Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Presentation on supply chain management


Published on

Learn and know about Supply Chain Management for Beginner

Published in: Education
  • Login to see the comments

Presentation on supply chain management

  3. 3. SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT  “SCM is the integration of key business processes from the end user through original suppliers that provides products, services and information and that add value for customers and other stakeholders.” (As per Global Supply Forum) December 13 3
  4. 4. NECESSITY OF SCM FOR INDUSTRY  SCM is necessary because of relationship between each party. If every party joins hand and work together, it will create cost savings and time to market reduction and everyone will enjoy the benefit.  It is to be efficient and cost-effective across the entire system.  It is necessary to account for the suppliers’ suppliers and the customers’ customers because they have an impact on supply chain performance.  Supply chain is very important because of flow of goods from one destination to other destination with cost effective and on timely delivery of goods to the business needs and gives the profit to the organization. December 13 4
  5. 5. OBJECTIVE OF SCM Primary • Creating a value for a customer. • Responds to customer needs and demand Secondary • Profitability • Responsiveness • Turnover Rate • Flexibility • Communication & Coordination December 13 5
  7. 7. SCM DECISION MAKING & FACTOR CONSIDER IN SCM  SCM Decision Making  Strategic  Tactical  Operational  Factor Consider in SCM  Consumer Expectations and Competition  Globalization  Information Technology  Government Regulations  Environment Issues December 13 7
  8. 8. GARTNER 2013 TOP 10 SUPPLY CHAIN COMPANY IN THE WORLD  The Gartner Supply Chain Top 5 is about leadership.  Every year Gartner identify the companies that best represent the demand-driven ideal for today's supply chain and document their best practices, which can help all companies move closer to their demand-driven goal. SR NO ORGANIZATION NAME 1 Apples 2 McDonald's 3 4 Unilever 5 Intel December 13 8
  9. 9. LOGISTICS  Logistics is an entire process of materials and products moving into, through and out of the firm.  Inbounding Logistics is one of the primary processes of logistics, concentrating on purchasing and arranging the inbound movement of materials, parts, and/or finished inventory from suppliers to manufacturing or assembly plants, warehouses, or retail stores.  Outbound Logistics is the process related to the movement of the final product and the related information flows from the end of the production line to the end user. December 13 9
  10. 10. LOGISTICS AND SCM  Logistics focuses on the actual transportation and storage of goods.  It deals with inbound and outbound freight, communications during transit, storage and warehousing, delivery of goods and freight, coordination among third party carries, fleet management, and other activities directly related to the actual transportation of goods from one point to another. Supply Chain Management for the most part, encompasses a bigger picture.  Supply Chain Management is the umbrella which covers all aspects of the sourcing and procurement of goods.  Impressive results, including dramatic reductions in cycle time and accelerated cash flows, have been noted as a result of effective supply chain management. SCM forms and manages the business to business links that allow for the ultimate sale of goods to consumers. December 13 10
  11. 11. Organizations Require Both Logistics and SCM to Succeed  Logistics management is concerned with the movement of goods and services from suppler to consumer. SCM shares this concern, but additionally is responsible for the flow of information and funds from supplier to consumer.  Logistics and SCM cross paths it should be expected that SCM and logistics will both remain essentially free and essential for organization to succeed in the business. December 13 11
  12. 12. DYNAMICS OF SCM (BULLWHIP EFFECT)  The bullwhip effect is introduce in the supply chain due to human behavior and increasing significantly at the end of the supply chain.  Distorted information from one end of a supply chain to the other can lead to tremendous inefficiencies.  The bullwhip effect occurs when the demand order variability in the supply chain are amplified as they moved up the supply chain. December 13 12
  13. 13. CAUSES OF BULLWHIP EFFECT  Order Batching- for minimize transportation cost.  Price fluctuation- Effect of price fluctuation.  Shortage Gaming- Phantom demand by customer/retailers.  Faulty Demand Forecast Updating- Safety stock build up at each level December 13 13
  14. 14. COUNTERACT TO CONTROL BULLWHIP EFFECT Stabilize prices- Eliminating price promotion Eliminate gaming in shortage Break order batches Avoid multiple demand forecast updates Counterac t the Bullwhip Effect Stabilize prices Eliminate gaming in shortage Break order batches Avoid multiple demand forecast updates December 13 14
  15. 15. VENDOR MANAGED INVENTORY (VMI)  Vendor Managed Inventory starts in the 1980s when mass retailers started to require their suppliers to take control of the inventory management.  VMI is essentially an integrated approach whereby the inventory at the distributor/retailer (downstream) is monitored and managed by the manufacturer/vendor (upstream)  This is one of the successful business models used by Wal-Mart. VMI Projects at Wal-Mart have shown sales increases of 20 to 25 percent, and 30 percent inventory turnover improvements  VMI is known as JIT - II  THE STEP TO MAKE VIM WORK IN THE ORGANIZATION i. Clarify expectations ii. Agree on how to share information iii. Keep communication channels open December 13 15
  16. 16. BENEFITS OF VMI  Dual Benefits  Data entry errors are reduced due to computer to computer communications. Speed of the processing is also improved.  A true partnership is formed between the Manufacturer and the Distributor. They work closer together and strengthen their ties.  Distributor Benefits  The overall service level is improved by having the right product at the right time.  The manufacturer is more focused than ever on providing great service.  Manufacturer Benefits  Lower inventory investments (raw and finished).  Better scheduling and planning.  Better market information. December 13 16
  17. 17. THIRD PARTY LOGISTICS (3PL) Armstrong & Associates in 1984 developed this concept.  3PLs are external suppliers that perform all or part of a company’s logistics functions, including: “Transportation, Warehousing, Distribution, Financial services”  Terms contract logistics and outsourcing are sometimes used in place of 3PL. A & A’s TOP FIVE 3PL SERVICES (MAY-2012) RANK 3PL LOGISTICS PROVIDER 2011 GROSS LOGISTICS REVENUE(USD MILLIONS) 1 DHL supply chain & forwarding 32,160 2 Kuehne + Nagel 22,181 3 DB schenker logistics 20,704 4 Nippon express 20,313 5 C.H Robinson worldwide 10,336 December 13 17
  18. 18. FORTH PARTY LOGISTICS(4PL)  The concept of a Fourth-Party Logistics (4PL) provider was first defined by Andersen Consulting (Now Accenture).  As supply chain integrator….. “ A firm that assembles and manages the resources, capabilities and technology of its own organization with those of balancing service providers to deliver a comprehensive supply chain solution.”  4PLs manage and direct the activities of multiple 3PLs, serving as an integrator December 13 18
  19. 19. OUTSOURCING  “The strategic use of outside resources to perform activates traditionally handled by internal staff and resources”  The ultimate goal of the outsourcing is to bring the tangible benefits to the business and subsequently the customer. REASON FOR COMPANY OUTSOURCING Provide services that are scalable, secure and efficient while improving overall service and reducing the cost. December 13 19
  20. 20.  Off-Shoring-No commonly accepted definition off-shoring exists. Services that US-based organizations purchase from abroad are consider in off-shoring. Example India is the leading country for U.S. offshore outsourcing.  Near-Shoring-The term used to refer to the practice of getting work done or services performed by people in neighboring countries. Example Canada , Mexico to US , Sri Lanka to India  In sourcing The act of bringing together a function that was performed outside the organization to being performed inside the organization is called in sourcing. It is opposite of outsourcing that is a service performs in house. It is a reaction to outsourcing comprising. December 13 20
  21. 21. PROBLEM WITH OUTSOURCING  Loss of Control  Increased cash outflow  Confidentiality and security  Selection of supplier  Too dependent on service provider  Loss of staff or moral problems  Provider may not understand business environment December 13 21
  22. 22. FUNCTION ROLE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IN SCM  The most typical role of IT in SCM is reducing the function in transaction between supply chain partner through cost effective information flow.  IT is viewed to have a role in supporting the collaboration & coordination of supply chains through information sharing.  It can be used for Decision Support In this instance the analytical power of computers is used to provide assistance to managerial decisions. Function role of IT in SCM Transaction & Execution collaboration & coordination Decision Support December 13 22
  23. 23. INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY FOR SUPPLY CHAIN  Software Systems  Electronic Data Interchange (EDI)  Material Requirements Planning (MRP)  Manufacturing Resource Planning (MRP II)  Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP)  Supply Chain Management Systems (SCM)  Customer Relationship Management (CRM)  Internet-based Software  Network Infrastructure  Wide Area Network  Internet (for E-commerce: B2B, B2C) December 13 23
  24. 24. ENTERPRISE RESOURCE PLANNING (ERP) SYSTEM  SAP R/3  Oracle  PeopleSoft (have been merged by Oracle) Toyota uses PeopleSoft and SAP December 13 24
  25. 25. KEY IMPLEMENTATION ISSUES  SCM intent, orientation, organization and interrelationship  SCM and use of IT practices and tools  SCM and collaborative forecasting and planning  SCM and transportation, logistics and warehousing  Customer relationship December 13 25
  26. 26. THE CHALLENGES  A great challenge for supply chain managers, particularly in terms of demand planning.  The other problem lays in data transparency and supply chain inefficiencies due to the cultural mindset.  The other problem pertains to logistic service providers, say, third party logistics (3PLs).  The cost of distribution as a per cent of sales is ever increasing. too many check post points in the country increases the cost of transportation.  Some companies feel that employees resist to outsourcing due fearing of losing their jobs and controls.  The complexity of supply chain networks is particularly serious in countries, such as India, China, and Korea. The distribution channels involving 3-4 intermediaries between the manufacturer and the customer. In the US and Europe, 1-2 intermediaries is the norm. December 13 26
  27. 27. THE OPPORTUNITIES  Indian companies still need to deploy SCM as a strategy to reduce customer response time, improvement of service levels, and time to develop market with new variants/products.  There should be direct involvement of the customer at the product design and planning stage.  A dynamic optimization of logistic networks is required. The clearing and forwarding agents and 3PLs-all have to be put to optimal use.  Use of technology e.g. bar coding should be made mandatory.  The overhead costs for running a truck in India are very high. A better cost control system must be in place to reduce costs. December 13 27
  28. 28. REFERANCE Reference Books:  Sunil Sharma, “Supply Chain Management- concept, practices and implementation” Oxford University Press.  Sunil Chopra and Peter Meindl, “Supply Chain Management”. Second Edition. Upper Saddle River: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2004.  Dr. Dawei Lu “Fundamentals of Supply Chain Management.”  DouglasM.Lambert, “SUPPLYCHAINMANAGEMENT- Processes, Partnerships, Performance” Third Edition.  Essentials of Supply Chain Management  Shroeder. G, “Operations Management- Contemporary Concepts and Cases” McGraw Hill publication. December 13 28
  29. 29. Research Papers  Hau L Lee, V Padmanabhan, and Seungjin Whang; “Sloan Management Review”, Spring 1997, Volume 38, Issue 3, pp. 93-102  Elisabeth ILIE-ZUDOR, Zsolt KEMÉNY, Péter EGRI, László MONOSTORI” THE RFID TECHNOLOGY AND ITS CURRENT APPLICATIONS” In proceedings of The Modern Information Technology in the Innovation Processes of the Industrial Enterprises- MITIP 2006, pp.29-36  Thorsten Klaas,” Push-vs. Pull- Concept in Logistics Chain”, CEMS Academic Conferences, Louvain-la-Neuve, May 7-9,1998  Gurinder Singh Brar and Gagan Saini “Milk Run Logistics: Literature Review and  Directions” Proceedings of the World Congress on Engineering 2011 Vol I, July 6 - 8, London, U.K.  Prof. Himanshu S. Moharana, Dr. J.S. Murty, Dr. S. K. Senapati, Prof. K. Khuntia”I MPORTANCE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY FOR EFFECTIVE SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT” International Journal of Modern Engineering Research (IJMER), Vol.1, Issue.2, pp-747-75 December 13 29
  30. 30.    -and-supply-chain-management-what-is-the-difference/  post/what_is_the_bullwhip_effect_understanding_the_conc ept_definition  vs-pull-supply-chain/  l_top_30_domestic_3pls  th-Party_Logistics_(4PL) December 13 30
  31. 31. THANK YOU December 13 31