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Concepts and Characteristics of
Biodiversity
MPHE102
Morphology , Taxonomy &
Biodiversity of Vectors
Submitted by
ABARNA
K...
DEFINITION
Biodiversity is defined as “the intrinsically-inbuilt plus the
externally-imposed variability in and among livi...
3
Estimated Number of Described Species
Insecta
827,875 (47.3%)
Other Vertebrata
27,199 (1.6%)
Actinopterygii
23,712 (1.4%...
Biodiversity has Intrinsic Value
Intrinsic Value = Something that has value
in and of itself
Biodiversity also has Utilita...
What do we get from biodiversity?
Oxygen
Food
Clean Water
Medicine
Aesthetics
Ideas
Should we be concerned about
biodiversity?
The Earth is losing species at an alarming rate
• Some scientists estimate that...
• Species diversity: Variety of organisms within a
community
• Genetic diversity: Variety of genes within a population, or...
Fig. 4-2, p. 82
Functional Diversity The biological and
chemical processes such as energy flow
and matter recycling needed...
• Diversity at the level of
community and ecosystem
exists along 3 levels.
• It could be within-
community diversity (alph...
BIODIVERSITY CONCEPTS
All life forms that make up biodiversity, including humans,
are ultimately connected to all other li...
CHARACTERISTICS OF BIODIVERSITY
BIODIVERSITY HAS LIMITS:
• Physical environments, even healthy ones, can support just so
m...
• Another way to express limits and carrying capacity is through
the term ecological footprint.
• Over the short term, the...
BIODIVERSITY HAS VALUE:
• Biodiversity has evolutionary, ecological, economic, social,
cultural, and intrinsic values.
• B...
• Biological diversity is key to long term ecosystem
sustainability (e.g.75% of cash crops rely on a variety of
insects an...
Benefits of Biodiversity
• Ecological benefits/services (Indirect use value) –
Biodiversity supplies the buffering capacit...
Medicinal value –Medicines, drugs and pharmaceuticals. Many
plant genetic resources are used from derivation of basic drug...
BIODIVERSITY IS IN TROUBLE:
• There is growing scientific concern about the major, rapid
decline in biodiversity around th...
CLIMATE CHANGE AND BIODIVERSITY:
• Ecosystems fluctuate around a state of equilibrium. In the long
run, however, ecosystem...
20
Extinct Extinct (EX)
Extinct in the Wild (EW)
Critical (CR)
Endangered (EN)
Vulnerable (VU)
Conservation Dependent (CD)...
SOCIETY’S ROLE IN SUPPORTING BIODIVERSITY
“Conserving biodiversity is not necessarily about
preserving everything currentl...
Government, non governmental organizations, community
groups, academic institutions and individuals use a variety of
means...
Science Focus: Insects
• Around for ~400 million years
• Bad reputation
• Useful to humans and ecosystems
• Vital roles in...
Order Diptera - Flies
If Halteres are in
front…not a
fly…Strepsiptera.
Characterized by one pair
of wings. Note a second
p...
Order Diptera -
Flies
Mouthparts can be spongy or modified
into a tube as on a mosquito. Mosquito
antennae are feathery wh...
Not Wasps or Bees….Order Diptera
– Flies…one pair of wings…Mimicry
is reflected in a number of insect
orders.
Eyes can be
the dominant
part of the
head, as
below….
Eyes can also make
you look a little
mean like this
horsefly…and, th...
Eye diversity to the max!
This is a stalkeyed fly.
They are predominantly
found in Old World
tropical habitats
Recent rese...
Order Lepidoptera – Butterflies, Moths and
Skippers
Large winged with respect to body
size. Antennae can be feathered as
i...
It has a coiled mouthpart but, it has really hard hairs at the end.
Instead of collecting nectar and such, it will abrade ...
Wing Scales
Wings are covered with
scales…an individual scale is to
the right…it’s a diffraction
grating. Color is produce...
Many moths appear relatively
drab. They are largely nocturnal
and rest during the day.
This is an underwing moth, a member of the family
Noctuidae. If they are alerted to a predator the front wings
open quickl...
The World Without
Biodiversity
With sustainable use of biological
diversity a real priority, we can ensure
a new and sustainable relationship
between hum...
REFERENCES
• Insect Biodiversity: Science and Society Edited by
Robert G. Foottit and Peter H. Adler©2009
Blackwell Publis...
Concept and characteristics of biodiversity
Concept and characteristics of biodiversity
Concept and characteristics of biodiversity
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Concept and characteristics of biodiversity

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Concept and characteristics of biodiversity

  1. 1. Concepts and Characteristics of Biodiversity MPHE102 Morphology , Taxonomy & Biodiversity of Vectors Submitted by ABARNA KIRUBALANI.M
  2. 2. DEFINITION Biodiversity is defined as “the intrinsically-inbuilt plus the externally-imposed variability in and among living organisms existing in terrestrial, marine and other ecosystem at a specific period of time”. “The web of life"is divided into three parts to help simplify a very complex concept: • Genes • Species • Ecosystem
  3. 3. 3 Estimated Number of Described Species Insecta 827,875 (47.3%) Other Vertebrata 27,199 (1.6%) Actinopterygii 23,712 (1.4%) Nematoda 20,000 (1.1%) Other Eucarya 36,702 (2.1%) Angiospermae 233,885 (13.4%) Crustacea 38,839 (2.2%) Other Plantae 49,530 (2.8%) Arachnida 74,445 (4.3%) Other invertebrate Metazoa 82,047 (4.7%) Fungi 100,800 (5.8%) Stramenopiles 105,922 (6.1%) Mollusca 117,495 (6.7%) Archaea 259 (0.01%) Bacteria 9,021 (0.5%)
  4. 4. Biodiversity has Intrinsic Value Intrinsic Value = Something that has value in and of itself Biodiversity also has Utilitarian Value Utilitarian Value = the value something has as a means to another’s end.
  5. 5. What do we get from biodiversity? Oxygen Food Clean Water Medicine Aesthetics Ideas
  6. 6. Should we be concerned about biodiversity? The Earth is losing species at an alarming rate • Some scientists estimate that as many as 3 species per hour are going extinct and 20,000 extinctions occur each year. • when species of plants and animals go extinct, many other species are affected.
  7. 7. • Species diversity: Variety of organisms within a community • Genetic diversity: Variety of genes within a population, or within a species on earth. Greater Genetic diversity means a population will have an easier time adapting to environmental pressures. • Ecosystem diversity: – Biomes: regions with distinct climates/species • Functional diversity: The variety of processes that occur whithin an ecosystem
  8. 8. Fig. 4-2, p. 82 Functional Diversity The biological and chemical processes such as energy flow and matter recycling needed for the survival of species, communities, and ecosystems. Ecological Diversity The variety of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems found in an area or on the earth. Solar energyChemical nutrients (carbon dioxide, oxygen, nitrogen, minerals) Heat Heat Heat Decomposers (bacteria, fungi) Producers (plants) Consumers (plant eaters, meat eaters)Heat Heat Genetic Diversity The variety of genetic material within Species Diversity The number and abundance of species present in different communities.
  9. 9. • Diversity at the level of community and ecosystem exists along 3 levels. • It could be within- community diversity (alpha diversity), • between-communities diversity (beta diversity) or • diversity of the habitats over the total landscape or geographical area (gamma diversity). 9 Community and ecosystem diversity
  10. 10. BIODIVERSITY CONCEPTS All life forms that make up biodiversity, including humans, are ultimately connected to all other life forms, and to their physical environment. • No one living element of any ecosystem can survive independent of the others. • Connections among living and non-living elements keep the environment functioning and healthy. • Because biodiversity represents the interconnectedness of all things, the effects of some causes can be surprising. • Human impact on the environment, therefore, directly or indirectly affects the function of other living things, and, by extension, ourselves.
  11. 11. CHARACTERISTICS OF BIODIVERSITY BIODIVERSITY HAS LIMITS: • Physical environments, even healthy ones, can support just so many of any species, including people, indefinitely. • This maximum number is termed the carrying capacity for that environment. • Species can cause changes in environmental conditions, and vice versa, leading to changes in carrying capacity for themselves and for other species.
  12. 12. • Another way to express limits and carrying capacity is through the term ecological footprint. • Over the short term, these limits can be exceeded by a population or species, including people, a condition often termed overshoot. • Overshoot, in the short term, often degrades the associated environment; in the long term, it causes a sharp, considerable decline in a population or species, or even its elimination from that environment.
  13. 13. BIODIVERSITY HAS VALUE: • Biodiversity has evolutionary, ecological, economic, social, cultural, and intrinsic values. • Biodiversity is nature’s insurance policy • Biologically diverse ecosystems offer a variety of natural products, including medical ingredients that enhance human health and standard of living. • Biodiversity provides ecosystem services: water purification; clean air, fertile soil, climate regulation, flood control, as well as pest regulation and disease resistance, essentially for the cost of letting natural systems function.
  14. 14. • Biological diversity is key to long term ecosystem sustainability (e.g.75% of cash crops rely on a variety of insects and other organisms for pollination; a biologically diverse agricultural ecosystem provides stability, nutrients to the soil and natural pest resistance). • Biodiversity is key in sustaining the natural beauty of National and Provincial Parks and green spaces for recreational use and heritage preservation. • Biologically diverse ecosystems maintain a stable environment capable of providing a high quality of life. • Healthy, stable, diverse environments are able to respond to change more efficiently than degraded or simple systems.
  15. 15. Benefits of Biodiversity • Ecological benefits/services (Indirect use value) – Biodiversity supplies the buffering capacity and stability to life on the planet by maintaining the interactive dynamics of the ecosystems of the world. • Economical benefits Food value – providing food to the human population on this earth for thousands of years. Commercial value –timber which is a major component of material used for providing shelter to man. Natural fibres like cotton and silk are still used for clothing by human population. 15
  16. 16. Medicinal value –Medicines, drugs and pharmaceuticals. Many plant genetic resources are used from derivation of basic drugs. These plant resources vary from actinomycetes and fungi to large trees. Traditional knowledge of indigenous people still keeps an edge over the scientific knowledge in this field. Aesthetic value – Man has always been fascinated by the natural beauty and nature has inspired him resulting in development of his moral and ethical values. This intrinsic value of plants and animals are independent of their economic and commercial value. 16
  17. 17. BIODIVERSITY IS IN TROUBLE: • There is growing scientific concern about the major, rapid decline in biodiversity around the world. The extinction of each additional species and the loss of variation within species brings the irreversible loss of unique genetic diversity. • The scientific community has linked human activity to the accelerated rate of recent and current extinctions. Biodiversity is declining because of: • Habitat loss • Invasive species • Pollution • Population Growth • Over-consumption (Unsustainable use) • Climate change
  18. 18. CLIMATE CHANGE AND BIODIVERSITY: • Ecosystems fluctuate around a state of equilibrium. In the long run, however, ecosystems and their components always change when climate changes. Climate change resulting from, among other things, unsustainable use of fossil fuels results in loss of biodiversity: Temperature increase makes certain environments uninhabitable to previously indigenous species. Loss of indigenous species allows introduced species to flourish, thus increasing the loss of other indigenous species. Changing composition of environments and loss of species directly effects ecosystem services.
  19. 19. 20 Extinct Extinct (EX) Extinct in the Wild (EW) Critical (CR) Endangered (EN) Vulnerable (VU) Conservation Dependent (CD) Threatened Non- threatened Low Risk (LR) Near-threatened (NT) Of less concern Abundant Data Deficient (DD) Not evaluated (EV) ALL SPECIES THREAT CATEGORIES
  20. 20. SOCIETY’S ROLE IN SUPPORTING BIODIVERSITY “Conserving biodiversity is not necessarily about preserving everything currently in existence. It is more a question of walking lightly on the Earth.” Biosphere reserves are areas of terrestrial and coastal ecosystems promoting solutions to reconcile the conservation of biodiversity with its sustainable use.
  21. 21. Government, non governmental organizations, community groups, academic institutions and individuals use a variety of means to protect plants and animals. • Preservation of local natural areas (woods, old fields, wetlands, etc) allows the plants and animals that depend on these areas to continue to live. • Restoration of habitat that has been lost (school yard naturalization, naturalized gardening, and removal of invasive species) can increase the number of different species found in an area. • Development and institution of recovery plans for species at risk. • Zoos and botanical gardens and other facilities can participate in captive breeding with the intent of reintroducing the species when habitat problems have been solved through processes such as ecological restoration.
  22. 22. Science Focus: Insects • Around for ~400 million years • Bad reputation • Useful to humans and ecosystems • Vital roles in sustaining life – Pollinators – Natural pest control – Renewing soils
  23. 23. Order Diptera - Flies If Halteres are in front…not a fly…Strepsiptera. Characterized by one pair of wings. Note a second pair of appendages behind the wings, halteres. These vibrate like wings. This is an inertial guidance system that stabilizes the creature during flight.
  24. 24. Order Diptera - Flies Mouthparts can be spongy or modified into a tube as on a mosquito. Mosquito antennae are feathery while many flies have them highly reduced. Eyes tend to be large.
  25. 25. Not Wasps or Bees….Order Diptera – Flies…one pair of wings…Mimicry is reflected in a number of insect orders.
  26. 26. Eyes can be the dominant part of the head, as below…. Eyes can also make you look a little mean like this horsefly…and, they have the attitude to back it up…
  27. 27. Eye diversity to the max! This is a stalkeyed fly. They are predominantly found in Old World tropical habitats Recent research has found that this is a sexual selection characteristic…males with wider eyes seem to be more successful at finding a mate.
  28. 28. Order Lepidoptera – Butterflies, Moths and Skippers Large winged with respect to body size. Antennae can be feathered as in this cecropia moth or thin with a club as in this monarch Mouthparts are usually long and coiled.
  29. 29. It has a coiled mouthpart but, it has really hard hairs at the end. Instead of collecting nectar and such, it will abrade your skin to blister capillaries for a blood meal. Example of adaptation and exploitation of a niche.
  30. 30. Wing Scales Wings are covered with scales…an individual scale is to the right…it’s a diffraction grating. Color is produced by an effect known as Quantified Interference and Diffraction. This effect can produce nearly metallic coloration. Metallic looking beetles use the same optical physics trick (in addition to hummingbirds and peacocks…)
  31. 31. Many moths appear relatively drab. They are largely nocturnal and rest during the day.
  32. 32. This is an underwing moth, a member of the family Noctuidae. If they are alerted to a predator the front wings open quickly revealing highly colored hind wings, which may even look like eyespots. This “flash” can momentarily startle a potential predator giving the moth time to get away…this is way incredible.
  33. 33. The World Without Biodiversity
  34. 34. With sustainable use of biological diversity a real priority, we can ensure a new and sustainable relationship between humanity and the Natural World for generations to come.
  35. 35. REFERENCES • Insect Biodiversity: Science and Society Edited by Robert G. Foottit and Peter H. Adler©2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. • Gaston,kevin J.(11 MAY 2000).”Global patterns in biodiversity”.Nature 405(6783):220-227 • Edward O.Wilson, Frances M.Peter, Biodiversity, National Academy Press, March 1998 • Campbell, AK(2003). “Save those molecules: molecular biodiversity and life”. Journal of Applied Ecology :193-203

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