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Food allergies

various food allergies

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Food allergies

  1. 1. Presented by- Ms. Anshu M.Sc Nursing KGMU Institute of nursing
  2. 2. Food allergy affects up to 6 to 8 percent of children under the age of 3 and close to 4 percent of adults.
  3. 3. Food allergy is an abnormal response to a food triggered by the body’s immune system.
  4. 4. Food allergy refers to a particular type of response of the immune system in which the body produces what is called an allergic, or IgE, antibody to a food. (IgE, or immunoglobulin E, is a type of protein that works against any type of foriegn body entering in the body.)
  5. 5. Sometimes, a reaction to food is not an allergy at all but another type of reaction called “food intolerance.”
  6. 6. In adults, the foods that most often cause allergic reactions include Shellfish such as shrimp, crayfish, lobster, and crab Peanuts Tree nuts such as walnuts Fish Eggs
  7. 7. The most common foods that cause problems in children are : Eggs Milk Peanuts Tree nuts
  8. 8. DETAILED HISTORY- What was the timing of your reaction? Did your reaction come on quickly, usually within an hour after eating the food? Is your reaction always associated with a certain food?
  9. 9. Did anyone else who ate the same food get sick? For example, if you ate fish contaminated with histamine, everyone who ate the fish should be sick. How much did you eat before you had a reaction? The severity of a reaction is sometimes related to the amount of food eaten.
  10. 10.  How was the food prepared? Some people will have a violent allergic reaction only to raw or undercooked fish. Complete cooking of the fish may destroy the allergen, and they can then eat it with no allergic reaction.  Did client eat other foods at the same time he had the reaction? Some foods may delay digestion and thus delay the start of the allergic reaction.
  11. 11. This diet diary gives more detail from which client and health care provider can see if there is a consistent pattern in allergic reactions.
  12. 12.  The next step some health care providers use is an elimination diet.  don’t eat a food suspected of causing the allergy, such as eggs.  substitute another food—in the case of eggs, another source of protein.  Health care provider can almost always make a diagnosis if the symptoms go away after removing the food from diet. The diagnosis is confirmed if client then eat the food and the symptoms come back. client should do this only when the reactions are not significant and only under healthcare provider direction.
  13. 13. During a scratch or prick skin test, healthcare provider will place an extract of the food on the skin of lower arm. Health care provider will then scratch this portion of the skin with a needle and look for swelling or redness, which would be a sign of a local allergic reaction.
  14. 14. If the scratch or prick test is positive, it means that there is IgE on the skin’s mast cells that is specific to the food being tested. Skin tests are rapid, simple, and relatively safe.
  15. 15. Healthcare provider may use blood tests such as the RAST (radioallergosorbent test). Another blood test is called ELISA (enzymelinked immunosorbent assay).
  16. 16. These blood tests measure the presence of food-specific IgE in blood. The RAST can measure how much IgE in blood has to a specific food. (gold standard test) As with skin testing, positive tests do not necessarily mean client has a food allergy.
  17. 17. Wear a medical alert bracelet or necklace stating that patient have a food allergy and are subject to severe reactions Carry an auto-injector device containing epinephrine (adrenaline), such as an epipen or twinject.
  18. 18. Food allergy is treated by avoiding the foods that trigger the reaction.
  19. 19.  Steroids (e.g., cortisone) may be given, typically in the emergency room, to help reduce inflammation after an anaphylactic attack.  Antihistamines, known as H1 blockers, are prescribed to relieve mild allergy symptoms, although they cannot control a severe reaction. Medications in this class include diphendydramine (Benadryl®) and cetirizine (Zyrtec®). An antihistamine should never be given as a substitute for epinephrine.
  20. 20.  Asthma Medications. Short-acting bronchodilators (known as “rescue” inhalers), such as albuterol (Alupent®, Proventil®, Ventolin®), may be used to help relieve breathing problems once epinephrine has been given, particularly if patient is experiencing asthma symptoms.
  21. 21. Food allergy is treated by avoiding the foods that trigger the reaction. Advice client that,once he and his healthcare provider have identified the food(s) to which he is sensitive, he must remove them from his diet. Encourage him to must read the detailed ingredient lists on each food he is considering eating.
  22. 22. ASSESSMENT- Assess for anaphylactic reactions Assess for the food that has caused allergy
  23. 23. GOALS- To treat anaphylactic reactions Prevent complication
  24. 24.  1. Impaired gas exchange related to ventilation perfusion imbalance as evidenced by: shortness of breath, tachycardia, flushing, hypotension, shock, and bronchospasm. 2. Altered tissue perfusion related to decreased blood flow secondary to vascular disorders due to anaphylactic reactions as evidenced by: palpitations, skin pale, hypotension, angioedema, arrhythmias, ECG features inverted T waves.
  25. 25.  3. Ineffective breathing pattern related to the swelling of the nasal mucosa wall as evidenced by: shortness of breath, breath with the lips, there rhinitis. 4. Acute pain related to gastric irritation as evidenced by: abdominal pain, looked grimacing while holding stomach. 5. Impaired skin integrity related to changes in circulation as evidenced by: swelling and itching of the skin and the nose, there are hives, urticaria, and runny nose.
  26. 26. 1. Impaired gas exchange related to ventilation perfusion imbalance  Assess the respiratory rate & depth  Maintain patency of airway.  Do ET intubation in case of laryngeal edema.  Give comfortable position.  Remove the cause of allergy.  Give anti inflammatory drugs as prescribed by doctor.
  27. 27. Assess characteristics of pain Stop patient from eating. Keep patient on NPO. Give IV fluids. Give antacids as told by doctor.
  28. 28. Food allergies are very common now a days. Client should always check food ingredients before consuming it. Always carry epipen and alergic card aswell.
  29. 29. Which Ig released in response to allergic reaction? A) IgA B) IgG C) IgE D) IgM Ans- c)
  30. 30. What initial medical management is needed in food allergy? A) corticosteroids B) epinephrin C) bronchodilators D) IV fluids Ans- b