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Ahmad Amro Baradee
ContentsForamina & Openings
1- Nasal emissary vein (to superior sagittal sinus)
2- Prolongation of dura...
Ahmad Amro Baradee
Surrounds the optic canal and the inferior part of the
superior orbital fissure , formed by the tendons...
Ahmad Amro Baradee
The foramen is occluded by cartilage , the internal carotid
artery travels superiorly to the cartilage....
Ahmad Amro Baradee
3- Labyrinthine artery
1- Endolymphatic duct
2- Vestibular vessels
3- Prolongation of dura mater
Extern...
Ahmad Amro Baradee
"Connects the nasal cavity with the pterygopalatine fossa"
1- Pharyngeal artery branch of maxillary art...
Ahmad Amro Baradee
I hope this was helpful 
By: Ahmad Amro Baradee
Mental nerve and blood vesselsMental Foramen
Nervous b...
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Foramina of the Skull and the Structures that Pass Through

Foramina of the Skull and the Structures that Pass Through

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Foramina of the Skull and the Structures that Pass Through

  1. 1. Ahmad Amro Baradee ContentsForamina & Openings 1- Nasal emissary vein (to superior sagittal sinus) 2- Prolongation of dura mater Foramen Cecum Olfactory nerve bundles Foramina Of Cribriform Plate On each side of crista galli formed by the cribriform plate , it helps to attach the olfactory lobe to the cribriform plate Olfactory Incisure Prolongation of dura materEthmoidal Hiatus Anterior ethmoid nerve & arteryAnterior Ethmoid Foramen 1- Posterior ethmoid nerve & artery ( sphenoethmoidal nerve) (Luschka nerve) innervates the ethmoidal cells and the sphenoid sinus 2- Orbital branches of the pterygopalatine ganglion to innervate the sphenoid sinus and the posterior ethmoidal cells , and they innervate the periorbita and muscles of eye by their sympathetic fibers Posterior Ethmoid Foramen 1- Optic nerve 2- Ophthalmic artery(and the central retinal artery branch of the ophthalmic artery) Optic Canal 1- Lacrimal nerve 2- Frontal nerve 3- Trochlear nerve 4- Superior ophthalmic vein (to the cavernous sinus) The Superior Narrow Lateral Part Of The Superior Orbital Fissure 5- Abducent nerve 6- Nasocilliary nerve 7- Oculomotor nerve 8- Sympathetic branches of the cavernous plexus to the ciliary ganglion The Inferior Wide Medial Part Of The Superior Orbital Fissure 9- Orbital branch of the middle meningeal artery 10- Recurrent meningeal branch of lacrimal artery 11- One of the two branches of inferior ophthalmic vein (the other is the infraorbital vein) the inferior ophthalmic vein ends in the cavernous sinus with the superior ophthalmic vein Superior Orbital Fissure
  2. 2. Ahmad Amro Baradee Surrounds the optic canal and the inferior part of the superior orbital fissure , formed by the tendons of the eye's muscles , pass through it: 1- Optic nerve 2- Ophthalmic artery 3- Abducent nerve 4- Nasocilliary nerve 5- Oculomotor nerve Zinn's Ring (Common Tendinous Ring) 1- Infraorbital nerve 2- Zygomatic nerve 3- Orbital branches of the pterygopalatine ganglion to innervate the sphenoid sinus and the posterior ethmoidal cells , and they innervate the periorbita and muscles of eye by their sympathetic fibers 4- Infraorbital artery 5- Infraorbital vein to connect with the pterygoid plexus (infraorbital vein is a branch of inferior ophthalmic vein) 6- Terminal branches of the deep anterior temporal artery which is branch of maxillary artery Inferior Orbital Fissure (Lies in the sphenoid bone , medial to the foramen ovale by an internal aspect of the base of the skull , lateral to the scaphoid fossa by an external aspect ( exists in 17% of the skulls ) A small emissary vein passes through this foramen (it connects the extracranial pterygoid plexus with the intracranial cavernous sinus ) Foramen Vesalii (Canaliculus Sphenoidalis) Maxillary nerveForamen Rotundom 1- Mandibular nerve 2- Accessory meningeal artery (branch of maxillary to nourish gasser's ganglion) 3- Lesser petrosal nerve (occasionally) 4- An emissary vein connects the extracranial pterygoid plexus with the intracranial cavernous sinus Foramen Ovale 1- Middle meningeal artery & vein 2- Meningeal branch of mandibular nerve Foramen Spinosum Lesser petrosal nerve (occasionally)Sphenotemporal Fissure
  3. 3. Ahmad Amro Baradee The foramen is occluded by cartilage , the internal carotid artery travels superiorly to the cartilage. However , some nerves,arteries and veins do pass through the cartilage: 1- Greater petrosal nerve (the deep & superficial then they combine in the entrance of the pterygoid canal forming the nerve of pteryoid canal) 2- The artery of pterygoid canal 3- Meningeal branch of the ascending pharyngeal artery 4- Emissary veins connect the extracranial pterygoid plexus with the intracranial cavernous sinus Foramen Lacerum Nerve and blood vessels of pterygoid canal (Vidian nerve) Pterygoid Canal(Vidian Canal) 1- Internal carotid artery 2- Carotid sympathetic plexus 3- Venous plexus Carotid Canal 1- Greater petrosal nerve 2- Petrosal branch of middle meningeal artery Greater Petrosal Groove Lesser petrosal nerveLesser Petrosal Groove 1- Medulla oblongata surrounded by meninges 2- Two vertebral arteries 3- Meningeal branches of vertebral arteries 4- Anterior spinal artery 5- Two posterior spinal arteries 6- Spinal root of accessory nerve 7- Ascending sympathetic branches 8- Emissary veins of basilar plexus 9- Apical ligament and tectorial membrane Foramen Magnum 1- Anterior part: Glossopharyngeal nerve + inferior petrosal sinus 2- Middle part: Vagus and accessory nerve + branch of posterior meningeal artery (which is branch of ascending pharyngeal artery ) + meningeal branch of occipital artery 3- Posterior part: Sigmoid sinus + superior bulb of jugular vein Jugular Foramen Located on the lateral wall of jugular foramen (on the tympanomastoid fissure ) passes through it: The auricular branch of vagus nerve Mastoid Canaliculus 1- In the superior part: Facial nerve and it's branch , the intermediate nerve >> pass together through the facial canal (Fallopii canal) 2- In the inferior part: Vestibulocochlear nerve ( the cochlear nerve runs antero-inferiorly & the vestibular nerve runs postero-inferiorly ) Internal Auditory Meatus
  4. 4. Ahmad Amro Baradee 3- Labyrinthine artery 1- Endolymphatic duct 2- Vestibular vessels 3- Prolongation of dura mater External Aperture Of The Vestibular Aqueduct Prolongation of dura mater with a small veinSubarcuate Fossa Divided by an osteoid septum into two canals: 1- The superior canal: For the tensor muscle of the tympanic membrane 2- The inferior canal: Is the auditory tube (Eustachian tube) (which presents the osteoid part of auditory tube , the other is chondroitic ) Musculotubal Canal 1- Exit: Chorda tympani nerve 2- Enter: Anterior tympanic artery (branch of maxillary) + posterior tympanic artery (branch of stylomastoid) Glasser Fissure (Petrotympanic Fissure) 1- Posterior meningeal artery 2- Occipital emissary vein Condylar Canal 1- Hypoglossal nerve 2- Meningeal branch of the ascending pharyngeal artery 3- Emissary vein of basilar plexus Hypoglossal Canal (Anterior Condyloid Canal ) Gives origion to the posterior belly of the digastric muscleMastoid Notch For the occipital artery Notch Medial To Mastoid Notch Gives origin to the tensor veli palatini muscleScaphoid Fossa 1- Parietal emissary vein 2- Branch of occipital artery Parietal Foramen 1- Mastoid emissary vein (to sigmoid sinus) 2- Mastoidal branch of occipital artery Mastoid Foramen 1- Exit: Facial nerve 2- Enter: Stylomastid artery (branch of either occipital artery 66% or posterior auricular artery 33%) Stylomastoid Foramen The inferior ganglion of glossopharyngeal nerve (Andersch ganglion) is situated in this fossula Petrosal Fossula Opens in the bottom of tympanic fossula , through it enters the tympanic nerve (Jacobson's nerve) branch of glossopharyngeal nerve Tympanic Canaliculus (Jacobson Canaliculus) 1- Nasopalatine nerve 2- Nasal nervous branches of pterygopalatine ganglion 3- Sphenopalatine artery Sphenopalatine Foramen
  5. 5. Ahmad Amro Baradee "Connects the nasal cavity with the pterygopalatine fossa" 1- Pharyngeal artery branch of maxillary artery 2- Pharyngeal nerve (bock's nerve) branch of pterygopalatine ganglion and it carries postsynapatic parasympathetic fibres to mucus glands of nasopharynx Palatovaginal Canal (Pterygopalatine Canal) (Pharyngeal Canal) Pharyngeal branch of sphenopalatine arteryVomerovaginal Canal Greater and lesser palatine nerves and blood vessels Greater Palatine Canal (Pterygopalatine Canal) 1- Greater palatine nerve 2- Greater (descending) palatine artery (branch of maxillary) Greater Palatine Foramen 1- Lesser palatine nerve 2- Lesser palatine artery (branch of greater palatine artery) Lesser Palatine Foramen Greater palatine artery – greater palatine nerve –and palatine veins .. In this exact order Two Or Three Grooves In The Posterior Part Of Hard Palate 1- Nasopalatine nerve 2- Terminal branch of greater palatine artery Incisive Foramen Posterior superior alveolar nerves and arteries Alveolar Foramina Of Maxilla Supraorbital nerve and blood vessels Supraorbital Foramen (Notch) Supratrochlear nerve and blood vessels Frontal Notch (Supratrochlear Notch) Infratrochlear nerve passes by itTrochlear Fossula Located within the supero-lateral wall of the orbit (of the frontal bone) Lacrimal Gland's Fossa Located within the infero-medial wall of the orbit (of the lacrimal and maxillary bones) Lacrimal Sac's Fossa Carries tears from the lacrimal sac into the inferior meatus of the nasal cavity Nasolacrimal Duct (Tear Duct) Infraorbital nerve and blood vesselsInfraorbital Foramen Zygomaticofacial nerveZygomaticofacial Foramen Zygomaticotemporal nerve Zygomaticotemporal Foramen Located infero-medial the inferior border of the orbit , through it passes a small artery branch of angular artery to nourish the canine (exists in 1% of the skulls) Parinaud Canal
  6. 6. Ahmad Amro Baradee I hope this was helpful  By: Ahmad Amro Baradee Mental nerve and blood vesselsMental Foramen Nervous branches of the cervical plexus C1-C4 , innervate the medial root of the first inferior molar Foramina Opposite The Mental Foramen (On The Lingual Side ) Inferior alveolar nerve and blood vesselsMandibular Canal (Foramen) Mylohyoid nerve and blood vesselsMylohyoid Groove This foramen is formed by the free space between the sphenomandibular ligament and the tympanomandibular ligament* , through it passes the mylohyoid neurovascular bundle (*the tympanomandibular ligament: Is a fibrous ligament strengthens the posterior part of the sphenomandibular ligament) Mylohyoid Foramen Located in the intermediate line of the lingual surface of the mandible , near the mental spines . Small blood vessels exit through it Lingual Foramen Attachment for lateral pterygoid musclePterygoid Fovea The maxillary artery passes through it to reach the pterygomaxillary region Juvara Groove ( Retrocondylar Groove )

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