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Architecture in Thailand

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Architecture in Thailand

  1. 1. ARCHITECTURE IN THAILAND History of Architecture 3 1st Sem AY 2010-2011 Ar. Clarissa L. Avendaño
  2. 2. Ruins of Wat Mahathat in Ayuthaya Ayuthaya was Thailand's capital from 1350 to 1767.
  3. 3. Thailand in the 13th c.
  4. 4.
  5. 5. Lotus bud-shaped anda ANDA – green HARMIKA - red CHATTRAS - purple BASE or TERRACES - black Bell-shaped anda
  6. 6. Lotus bud-shaped anda Stepped terraces and redented bases. Two or three square terraces rise to support a deeply redented (that is, with cutout corners) and tower-shaped base; this base supports the anda. The stepped terraces are a distinctive element of the Thai stupa (shared with those of Myanmar’s Bagan) and mark a clear push away from earlier Sri Lanka prototypes. Further, the tower-like bases, which afford these structures their elegance and vertical momentum, seem to borrow from earlier Khmer prangs (discussed in the next section). See yellow highlights in Fig. 5.• No harmika. Unlike Sri Lankan models, this style stupa does not employ a harmika, affording it a more integrated, delicate profile.
  7. 7. Ayutthaya and Bangkok periods Bell-shaped anda Wat Si Sanphet, Ayutthaya
  8. 8. e Thai civilization’s chief modification to the Khmer prang was to make it more delicate, thinner, and vertical in emphasis. That said, the defining features of the Thai prang include: • More slender, vertical tower (
  9. 9. irst prangs in Thailand were built in Phimai and Khao Phnom Rung and Lopburi between the early 10th century and the late 12th century, when the Khmer kingdom was dominant. After the Khmer Empire collapsed, the Thai building masters of the Sukhothai Kingdom adapted the Prang form. They extended and developed it. The building material was no more separate small sandstone blocks, instead the Thais built the Prang in brick or laterite covered with stucco. And the Cella could be reached only by stairs. An example for this is the Prang of the Wat Mahathat in Phitsanulok. Later developments of the Prang suggested the Cella only. The entrance door became a niche, in which was placed the Buddharupa(Buddha statue), which had originally taken the central position inside. For reasons of symmetry the niche was repeated on all four sides. On its pinnacle was a Trishul, the "weapon of Indra". A "more modern" Prang is a slim construction, like an ear of corn, which lets its Khmer origin be only suspected. The best example is Wat Arun, the landmark of Bangkok. AlsoWat Phra Kaeo has six thin Prangs arranged in a row. Another example is the four Prangs arranged in all four directions around Wat Pho in Bangkok, and the five Prangs in Wat Pichayart in Thonburi.
  10. 10. ARCHITECTURAL STRUCTURES 1. Temples and Monasteries 2. Palaces 3. Houses/Dwelling Units
  11. 11. Thai Buddhist temple • Group of religious buildings and other features (such as trees and lakes), surrounded by a wall, and with at least one gate. • Consist of two parts: 1. Phuttha-wat 2. Sangha-wat
  12. 12. Thai Buddhist temple 1. Phuttha-wat a. Ubosot or Bot, (Ordination Hall) b. Phra rabieng c. Viharn (teaching Hall) d. Chedi or Stupa (Reliquary Tower) e. Crematorium f. Sala g. Sala Kan Prian h. Ho rakang i. Of equal importance may be a Bhodi Tree or a Buddha Footprint. Most of the best known temples are in Bangkok, and these reflect the highly ornate "Rattanakosin" style of the Chakri dynasty (late 18th century to the present day).
  13. 13. WAT (TEMPLE)
  15. 15. The main elements of the temple are as follows: 1. Bot/Ubosot 2. The Reclining Buddha 3. Main Stupas 4. Phra Mondop 5. The Gallery 6. Hermit's Ground
  16. 16. WAT • Thai Buddhist temple or monastery. • In most cases it is not just one building, but a collection of buildings, shrines, and monuments within a courtyard that is enclosed by a wall. Wat Phra Singh, the largest temple in Chiang Mai, northwestern Thailand. (Luca I. Tettoni/Corbis) • The wall, often white washed, usually encloses a rectangular area. The wall demarcates the temple compound, called putthawat, or the sacred enclosure. • Ideally the main entrance faces east.
  17. 17. a. BOT/UBOSOT • Consecrated ordination hall of a Wat, where new monks take their vows. • Has six boundary stones (Bai Sema) that define the limits of its sanctuary. • Usually open only to the monks. • Faces east and usually houses an altar and one or several Buddha images.
  18. 18.
  19. 19. Ubosot of Wat Plai Laem | Koh Samui
  20. 20. The Marble temple
  21. 21. Ubosot at Wat Doi Suthep/ Wat Phra Boromathat Doi Suthep, Chiang Mai
  22. 22. Luk nimit • Sacred marker spheres that will be buried during the consecration of the ubosot. • They demarcate the sacred space. • There will be nine luk nimit buried, one at the centre, four at the corners and four at the cardinal points in the middle of each side of the building.
  23. 23. Mural Paintings depicting Ramakien epic (Thai version of the Hindu epic, Ramayana) b. PHRA RABIENG • Cloister like-galleries around the Bot/Ubosot • Along the walls of the Phra Rabieng are Buddha images and some times religious furniture.
  24. 24. c. VIHARN • Sermon hall and is usually the busiest building in a Wat and open to everyone (provided the visitor behaves according to the temple etiquette. • Holds an altar and one or several Buddha images.
  25. 25. Wat Suthat Thep Wararam Wat Suthat • Hall similar to the Ubosot, but with no Sema stones. • Houses various Buddha images and is used as a preaching hall and as a place for prayer and meditation. • There may be more than one Viharn in a temple complex.
  26. 26. Wat Benchamabophit
  27. 27. • Inside the viharn is a Buddha image either seated or standing. • Located at the far end of the hall and face east, for that is the direction that Buddha achieved Enlightenment.
  28. 28. KU (Miniature chedi) • Reliquary where the small principal Buddha image is place to enhance its presence.
  29. 29. ROOF • Composed of three superimposed tiers, with the lowest tier over the porch. • Number of tiers range from one to four, with three being the most common and each tier may comprise of two or three sections. • Lowest section is close to the ground, and spreads out like a mother hen spreading her wings to protect her chick.
  30. 30.
  31. 31. PAN LOM • Bargeboard that covers the end of the gable, preventing the tiles from falling off. • Decorated like a downward sloping body of the naga, with its head rearing up. • The naga's scales which project up is called the bai raka.
  32. 32. CHOFAS “Sky Cluster” • Horn or bird-like finials seen on the roof ridges of temples. • Often decorated with little bells that tinkle in the wind. • Design is in the form of a stylised garuda, which is meant to be grabbing the tail of the naga that flows down both sides of the bargeboard, pan lom.
  33. 33. Gable • Front gable of the viharn is usually highly decorated. • May also be divided into rectangular panels.
  34. 34.
  35. 35. HU CHANG “Elephant ears” • Eave-brackets along the outer wall of the viharn. • Triangular piece of wood that is often highly ornamented. • Design can be in the form of intertwining naga, the monkey king Hanuman, or the mystical bird kinnari or other mystical beast.
  36. 36. NAGA - Nak Sadung and Makara • Representation of a mystical serpent that according to the holy scripts sheltered the Buddha while he was meditating. • Temple – found on the edge of the roof or especially in Lanna (North of Thailand) temples, flanks the staircase that ascends to the Viharn or Bot. • Sculptures - it is depicted sheltering the head of the Buddha with its own.
  37. 37. SUM • Also called sum khong, • Elaborate decorative arch over and framing the doorway.
  38. 38. Wat Phra Keo, the Temple of the Emerald Buddha, Bangkok
  39. 39. SINGHA • Pair of lions guarding the entrance of a viharn. • Chiang Mai - often made in the Burmese style. • Myanmar - named chinthe
  40. 40. d. CHEDI /PRANG (Stupa/Pagoda) • Domed edifice, under which relics of the Buddha or revered religious teachers are buried. • Types of Chedi: 1. Bell – shaped style Chedi 2. Square Chedi 3. Indented Chedi 4. Suwanna Chedi, Prang 5. Suwanna Stepped Chedi
  41. 41. 1. Bell-shaped style Phra Pathom Chedi, Nakorn Pathom, Bangkok • Tallest Chedi in Thailand. with a base diameter of around 233 m. and a height of more than 120 m. e/nakhon-pathom/index.html
  42. 42. Funerary Chedis
  43. 43. 2. Square Chedi • Northern Thailand balances a smaller dome on a high square base, each side has a niche carved with Buddha images. • Sits on a terrace or platform, often with an enclosed walkway for devotees to make ritual circumambulation. Wat Jed Yod, Chiang Mai
  44. 44. 3. Indented Chedi • Small dome balanced on a square base with indented corners. Wat Arun (Temple of Dawn), Thonburi, Bangkok.
  45. 45. Wat Arun (Temple of the Dawn)
  46. 46. 4. Suwanna Chedi - Prang • Ayutthayan or Khmer style of reliquary, found all over central Thailand from the Khmers.. • Shaped like a corn cob standing on top of a square or cruciform building, with an entrance on one side. Phra Prang Sam Yod, Lopburi.
  47. 47. 5. Suwanna Stepped Chedi • Found in Northern Thailand Chedi Liem, Chiang Mai . Phrathat Haripunchai, Lamphun • Wat Chamathevi, Lamphun Square stepped base, with 5 tiers above, each of the four faces containing 3 Buddha images
  48. 48. HTI • Bejeweled sacred umbrella that sits at the topmost part of the chedi, • Burmese influence to the design. • CHAT - Gilded parasols also adorn the four corners of the walkway surrounding the chedi.
  49. 49. CHAT • Burmese-style sacred filigree parasol that are usually installed at the corners of the railings enclosing the chedi. • Parasols are usually gilded.
  50. 50. e. MONDOP (Mandapa) • Square, open-sided pavilion with a multi-tiered pyramidal roof rising to a peak. • Baldachin structure that has in some temples been erected above the library with the sacred Buddhist scripts.
  51. 51. f. HO TRAI (Library or Manuscript repository) • Handwritten Buddhist manuscripts are stored. • Usually very small, same style as the viharn and ubosot, but lavishly decorated building. • Central Plains - often sits on columns in a pond. • Northern Part - built raised up from the ground, to keep it away from termites and damp.
  52. 52. The library is often built on piles in a pond to prevent bugs to destroy the sacred texts.
  53. 53. g. CREMATORIUM • Recognizable because it has a tall chimney.
  54. 54. The Royal Crematorium • • Prepared for the royal cremation of Her Royal Highness Princess Galyani Vadhana, Krom Luang Naradhiwas Rajanagarindra, November 15, 2008. Represents Viman celestial abode of the gods that stands on the summit of Sumeru, the majestic mountain, spine of the universe in the Traibhumi (the three planes of existence) in Buddhist cosmology.
  55. 55. h. HO RAKHANG (Bell Tower) • The bell is struck to call the monks to devotions, to announce time (it is struck for noon, after which monks are not allowed to eat) or to announce the stopping of work for the day. In some big temples and monasteries, there may also be a gong tower, or a combination of bell and gong.
  56. 56. • In some big temples and monasteries, there may also be a gong tower, or a combination of bell and gong. Huge gong at Wat Phra That Haripunchai in Lamphun
  57. 57. i. SALA GAN PARIAN • Open-sided pavilion or preaching hall. • Bangkok-style structure that is only found occassionally in Northern Thailand. • Some Viharns are built in this style.
  58. 58. SANHAWAT • Contained within the wall surrounding the temple complex. • Living quarters of the monks 1. KUTI (Living quarters) May also contain the following: 1. 2. • HO RAKANG (Bell tower) SALA KAN PRIAN (Preaching or Sermon hall) Kitchen building where food can be prepared by lay people, and sanitary buildings
  59. 59. KUTI • Originally a small structure, built on stilts, designed to house a monk, with its proper size (4.013 x 2.343 m). • Apartment building with small rooms for the monks - Modern
  60. 60. Buddhist temples 1. Sukhothai 2. Ayutthaya Latter Period 1. Lanna 2. Rattanakosin Buddhist temples.
  61. 61. WAT PA MAHA CHEDI KAEW and its associated building including the crematorium, Sisaket province
  62. 62. Use of 1 million glass recycled bottles. Mixture of green Heineken and brown local Chang beer collected since 1984.
  63. 63.
  64. 64.
  65. 65. Samui, Thailand wn/thailand/kosamui/bigbuddha/index.htm / BODHI TREE Ayutthaya Historical Park
  66. 66. PALACES
  67. 67. The Grand Palace Chakri Maha Prasat Hall • • • Built by king Chulalongkorn (RAMA V) Used for the reception of foreign ambassadors. Blend of European and Thai architecture
  68. 68. Wat Phra Kaew “Heaven and Earth” Built as the royal temple within the Grand Palace, same as the Ayutthaya tradition. The temple has no residing Buddhist monks, but was meant as the spiritual center of the kingdom and the site for major royal ceremonies. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Ubosot Emerald Budha Main Stupa Phra Mondop Royal Pantheon Gallery 7. Srcipture Hall 8. Ankor Wat Model 9. Viharn 10. Ho Phra Nak 11. Stupa 12. Prang
  69. 69. King Chungalongkorn's Palace Vinmanmek Palace (Cloud Mansion) • Believed to be the world largest building made entirely of golden teak. • Originally constructed on Srichang Island in the Gulf of Siam by King Rama V ( King Chulalongkorn) but In 1901, was moved to its present site
  70. 70. Royal Palace at Bang Pa-In • Dates from the reign of King Chulalongkorn (1868-1910), when most of the buildings standing today were constructed between 1872 1889.
  71. 71. THAI HOUSES
  72. 72. ROYAL HOUSES • Similar in design to those of commoners except that they were generally closer to the ground and had more decorative features. • Tamnak Daeng or “Red House”built by King Rama I as a residence for one of his queens, originally in Ayutthaya style but acquired more Rattanakosin elements during several moves. • King Rama V presented the house to the museum as a reminder of an architectural style then becoming rare.
  73. 73. Central plains houses • • • • Elevated on stout round posts Steep roofs with curved bargeboards Paneled walls leaning slightly inward Various components are prefabricated to enable easy dismantling and reassembly. • House consists of a single unit with an outside veranda, while those accommodating larger families might have several separate units arranged around a central platform. •
  74. 74.
  75. 75. KALAE (Galae) • Decorative carved element as a top roof ending. • Mostly carved from teakwood widely used in North Thailand, the former kingdom of Lanna. • Horns of the water buffalo. Residence of Her Royal Highness the Princess Mother “Mae Fah Luang”, Doi Tung, Chiang Rai/North Thailand
  76. 76. Thailand elements