Great Parndon Southern Copse Hill Staple Tye Brays Grove Purford Great Green Leylands School Bush Fair Netteswell Pitman’s Mark Hall Little Parndon Hare Street Town Centre Pinnacles Merring Way Tye Green Latton Bush Temple Fields Old Harlow Churchgate Street Potter Street Church Langley Denby Grange Foster Street New Hall Sumners Leisure Centre Harlow Rugby Club Harlow Town Cricket Club Harlow Leisurezone Canons Brook Golf Club Jean McAlpine Park Goldings Playing Field Fiveacres Barn Mead Sports Ground Latton Bush The Centre Harlow Study Centre Bush Fair Sports Ground Latton Common Town Park Latton Woods Kingsmoor Recreation Centre Harlow Mill Station Princess Alexandra Hospital Harlow Town Station Maypole Sports and Social Museum of Harlow Gibberd Garden Abbotsweld School Passmores Community Centre Water Gardens Harlow Outdoors Pets’ Corner Skate Park Norman Booth Leisure Centre London Road Campus Harlow Common Mark Hall Wood Staple Tye Harlow Town Football Club N Roadsigns Cycle route Shared route for pedestrians/cyclists Segregated routefor pedestrians/cyclists BusLane (bicyclesallowed) Key On-road cycleroute Off-road cycleroute Bridleway National Cycle Route Network(NCN1) Cycleparking Shoppingarea Cycle friendly road On-road suitableonly for experiencedcyclists
  34. 34.
  35. 35. l ( ./ J I • ._ h.,.. //- -, - ' .---· ..·.- V
  36. 36. ··, . ,..,.,.., ''•.>" •) ;f [I '.ic , ,.. , ( I l ,._ I, ''. J,,l ' 1 ' !- ' - I[ l " J, <,>,rt1 ,, {'I[, ,, ;' < ,11 ' l r •' ' fI, 1 - l 'r'> :')' :!, c (<) fk , eIr .... r, h lL ( [ rt ...... "'v. ·J,:. Jl t . L "<lr:
  37. 37. Gilston Harlow Town Centre Rye HillRiver Stort
  38. 38. r
  39. 39. Login Basket(0items) OFMi:fiLf: Search 0. •tc pa About us Our work Events Media centre Blog Join the TCPA Members' area Shop Contactus Guidance for delivering new Garden Cities
  40. 40. Enhancing the natural environment through biodiversity and zero carbon approaches, and ensuring climate resilience A mix of house sizes and types, to cater for all, including those most in need Good shopping, cultural and recreational facilities in walking distance, that support sociable neighbourhoods A wide range of jobs in easy access Integrated sustainable transport, in which walking, cycling and public transport are the most attractive options Beautifully designed homes and neighbourhoods - the best of town and countryside Capturing land value for the benefit of the community A strong vision, with leadership and community engagement Long term stewardship of land and facilities Garden Town principle s
  41. 41. M25 M11 M1 M1 A1(M) E S S E X C A M B R I D G E S H I R E H E R T F O R D S H I R E Bishop’sStortford Chelmsford Braintree Haverhill Cambridge Peterborough Kettering Brentwood Basildon Royston Welwyn GardenCity Hitchin Letchworth GardenCity StanstedAirport B E D F O R D S H I R E Bedford Milton Keynes Luton StAlbans Hemel Hempstead Watford Wembley Enfield Stratford LCY TheGarden Town Epping Broxbourne Ware Stevenage StevenageBioscience Catalyst ChippingOngor Buntingford Hatfield PottersBar Loughton
  42. 42. • '·... ,. I
  43. 43. A central position in the UK Innovation Corridor (LSCC) - one of the fastest growing regions in the country - and a key part of the UK Industrial Strategy transforming the national economy. Harlow Enterprise Zone - delivering 5,000 jobs over 25 years and home to Harlow Science Park, Kao Park and Data Centre Campus, and Anglia Ruskin University MedTech Innovation Centre. A sustainable transport network - with plans for sustainable transport corridors with convenient and affordable rapid transit. An extensive cycle network - making use of Harlow’s existing network and transforming this so it is comfortable for all users. £400m Arrival of Public Health England - £400 million will be invested in New Frontiers Science Park, with 3,500 new jobs introduced to the town. Green environment and New Town optimism - the existing town has a wonderful Green Wedge network and Stort Valley setting, access to which can be expanded and improved to connect to country parks and rural paths.
  44. 44. Harlow and Gilston Garden Town A A A A B B C C D D B B C C D D P17 P18 P19 P20 P21 P22 P23 P8 P9 P10 P11 P12 P13 P14
  45. 45. • '·... ,. I
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  47. 47. 1952-1960 1960-1966 1960-1975 1975-1980 1980-1995 1995-2017
  48. 48. a rich mix of uses - overcome the rational separation respect the plan aestheic integrate with surrounding garden town neighbourhoods SPATIAL PRINCIPLES FOR THE TOWN CENTRE
  49. 49. Respond to the block structure and complete the block Overcome the collar of the ring road Shift the gravity of centre north again - new homes and community spaces
  50. 50. Integrate the separate sections of the town centre Bring the green into the town centre Re-open a route through the town cen- tre for the rapid bus
  51. 51. a rich mix of uses - overcome the rational separation frame views of key buildings invest in and celebrate New Town heritage
  52. 52. OA1 OA2 OA3 OA5 RC2 OA4 RC1 ELC
  53. 53. • I ECl ...........j RC2
  54. 54. garden ... city ... town ... suburb ... village ... community
  55. 55. ROUTE S Garden city Garden suburb
  56. 56. PAVEMENTS Garden city Garden suburb
  57. 57. LANDSCAP E Garden city Garden suburb
  58. 58. GARDENS Garden city Garden suburb
  59. 59. BUILDINGS Garden city Garden suburb
  60. 60. Garden city Garden suburb DENSIT Y 600 dwellings / 24 dph / 0.29 FAR 670 dwellings / 27 dph / 0.28 FAR
  61. 61. Garden city Garden suburb URBAN MORPHOLOGY
  62. 62. looking to the future...
  63. 63. looking to the future... Can garden communities respond to health concerns as garden cities did? Will they mark a shift from the cities?

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