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AUSTRIAN SERBIAN TOURISM PROGRAMMESAUSTRIAN SERBIAN TOURISM PROGRAMMES
Introduction to e-Tourism
Prof. dr Angelina Njeguš
...
AUSTRIAN SERBIAN TOURISM PROGRAMMES
Agenda
 What is e-Tourism?
 Tourism Value Chain
 eTourism as a Service in Cloud Com...
AUSTRIAN SERBIAN TOURISM PROGRAMMES
What is e-Tourism?
 E-tourism is the digitalization of
all processes and value chains...
AUSTRIAN SERBIAN TOURISM PROGRAMMES
Value Chain
Support
Activities
Administration
and
Infrastructure
Human
Resources
Manag...
AUSTRIAN SERBIAN TOURISM PROGRAMMES
Tourism Value Chain
Source: Spescha, G., Reutimann, J. (2013) Sustainability Matters: ...
AUSTRIAN SERBIAN TOURISM PROGRAMMES
When is the concept of e-Tourism
introduced to the market?
1980s 1990s 2000s
Client-Se...
AUSTRIAN SERBIAN TOURISM PROGRAMMES
Cloud Computing environment
Hotels & Resorts Restaurants and
Foodservice
Cruise Airlin...
AUSTRIAN SERBIAN TOURISM PROGRAMMES
Today: eTourism as a Service (TaaS)
• TaaS:
– the capability provided to the consumer ...
AUSTRIAN SERBIAN TOURISM PROGRAMMES
Quality of eTourism services
 eTourism is a service that is focused on the customers’...
AUSTRIAN SERBIAN TOURISM PROGRAMMES
Services through customer journey
 Pre-services evoke certain expectations about
a pa...
AUSTRIAN SERBIAN TOURISM PROGRAMMES
Example
Source: Stickdorn, M., Zehrer, A. (2009) Service Design in Tourism: Customer E...
AUSTRIAN SERBIAN TOURISM PROGRAMMES
Customer Satisfaction
Source: Zeithaml, V.A., Bitner, M.J. and Gremler, D.D.
(2006), S...
AUSTRIAN SERBIAN TOURISM PROGRAMMES
Traditional dimensions of Service Quality
1. Reliability: Ability to perform the promi...
AUSTRIAN SERBIAN TOURISM PROGRAMMES
Example
 Example of how customer judge the five dimensions of
service quality in aril...
AUSTRIAN SERBIAN TOURISM PROGRAMMES
Dimensions of Online Service Quality
Traditional
dimensions
Online Service atributes
T...
AUSTRIAN SERBIAN TOURISM PROGRAMMES
The importance of online service quality
 Tourism is a service-intesive industry that...
AUSTRIAN SERBIAN TOURISM PROGRAMMES
Quality and trust
 Content needs to be:
– Impartial
– Accurate
– Timely
– Attractive
...
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Lesson 01   Introduction to e-tourism Slide 1 Lesson 01   Introduction to e-tourism Slide 2 Lesson 01   Introduction to e-tourism Slide 3 Lesson 01   Introduction to e-tourism Slide 4 Lesson 01   Introduction to e-tourism Slide 5 Lesson 01   Introduction to e-tourism Slide 6 Lesson 01   Introduction to e-tourism Slide 7 Lesson 01   Introduction to e-tourism Slide 8 Lesson 01   Introduction to e-tourism Slide 9 Lesson 01   Introduction to e-tourism Slide 10 Lesson 01   Introduction to e-tourism Slide 11 Lesson 01   Introduction to e-tourism Slide 12 Lesson 01   Introduction to e-tourism Slide 13 Lesson 01   Introduction to e-tourism Slide 14 Lesson 01   Introduction to e-tourism Slide 15 Lesson 01   Introduction to e-tourism Slide 16 Lesson 01   Introduction to e-tourism Slide 17
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What is eTourism; Tourism Value Chain; eTourism as a Service in a Cloud Computing; Quality of eTourism Services; Traditional and online dimensions of the service quality.

Lesson 01 Introduction to e-tourism

  1. 1. AUSTRIAN SERBIAN TOURISM PROGRAMMESAUSTRIAN SERBIAN TOURISM PROGRAMMES Introduction to e-Tourism Prof. dr Angelina Njeguš Belgrade, 2014
  2. 2. AUSTRIAN SERBIAN TOURISM PROGRAMMES Agenda  What is e-Tourism?  Tourism Value Chain  eTourism as a Service in Cloud Computing  Quality of eTourism services  Traditional dimensions of Service Quality  Online dimensions of the Service Quality
  3. 3. AUSTRIAN SERBIAN TOURISM PROGRAMMES What is e-Tourism?  E-tourism is the digitalization of all processes and value chains in the tourism, travel, hospitality and catering industries that enable organisations to maximise their efficiency and effectiveness (Buhalis, 2003)
  4. 4. AUSTRIAN SERBIAN TOURISM PROGRAMMES Value Chain Support Activities Administration and Infrastructure Human Resources Management Product / Technology development Procurement Primary Activities Inbound logistics Operations and production Outbound logistics Sales and marketing Services Inbound Handling articles with suppliers Warehousing Operations Cleaning and preparing a room All services offered to the customer during his/her stay Outbound Housekeeping Preparations for the room to be put on the market Sales and Marketing Advertising and Promotions Sales the room and services Services After-use services Customer Survey Example: Room of a hotel Tourism product is provided by various services offered by different tourism service providers. Therefore, quality of tourism products relies on a complex structure of service providers.
  5. 5. AUSTRIAN SERBIAN TOURISM PROGRAMMES Tourism Value Chain Source: Spescha, G., Reutimann, J. (2013) Sustainability Matters: Discovering Sustainable Torusim. Inrate – Sustainable Investment Solutions. Available at: http://www.inrate.com/Inrate/media/Documents/Sustainability%20Matters/13-09-05-SustMatTourism.pdf (accessed 16.09.2014)
  6. 6. AUSTRIAN SERBIAN TOURISM PROGRAMMES When is the concept of e-Tourism introduced to the market? 1980s 1990s 2000s Client-Server Computing Mainframe Computing Internet Computing E-Business Cloud Computing Service-Oriented Computing 2010s Centralized services Shared services Self-servicesServices: Software: Centralized Decentralized Distributed e-Tourism Cloud Tourism
  7. 7. AUSTRIAN SERBIAN TOURISM PROGRAMMES Cloud Computing environment Hotels & Resorts Restaurants and Foodservice Cruise Airline Destination Service Providers Travel Agencies SaaS Software as a Service PaaS Platform as a Service IaaS Infrastructure as a Service Micros Cloud POS Fidelio WebSuite Sabre Airline Solution Amadeus e-Ticket Database Development tools Middleware Storage Servers Network
  8. 8. AUSTRIAN SERBIAN TOURISM PROGRAMMES Today: eTourism as a Service (TaaS) • TaaS: – the capability provided to the consumer in order to use the tourism provider’s apps that are running on a cloud infrastructure. – Apps are accessible from various client devices. • Essential characteristics of TaaS: – On-demand self-service: a consumer can use apps as needed automatically without requiring human interaction with each tourism service provider. – Rapid elasticity: responsiveness according to the consumer’s needs – Broad network access: through heterogeneous client platforms, such as mobile phones, tablets, laptops... – Measured service: analytical capabilities that are available to the consumer. The usage of TaaS can be monitored, controlled, reported, providing transparency for both the provider and consumer of the utilized service. Information Technologies • SaaS • PaaS • IaaS ... Tourism • Transport • Hospitality • Travel • Catering... E-Business • CRM/ERP/SCM • E-Marketing • Business Intelligence ... eTourisam as a Service
  9. 9. AUSTRIAN SERBIAN TOURISM PROGRAMMES Quality of eTourism services  eTourism is a service that is focused on the customers’ tourism service experiences not only during their stay, but also prior and subsequent to it.  Prosumers – not only consuming services, but rather producing and sharing information with an open community.  The competitiveness of any service product ultimately depends on the customer satisfaction, which is determined by the consumer’s assessment of expectations towards a certain service product and the actual experiences with the service process – the perceived service quality.
  10. 10. AUSTRIAN SERBIAN TOURISM PROGRAMMES Services through customer journey  Pre-services evoke certain expectations about a particular service product.  During the service period, customers experience the product with all their senses and compare these subconsciously with their expectations towards them. – The mathcing or even exceeding of their expectations is crucial for generating customer satisfaction.  A satisfied guest is not only more probable to return and even becomes a loyal customer, but is also more likely to recommend the respective product – this is crucial for their reviews in the post-service period both face- to-face and online.
  11. 11. AUSTRIAN SERBIAN TOURISM PROGRAMMES Example Source: Stickdorn, M., Zehrer, A. (2009) Service Design in Tourism: Customer Experience Driven Destination Management. First Nordic Conference on Service Design and Service Innovation. Oslo.
  12. 12. AUSTRIAN SERBIAN TOURISM PROGRAMMES Customer Satisfaction Source: Zeithaml, V.A., Bitner, M.J. and Gremler, D.D. (2006), Services Marketing: Integrating Customer Focus across the Firm, McGraw-Hill, Boston, MA.
  13. 13. AUSTRIAN SERBIAN TOURISM PROGRAMMES Traditional dimensions of Service Quality 1. Reliability: Ability to perform the promised service dependably and accurately. – Providing service as promised – Dependability in handling customers’ service problems – Performing services right the first time – Providing services at the promised time – Maintaining error-free records 2. Assurance: Knowledge and courtesy of employees and their ability to convey trust and confidence. – Employees who instill confidence in customers – Making customers feel safe in their transactions – Employees who are consistently courteous – Employees who have the knowledge to answer customer questions 3. Tangibles: Physical facilities, equipment, and appearance of personnel. – Modern equipment – Visually appealing facilities – Employees who have a neat, professional appearance – Visually appealing materials associated with the service 4. Empathy: Caring, individualised attention the firm provides its customers. – Giving customers individual attention – Employees who deal with customers in a caring fashion – Having the customer’s best interest at heart – Employees who understand the needs of their customers – Convenient business hours 5. Responsiveness: Willingness to help customers and provide prompt service. – Keeping customers informed as to when services will be performed – Prompt service to customers – Willingness to help customers – Readiness to respond to customers’ requests
  14. 14. AUSTRIAN SERBIAN TOURISM PROGRAMMES Example  Example of how customer judge the five dimensions of service quality in ariline industry:
  15. 15. AUSTRIAN SERBIAN TOURISM PROGRAMMES Dimensions of Online Service Quality Traditional dimensions Online Service atributes Tangibility Website design: Accessibility; Usability; Navigation; Attractive; Reliability Website content: Funcionality; Information quality; Accuracy; Timely (up to date); Relevance; Understandable; Complete; Current; Dynamic; Multilanguage; Fulfilment (willingness to correct mistakes, success in delivering service) Responsiveness Responsiveness of the online services: Communication ; Efficiency Assurance Security: Credibility; Trust building; Privacy Empathy Personalization and customization (intelligent tools such as data mining techniques etc.)
  16. 16. AUSTRIAN SERBIAN TOURISM PROGRAMMES The importance of online service quality  Tourism is a service-intesive industry that is dependent on the quality of customers’ service experiences and their consequent assessments of satisfaction.  Tourism companies do not always understand the attributes of a quality websites – Their websites usually contain a lot of information, but with a large portion being poorly organised, outdated or inaccurate.  Improving customer experiences of website use could lift sales by at least 33%.  Effective websites require continuous assessment, careful management, frequent updates, and ongoing innovation.
  17. 17. AUSTRIAN SERBIAN TOURISM PROGRAMMES Quality and trust  Content needs to be: – Impartial – Accurate – Timely – Attractive – Motivational
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What is eTourism; Tourism Value Chain; eTourism as a Service in a Cloud Computing; Quality of eTourism Services; Traditional and online dimensions of the service quality.

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