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Architecture in Nepal and Afghanistan

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Architecture in Nepal and Afghanistan

  1. 1. Tom Demsey
  2. 2. Village of Namche Bazaar, Sagarmath National Park, in the Himalaya of eastern Nep
  3. 3. SWAYAMBHUNATH, Kathmandu
  4. 4.
  5. 5. ARCHITECTURE IN NEPAL History of Architecture 3 Prepared by: Archt. Clarissa L. Avendaño 1st sem AY 2012-2013
  6. 6. Lies between two great eastern civilization: 1. India - west, south and east 2. China - Tibetan autonomous region of the People's Republic of China in the north
  7. 7. I. GEOGRAPHICAL INFLUENCES • Total land area is 147,181 square kilometers • Three old capitals – Katmandu – Patan – Bhadgaon
  8. 8. Topographically divided into 3 regions: • Himalaya to the north Mt. Everest (8,848 m) - highest point • Hills consisting of the Mahabharat range and the Churia Hills • Terai to the south
  9. 9. KATHMANDU VALLEY Three Main Cities: 1. Kathmandu 2. Bhaktapur or Bhadgaon 3. Patan or Lalitpur • Crossroads of ancient civilization of Asia. • Named after a structure in Durbar Square called “Kaasthamandap” "wood + "covered shelter."
  10. 10. Himalayan Peaks, Nepal II. CLIMATIC INFLUENCES Karmali river, Népal • Ranges from sub-tropical in the low lands to Arctic higher altitudes. Mt. Everest
  11. 11. II. GEOLOGICAL INFLUENCES • WOOD • METALS copper, • NATURAL used as columns ,beams, rafters and for construction of doors, windows and stairs. iron, brass, bronze were commonly used. As it was expensive it was used on religious and door facings, lattice- works, door latches. STONE sedimentary rocks or metamorphic stone gathered from the quarries situated on the north and south sides of mountain slopes. • BRICKS AND TILES - mud bricks were used for construction of walls. Clay tiles were extensively used for roof coverings and for courtyard paving, terrace floors and floor coverings.
  12. 12. III. HISTORICAL AND SOCIAL INFLUENCES • Newars and Gurkhas (of Tibetan Mongol stock) settled in early times and established an indigenous style in art and architecture which has never been modified. • Art flourished during the reign of Mulla Rajas (13th – 18th c.)
  13. 13. IV. RELIGIOUS INFLUENCE • Hinduism predominate religion with 86.5% of the population. • Buddhism (Tibetan Tantric) is next largest religion, 7.8% • Islam, 3.5% Sadhus 25/feature-02
  14. 14. Chomrong (Nepal) Prayer Manis • Temples, Buddha with third eye on his forehead symbolizes enlightenment in both Buddhism and Hinduism. shrines, monuments and monasteries are extremely active with devotees burning butter-lamps, singing hymns, chiming temple bells and playing drums.
  15. 15. ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER • Drawn from both cultures – India and China • Characteristic architectural heritage: 1. STUPAS/CHORTEN – oldest monuments 2. TEMPLES
  16. 16. SWAYAMBHUNATH, Kathmandu
  17. 17. BODHNATH, Kathmandu
  18. 18. Patan Bhai Dega temple Luhan Dega Temple Sikhara type Temple
  19. 19. MULTI-TIERED TEMPLES Maju Dega, Kathmandu plan and section Traditional Materials and Construction Technologies used in the Kathmandu Valley Caterina Bonapace and Valerio Sestini
  20. 20. ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER 3. Towns: o Newar Architecture by the indigeneous inhabitants of Kathmandu valley. o Typical formal feature is the monumental pillar supporting a metal superstructure adorned with mystical symbols, group of divinities and portrait statuary of royalties.
  21. 21. ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER 3. Towns: o Newars developed their own architectural styles and technology, mainly based on two building materials: wood and clay (bricks) with metal used for ornaments. o Street facades of houses, usually planned with interior courtyards are elaborately treated.
  22. 22. DURBAR SQUARE •generic name used to describe plazas opposite old royal palaces in Nepal. Kathmandu Bhaktapur Patan
  23. 23. o Typical formal feature is the monumental pillar supporting a metal superstructure adorned with mystical symbols, group of divinities and portrait statuary of royalties. Metal Statue of RAJA BHUPATINDRA MALL, DURBAR SQUARE, BHATGAON.
  24. 24. ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER o Buildings are of 3 storey: Ground floor- served as a shop, recessed beneath an overhanging first floor which is overhung by the upper level.
  25. 25.  Trabeated system of construction. Wooden posts, beams and struts used in the houses are clear intermingling of the structure and ornamentation.  Each floor is supported by brackets and struts, ornately curved and sometimes painted.
  26. 26. ROOFS – most striking architectural feature: •Double pitched roof with the ridge on the line of the central spine wall. The structure is of timber and comprises columns on the central line. •Hovering roof form with bracket support overhanging precariously on building walls with bracket support. •Set one over the other in a Pagoda form. • Covered with special clay tiles (jhingati) with metal gutters. • Protect brick walls in mud mortar from the rain and sun: Overhang: • Dwelling - 1000mm • Vihara - 1500mm • Temples-up to 4000 mm.
  28. 28. • Craftsmanship can be seen in the lavished works on the pillars, lateral pilasters, lintels and beams or on the brackets which support the projecting eaves of the roofs. • Lintels over openings are of timber and often in three parts, stepping upwards towards the inside.
  29. 29.  Fully decorated with carvings, embossing, tinkling bells and hanging lamps. ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER Lion Gate of Taleju Temple at Makhan Tole, Kathmandu
  30. 30. Houses in rural parts of Nepal are made up of stones and clay
  31. 31.
  32. 32. Sacred hill and temple of Swayambhunath, Kathmandu, Nepal
  33. 33. KATHMANDU SWAYAMBHUNATH Painting By Thubten Yeshe Sherpa, Namche Bazaar
  34. 34. SWAYAMBHUNATH, Kathmandu
  35. 35. 1. SWAYAMBHUNATH STUPA, Katmandu • Originally an Ashoka tumulus on a hill • Stands on a low narrow plinth (base or podium)
  36. 36. nath_stupa.html Stairway to Swayambhunath temple Swayambhunath temple, Kathmandu, Nepal
  37. 37. ndEarth/html/heavens/artifact8-heaven-1280.html • Conical spire in 13 diminishing tiers symbolizing the 13 Buddhist heaven with umbrella apex. • Square base which has a large pair of human eyes – symbolizes the “All Seeing One.”
  38. 38. • “All Seeing One” embossed in metal and ivory on each of the 4 sides.
  39. 39.
  40. 40.
  41. 41. Swayambhunath
  42. 42. BODHNATH, Katmandu • 3 platforms - 12.0 m. high • 14.0 m. high spire resembling the finial of Swayambhunath
  43. 43. BODHNATH Katmandu • Revered by Buddhist as well as Nepalese Hindus. • Gaya-jatri - festival worship the holy cows. to
  44. 44. Entrance area of a Buddhist temple Huge Buddha with Dalai Lama portrait
  45. 45. Temple in Kathmandu
  46. 46. Kathmandu Temple
  47. 47. Blending Nepali and classical architecture - Kathmandu, Nepal
  48. 48. EXAMPLES: PATAN • Lalitpur (the city of beauty) – ancient name • Circular in shape and situated about 3 miles southeast of Kathmandu, a short distance from the southern bank of the river Bagmati. • The Durbar Square, built in the reign of Raja Beer Deva in 299 A.D . • City full of Buddhist monuments • Shiva temples with fine bronze gateways, deities and endless carvings.
  49. 49. DURBAR SQUARE (Mangle Bazaar) • Ancient royal residential square of Malla Kings. • Consist of the following: 1. Golden Gate 2. A place of 55 windows 3. The Lion Gate 4. Statue of Bhupatindra Malla 5. The biggest Kingdom bell in the 6. Pagodas and Sikhara temples whole
  50. 50. Lunch on the roof looking at the old Palace- Patan
  51. 51. DURBAR SQUARE , KATHMANDU Newar town with monuments, palaces, pagodas and columns made of carved wood defines the root of Newa/Nepali architecture
  52. 52. EXAMPLES: 3. KRISHNA TEMPLE, Patan • Typical sikhara spire with clusters of small pavillions on each side of the 3 arcaded storey. • Carved stone frieze depicting romantic Krishna legend.
  53. 53. Golden Gate • Dates from the reign of Raja Ranjit Malla in 1786 AD. • Famous as the richest piece of art in the whole Kingdom.
  54. 54. Place of 55 windows (National Gallery) • Old palace of brick walls remarkable for its carved balcony with 55 windows. built by Raja Yasksha Malla in 1427 AD.
  55. 55. Statue of Bhupatindra Malla • Famous for its arts in column. • Erected by Raja Yaksha Malla in 1427 A.D.
  56. 56. Bhairavnath temple
  57. 57. 4. SACRED TOWN OF PASUPATI (17th c.) • Stands on the banks of the Bagmati, dedicated to Lord Shiva • Holy Region of Hindu, and community of Nepalese Buddhists. • Consists of stone and wooden temples, with a burning ghat by the river
  58. 58. EXAMPLES: PASUPATI NATH TEMPLE • Original pagoda styled temple before 6th c. • One of the most famous places of Hindu pilgrimage in the world. • Dedicated to Lord Shiva the guardian deity of Nepal • Temples and shrines with golden gilt roof and large richly carved silver gates. • All the dyings are brought for cremation.
  59. 59. Nepal, Kathmandu - Pashupatinath,_Kathmandu_-_Pashupatinath.htm
  60. 60. 5. BHAIRAB TEMPLE The Kali (black) Bhairab is one of Shiva's forms.
  61. 61. CHANGU NARAYAN TEMPLE Kathmandu Valley • One of the oldest Hindu temples of the valley dedicated to Vishnu constructed in the 3rd c.
  62. 62. BHADGAON • Also known as Bhaktpur(Bhaktapur) "city of devotee". • Home of medieval art and architecture . • Regarded as the oldest city of the valley . • Has its origin in the time of the Lichhavi rulers. Later in 889 A.D . • The city has as altitude of 4600 feet above the sea . It is 9 miles east of the Kathmandu.
  63. 63. NYATAPOLOA TEMPLE • Mark of Nepalese temple designed in 1700 AD. • Shows significant innovations 1. increase of roof storeys and plinth steps on the one hand 2. Introduction of an open gallery surrounding the shrine cella on the other • Integrated various styles of near-contemporary monuments to make a convincing political and religious statement while erecting a temple to his personal deity. • The result is a building of the utmost harmony, defining mature rules and canons of temple design to be observed until the end of the Malla rule.
  64. 64. PLAN
  66. 66. End of Nepalese Architecture
  67. 67. Bamiyan valley
  68. 68. BAMIYAN • Monasteries and temples – important for its relationship to Persia and Central Asia. • Huge group is carved out of a sandstone cliff face, interior honeycombed with sanctuaries and assembly halls extending for nearly 2 k. with painted niche at the end each sheltering a vast Buddha statue. • Eastern Image is 37 m. – enlarged 3rd c. Gandhara type • Western Image is 54 m. – 5th c., example of eclectic cosmopolitan influences of Buddhist art.
  69. 69. BAMIYAN • Statues are prototypes of colossal image cult which later appeared in China and Japan • Structural technique: – body and head rough hewn from the rock – Features and drapery modeled in mud mixed with straw , with lime plaster finished painted and gilded. • Rock cut sanctuaries and assembly halls – reflect building types once existing in Gandhara influenced by Graeco- Roman-Sassanian styles
  70. 70. BAMIYAN • Other features: – Cupola roofs spanning with arched squinches the square chamber angles in anticipation of the Sassanian fire-temples – lantern roof – Coffered dome – Elaborate system of hexagons (each containing a seated Buddha image) – Triangles rising to a central octagon.
  71. 71. According to the world press, this Buddha was destroyed by the Taliban.