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DEEPAK.P
MEDICAL ELECTRONICS
Mr. DEEPAK P.
Associate Professor
ECE Department
SNGCE
1
DEEPAK.P
UNIT 1
2
Introduction to Human
Physiological Systems and
Transducers
DEEPAK.P
3
Objective
At the end of this Unit
You will learn
Physiological Systems of human
body
Bio medical Transducer...
DEEPAK.P4
Introduction to Biomedical
Engineering
Biomedical Engineering
Biomedical Engineering is the application of engineering
principles and design concepts to medicin...
DEEPAK.P6
Medical Instruments
Biomedical Instruments
Classification of Biomedical Equipments
1. Diagnostic equipment
2. Therapeutic equipment
3. Clinic...
DEEPAK.P8
Man- Instrument System
Components in Man – Instrument system
9 DEEPAK.P
Control feedback
Recording , data
processing and
transmission of data
Sig...
Man – Instrument system
Measurement in biomedical instrumentation can be divided
in to two
1.VIVO
•Measurement is made on...
DEEPAK.P11
Bioelectric Potentials
Sources of Bioelectric potentials
The systems in the human body generate their on
monitoring signals when they carry out ...
Resting and Action potentials
Certain types of cells within the body , such as nerve and
muscle cells are encased in a se...
Resting potentials
The principle ions are sodium(Na+
) Potassium(K+
) and
chloride(C-
)
The membrane of excitable cells ...
Resting potentials/Polarization
This resting potential ranging from -60mv to -100 mv.
Cell in the resting state is calle...
Depolarization of cell
When a cell is exited, the membrane change its
characteristic.
The sodium ions are rushed in to t...
Depolarization of cell
17 DEEPAK.P
Cell Membrane
Na+
Na+
Na+
Na+
Na+
Na+
Na+
Na+
K+
K+
K+
K+
K+
K+
K+
K+
Action potentials
18 DEEPAK.P
Cell Membrane
V
Ground
20 mV
Re Polarization
Cell comes from de polarized state in to polarized state is
called Re polarization.
19 DEEPAK.P
Ground
V
...
Resting and Action potentials
20 DEEPAK.P
Propagation of Action potentials
When a cell is exited and generates an action potentials
ionic currents to flow.
This p...
DEEPAK.P22
Physiological Systems in Human
body
Physiological systems of human body
In simple terms "Human Physiology" is the study of
the body and its functions in each...
Physiological Systems in the Human body
24 DEEPAK.P
Behavior
Liquid wastes
Solid wastes
Body movements
Expired air
Appeara...
Physiological systems of human body
There are 11systems in the body:
1. The Skeletal System Bones & joints
2. Muscular Sy...
DEEPAK.P26
Physiology of Cardiovascular
system
Physiology
•Physiology can be classified in to
1.Cell Physiology
• Study of cells
2.Patho Physiology
• Pathological Functi...
Cardio Vascular system
Cardio vascular system can be viewed as closed hydraulic
system with 4 chamber pump.
Cardio Vascu...
Cardio Vascular system
•In some part of the system diameter of the arteries are
changed to control pressure.
•Pump(heart) ...
Heart & Valves
30 DEEPAK.P
Right Atrio-ventricular valve
Bicuspid/
Left Atrio-ventricular
valve
Heart Layers
Heart wall consists of three layers
1.Pericardium
• Outer most layer, keeps outer surface moist, prevents
fr...
Heart Valves
Heart has 4 valves
1.Tricuspid/Right Atrio-Ventricular valve
• Between Right A and V, Prevents blood flow fr...
Cardio Vascular systems
33 DEEPAK.P
Cardio Vascular System
One of the two stage pump(Right side) collect fluid from the
system and pump it through oxygenatio...
Cardio Vascular system
Fluid contains fuel suppliers and waste particles are
transported to destination.
Fluid contain m...
Cardio Vascular Circulation
The blood is carried out to the various parts of the body through
blood vessels.
There are t...
Cardio Vascular Circulation
Heart pumps blood through the pulmonary circulation to the
lungs and through the systemic cir...
Cardio Vascular Circulation
38 DEEPAK.P
DEEPAK.P39
Respiratory system
Respiratory systems
It is the Pneumatic system.
A system that work with air pressure.
An air pump(diaphragm) which alte...
Respiratory systems
41 DEEPAK.P
Respiratory systems
At one point , this passage is common with the tube that carries
liquid and solids to stomach.
A spe...
Respiratory systems
In case of nasal blockage , air input can be taken from mouth.
Oxygen is taken from the air and tran...
Respiratory systems
Tidal volume
The volume inspired and expired during each normal breath
Inspiratory reserve volume
...
Respiratory systems
Residual volume
Amount of air remaining in the lungs after all possible air has
been forced out.
Vi...
Respiratory systems
46 DEEPAK.P
Blood purification in the human body
The overall functioning of our body heavily depends on the
proper functioning of our...
Blood purification in the human body
When our body has too much toxins, our vital organs
start to get damage and under-pe...
Blood purification by lungs
The un oxygenated (unpurified) blood comes into right
atrium of heart by superior and inferio...
Blood purification by lungs

50 DEEPAK.P
Blood purification by lungs

51 DEEPAK.P
DEEPAK.P52
Muscular System
Muscular System
The muscular system is the biological system of humans that
produces movement.
It permits movement of th...
Muscular System
• More than 50% of body weight is muscle.
• Muscle is made up of proteins and water
54 DEEPAK.P
Muscular System
There are three distinct types of muscles: skeletal muscles,
cardiac or heart muscles, and smooth muscles...
Muscular System
Smooth muscle or "involuntary muscle" consists of spindle
shaped muscle cells found within the walls of s...
Muscular System
Cardiac muscle is found only within the heart.
Skeletal muscle or "voluntary muscle" is anchored by
tend...
Muscular System
Muscle is composed of muscle cells (sometimes known as
"muscle fibers").
Within the cells are myofibrils...
Muscular System
These bundles are then grouped together to form muscle, and
is lined by epimysium.
59 DEEPAK.P
Muscular System
60 DEEPAK.P
Muscular System
61 DEEPAK.P
DEEPAK.P62
Nervous systems
Nervous systems
The task of controlling various functions of body and
coordinating them in to a integrated living organis...
Nervous systems
It provides regulation of body functions and sensory
perception.
Functions of Nervous systems
1. Control...
Nervous systems
Its center is a self adapting processor(Brain).
Self adapting means --- If a certain section is damaged,...
Nervous systems
With the use of this processor , human can take decisions,
solve complex problems, create art, poetry and...
Nervous systems
67 DEEPAK.P
Nervous systems
This lines are not single lines but complicated networks.
Information signal are normally coded by means...
Nervous systems
In addition to brain , a large number of simple decision making
g devices(Spinal reflexes) are present to...
Divisions of Nervous systems
The human nervous system can be divided into three main parts:
1. Central nervous system (CN...
1. Central Nervous systems
Central Nervous System (CNS)
Structures of the CNS:
[1]  Brain
[2]  Spinal cord
The CNS co...
Anatomy of the Central Nervous systems
72
DEEPAK.P
Spinal cord
Cerebellum
Brain stem
Cerebrum
2. Peripheral Nervous systems
The primary role of the PNS is to connect the CNS to the
organs, limbs and skin.
The nerve...
Somatic Nervous systems
The somatic system is the part of the peripheral nervous
system responsible for carrying sensory ...
3. Autonomic Nervous systems
The autonomic system is the part of the peripheral nervous
system responsible for regulating...
Autonomic Nervous systems
The "fight or flight response" is our body's primitive,
automatic, inborn response that prepare...
Anatomy of the Nervous systems
Basic unit of nervous system is the neuron.
Neurons are the basic building blocks of the ...
Anatomy of the Nervous systems
Neuron cells are the information-processing units of the brain
responsible for receiving a...
Anatomy of the Nervous systems
79 DEEPAK.P
Anatomy of the Nervous systems
Neurons
Composed of:
a. Cell Body
Part that contains the nucleus
b. Dendrite(s)
Carri...
Types of Neurons
The three basic types of idealized neurons include;
Bipolar, (Pseudo)
Uni polar
Multi polar neurons,
...
Types of Neurons
82 DEEPAK.P
Types of Neurons
Bipolar – Specialized sensory neurons for the transmission of
special senses.
As such, they are part of...
Types of Neurons
(Pseudo) Unipolar
Many types of primary sensory neurons are Unipolar.
Multi polar – Multi polar neurons...
DEEPAK.P85
Sources of Biomedical Signals
Sources of Biomedical Signals

86 DEEPAK.P
DEEPAK.P87
Bio- Potential Electrodes
Measurement of Bioelectric potentials
To measure bioelectric potentials , a transducer is required.
Electrical signals p...
Bio Potential Electrodes
Bio-potential electrodes carry out this interface function.
A transducer consists of two electr...
Bio Potential Electrodes
Propagation of action potential through different body tissues
produces final waveform recorded ...
DEEPAK.P91
Electrodes Theory
Equivalent circuit for bio-potential electrode
92 DEEPAK.P
Body
Electrolytes
Vha=Electrode potential developed across inte...
Equivalent circuit for bio-potential with
two electrode
94 DEEPAK.P
Bio Potential Electrodes
Bio-potential electrodes transduce ionic conduction to
electronic conduction so that bio-potenti...
DEEPAK.P96
Classification of Electrodes
Bio Potential Electrodes
1. Micro Electrodes--- Bio electric potential near or within a
single cell
Metal Type—Tip must b...
Microelectrodes
Used to measure bio-potential signals at the cellular
level
Due to small dimensions (mm), impedance leve...
Microelectrodes
METAL MICROELECTRODES
MICROPIPETTE ELECTRODES
Surface electrodes
These are placed in contact with the skin of the subject
Early stages immersion electrodes were used....
Immersion electrodes
Surface electrodes
METAL-PLATE ELECTRODES
Historically, one of the most frequently used forms of
bio-potential sensing electrodes is the met...
METAL-PLATE ELECTRODES
Floating electrodes
Conductive paste reduces effect of electrode slippage
and resulting motion artifact
Needle electrodes
Unipolar electrode---Single wire inside a needle
Bipolar electrode---Two wires inside a needle
Mostly...
Needle electrodes
Implantable electrodes
ELECTRODE ARRAYS
ELECTRODE ARRAYS
DEEPAK.P113
Transducers
Transducers
A transducer is necessary to convert one variable in to another
form
Used to measure physiological variables...
Transducers
Transducer can be classified in to two
Active Transducer
Known principles is used to convert variables in t...
Principles used in Active Transducers
It can convert electrical signal in to physical variables and
also in reverse direc...
Passive Transducers
Utilize the principles of controlling a DC excitation or an AC
carrier signal.
It consists of a pass...
Principles used in Passive Transducers
Using Resistive element
1. Ordinary Potentiometer
a. Linear
b. Rotary
2. Strain ga...
Transducers for Biomedical field
1. Force transducer
2. Photoelectric displacement transducer
3. Pressure Transducers
4. F...
Transducers for Biomedical field
1. Resistive transducers - Muscle force and Stress (Strain guge),
Spirometry (Potentiont)...
DEEPAK.P121
Ag-Agcl Electrode
Reference Electrode
The usual method of measuring the ion concentration by
combination of two electrode.
1. Active Electr...
Ag-Agcl Electrode
A silver chloride electrode is a type of reference electrode,
commonly used in electrochemical measurem...
Ag-Agcl Electrode

124 DEEPAK.P
Ag-Agcl Electrode
The electrode functions as a redox electrode and the reaction is
between the silver metal (Ag) and its ...
DEEPAK.P126
pH Electrode
pH Meter

127 DEEPAK.P
pH Electrode
This is a device for measuring the concentration of hydrogen
ions and hence the degree of acidity of a solut...
pH Electrode
The relationship between the ionic concentration (activity)
and the electrode potential is given by the Nern...
pH Electrode
When the electrode is immersed in a test solution containing
hydrogen ions the external ions diffuse through...
pH Reference Electrode

131 DEEPAK.P
pH Electrode

132 DEEPAK.P
Glass pH Electrode

133 DEEPAK.P
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medical electronics 5 module ppt

  1. 1. DEEPAK.P MEDICAL ELECTRONICS Mr. DEEPAK P. Associate Professor ECE Department SNGCE 1
  2. 2. DEEPAK.P UNIT 1 2 Introduction to Human Physiological Systems and Transducers
  3. 3. DEEPAK.P 3 Objective At the end of this Unit You will learn Physiological Systems of human body Bio medical Transducers and Electrodes
  4. 4. DEEPAK.P4 Introduction to Biomedical Engineering
  5. 5. Biomedical Engineering Biomedical Engineering is the application of engineering principles and design concepts to medicine and biology The biomedical engineering provides electrical, electronic, electro-optical, and computer engineering support to clinical and biomedical applications. Biomedical Engineering improves the field of healthcare diagnosis, monitoring and therapy. 5 DEEPAK.P
  6. 6. DEEPAK.P6 Medical Instruments
  7. 7. Biomedical Instruments Classification of Biomedical Equipments 1. Diagnostic equipment 2. Therapeutic equipment 3. Clinical equipment 4. Laboratory equipment 7 DEEPAK.P
  8. 8. DEEPAK.P8 Man- Instrument System
  9. 9. Components in Man – Instrument system 9 DEEPAK.P Control feedback Recording , data processing and transmission of data Signal conditioning equipment Display Transducer Transducer Transducer Stimulus
  10. 10. Man – Instrument system Measurement in biomedical instrumentation can be divided in to two 1.VIVO •Measurement is made on or within the human body •Eg . Device inserted in to the blood stream to measure PH of blood 2.VITRO •Measurement is performed outside of the body. •Eg . Measurement of blood PH from blood samples. 10 DEEPAK.P
  11. 11. DEEPAK.P11 Bioelectric Potentials
  12. 12. Sources of Bioelectric potentials The systems in the human body generate their on monitoring signals when they carry out their functions. These signals provide useful information about their function. Bioelectric potentials are actually ionic voltages produced as a result of electro chemical activity of certain cell. Transducers are used to convert these ionic potentials in to electrical signals 12 DEEPAK.P
  13. 13. Resting and Action potentials Certain types of cells within the body , such as nerve and muscle cells are encased in a semi permeable membrane. This membrane permits some substances to pass through while others are kept out. Surrounding the cells of the body are the body fluids These fluids are conductive solutions containing charged atoms known as ions 13 DEEPAK.P
  14. 14. Resting potentials The principle ions are sodium(Na+ ) Potassium(K+ ) and chloride(C- ) The membrane of excitable cells permit entry of Potassium(K+ ) and chloride(C- ) ions but blocks the entry of sodium(Na+ ) ions. So inside the cell is more negative than outside cell This membrane potentials is called Resting potentials This potential is measured from inside the cell with respect to body fluids. So resting potential of a cell is negative. 14 DEEPAK.P
  15. 15. Resting potentials/Polarization This resting potential ranging from -60mv to -100 mv. Cell in the resting state is called polarized cell. 15 DEEPAK.P Ground V Cell Membrane -70 mV
  16. 16. Depolarization of cell When a cell is exited, the membrane change its characteristic. The sodium ions are rushed in to the cell. At the same time potassium ions try move from inside. After a equilibrium state is reached, the sodium is moved back to outside 16 DEEPAK.P
  17. 17. Depolarization of cell 17 DEEPAK.P Cell Membrane Na+ Na+ Na+ Na+ Na+ Na+ Na+ Na+ K+ K+ K+ K+ K+ K+ K+ K+
  18. 18. Action potentials 18 DEEPAK.P Cell Membrane V Ground 20 mV
  19. 19. Re Polarization Cell comes from de polarized state in to polarized state is called Re polarization. 19 DEEPAK.P Ground V Cell Membrane -70 mV
  20. 20. Resting and Action potentials 20 DEEPAK.P
  21. 21. Propagation of Action potentials When a cell is exited and generates an action potentials ionic currents to flow. This process excite neighboring cells or adjacent area of the same cell 21 DEEPAK.P
  22. 22. DEEPAK.P22 Physiological Systems in Human body
  23. 23. Physiological systems of human body In simple terms "Human Physiology" is the study of the body and its functions in each of the different systems in any living body. 23 DEEPAK.P SystemInput Output
  24. 24. Physiological Systems in the Human body 24 DEEPAK.P Behavior Liquid wastes Solid wastes Body movements Expired air Appearance Speech Food intake Liquid intake Vision Smell Taste Hearing Inspired air Tactile sensation INPUTS OUTPUTS
  25. 25. Physiological systems of human body There are 11systems in the body: 1. The Skeletal System Bones & joints 2. Muscular System Skeletal muscle 3. Nervous System Brain, spinal cord & nerves 4. Endocrine System Hormone-producing cells & glands 5. Cardiovascular System Blood, heart & blood vessels 6. Respiratory System Lungs & airways 7. Digestive System Organs of the gastrointestinal tract 8. Urinary System Kidneys, bladder and ureters 9. Reproductive System Male & female reproductive organs 10.The Integumentary System The skin & derived structures 11.Lymphatic & Immune System Lymphatic vessels & fluid 25 DEEPAK.P
  26. 26. DEEPAK.P26 Physiology of Cardiovascular system
  27. 27. Physiology •Physiology can be classified in to 1.Cell Physiology • Study of cells 2.Patho Physiology • Pathological Functions 3.Circulatory Physiology • Study of blood circulation 4.Respiratory Physiology • Study of breathing organs 27 DEEPAK.P
  28. 28. Cardio Vascular system Cardio vascular system can be viewed as closed hydraulic system with 4 chamber pump. Cardio Vascular system is mainly used for transportation of oxygen, Carbon dioxide, numerous chemical compounds and the blood cells. •Pump-----Heart •Flexible tubes---Blood vessels 28 DEEPAK.P
  29. 29. Cardio Vascular system •In some part of the system diameter of the arteries are changed to control pressure. •Pump(heart) is a isolated two stage synchronized chamber 1.The first stage is to collect blood from the system and pump it in to 2nd stage. 2.The second stage then pump these blood to the system 29 DEEPAK.P
  30. 30. Heart & Valves 30 DEEPAK.P Right Atrio-ventricular valve Bicuspid/ Left Atrio-ventricular valve
  31. 31. Heart Layers Heart wall consists of three layers 1.Pericardium • Outer most layer, keeps outer surface moist, prevents friction 1.Myocardium • Middle layer, Main muscle of heart, made up of short cylindrical fibres 1.Endocardium • Inner layer of heart, Provides smooth lining for blood flow 31 DEEPAK.P
  32. 32. Heart Valves Heart has 4 valves 1.Tricuspid/Right Atrio-Ventricular valve • Between Right A and V, Prevents blood flow from right V to A 1.Bicuspid/ left Atrio-Ventricular valve • Between left A and V, Prevents blood flow from left V to A 1.Pulmonary valve • At right ventricle, It has 3 cusps 1.Aortic Valve • Between left ventricle and aorta, It has 3 cusps 32 DEEPAK.P
  33. 33. Cardio Vascular systems 33 DEEPAK.P
  34. 34. Cardio Vascular System One of the two stage pump(Right side) collect fluid from the system and pump it through oxygenation system(Lungs). Other side pump receives blood from oxygenation system(Lungs) and pump blood to main hydraulic system. Blood act as communication and supply network for all parts of the body 34 DEEPAK.P
  35. 35. Cardio Vascular system Fluid contains fuel suppliers and waste particles are transported to destination. Fluid contain mechanism for rejecting foreign elements and mechanism for repairing small system puncture. Sensors are provided to detect the changes in the need of suppliers, the build of waste material and out-of- tolerance pressure in the system known as chemoreceptors, Pco2 sensors and baroreceptors respectively.  35 DEEPAK.P
  36. 36. Cardio Vascular Circulation The blood is carried out to the various parts of the body through blood vessels. There are three types of blood vessels 1)Arteries--- Thick, Carries oxygenated blood 2)Veins--- Thin, De-oxygenated blood 3)Capillaries---Smallest, Last level of blood vessels, 800000 km of capillaries 36 DEEPAK.P
  37. 37. Cardio Vascular Circulation Heart pumps blood through the pulmonary circulation to the lungs and through the systemic circulation to the other parts of the body. 1)Pulmonary circulation 2)Systemic circulation In pulmonary circulation, venous blood(de-oxygenated) flows from right ventricle through pulmonary artery to lungs . The arterial( oxygenated) blood flows to left atrium through pulmonary veins. In systemic circulation blood flows from left auricle to left ventricle and it is pumped to aorta and its branches37 DEEPAK.P
  38. 38. Cardio Vascular Circulation 38 DEEPAK.P
  39. 39. DEEPAK.P39 Respiratory system
  40. 40. Respiratory systems It is the Pneumatic system. A system that work with air pressure. An air pump(diaphragm) which alternatively create negative and positive pressures in a sealed chamber(Thoracic cavity). Thoracic cavity sucked air in to and forced out to two elastic bags(Lungs). The lungs are connected to the external environment through a pass way (nasal cavities, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi and bronchioles) 40 DEEPAK.P
  41. 41. Respiratory systems 41 DEEPAK.P
  42. 42. Respiratory systems At one point , this passage is common with the tube that carries liquid and solids to stomach. A special valving arrangement interrupts the respiratory system whenever solid or liquid passes through the common region. The passage divides to carry air in to each bag. In each bag , it is sub divided many times to carry air in to and out of each of many tiny air spaces (pulmonary alveoli). 42 DEEPAK.P
  43. 43. Respiratory systems In case of nasal blockage , air input can be taken from mouth. Oxygen is taken from the air and transferred in to blood. Cabondioxide is transferred from blood to air. The system has a number of fixed volumes and capacities. 43 DEEPAK.P
  44. 44. Respiratory systems Tidal volume The volume inspired and expired during each normal breath Inspiratory reserve volume Additional volume that can be inspired after a normal inspiration. Expiratory reserve volume Additional volume that can be expired after a normal expiration. 44 DEEPAK.P
  45. 45. Respiratory systems Residual volume Amount of air remaining in the lungs after all possible air has been forced out. Vital capacity Tidal volume+ Inspiratory reserve volume+ Expiratory reserve volume 45 DEEPAK.P
  46. 46. Respiratory systems 46 DEEPAK.P
  47. 47. Blood purification in the human body The overall functioning of our body heavily depends on the proper functioning of our blood. We take toxins into our body daily and these toxins disrupts the functions of our internal organs. Regular detoxification of our blood is important Detoxifying the blood and body helps to remove harmful toxins from our body and improve the functioning of our vital organs such as the kidney and liver  47 DEEPAK.P
  48. 48. Blood purification in the human body When our body has too much toxins, our vital organs start to get damage and under-perform and we start to develop symptoms of allergies, low immunity, headaches, fatigue and several other health related problems. The lungs help remove carbon dioxide, the kidneys remove water-soluble waste and the liver removes fat soluble wastes and many other impurities from the blood. 48 DEEPAK.P
  49. 49. Blood purification by lungs The un oxygenated (unpurified) blood comes into right atrium of heart by superior and inferior vena-cava which then passes to right ventricle, then to lungs by pulmonary artery. In lungs this blood gets oxygenated (purified) which then goes into left chamber of heart from which blood is passed to aorta and then circulated to whole body  49 DEEPAK.P
  50. 50. Blood purification by lungs  50 DEEPAK.P
  51. 51. Blood purification by lungs  51 DEEPAK.P
  52. 52. DEEPAK.P52 Muscular System
  53. 53. Muscular System The muscular system is the biological system of humans that produces movement. It permits movement of the body, maintains posture, and circulates blood throughout the body. The muscular system is controlled through the nervous system. Muscles provide strength, balance, Posture, movement and heat for the body to keep warm. 53 DEEPAK.P
  54. 54. Muscular System • More than 50% of body weight is muscle. • Muscle is made up of proteins and water 54 DEEPAK.P
  55. 55. Muscular System There are three distinct types of muscles: skeletal muscles, cardiac or heart muscles, and smooth muscles. 55 DEEPAK.P
  56. 56. Muscular System Smooth muscle or "involuntary muscle" consists of spindle shaped muscle cells found within the walls of stomach, intestines, bronchi, uterus, ureters, bladder, and blood vessels. Smooth muscle cells contain only one nucleus. Cardiac muscle is also an "involuntary muscle" but it is striated in structure and appearance. Like smooth muscle, cardiac muscle cells contain only one nucleus. 56 DEEPAK.P
  57. 57. Muscular System Cardiac muscle is found only within the heart. Skeletal muscle or "voluntary muscle" is anchored by tendons to the bone and is used to effect skeletal movement such as locomotion. Skeletal muscle cells are multinucleated with the nuclei peripherally located. Skeletal muscle is called 'striated' because of the longitudinally striped appearance under light microscopy. 57 DEEPAK.P
  58. 58. Muscular System Muscle is composed of muscle cells (sometimes known as "muscle fibers"). Within the cells are myofibrils; myofibrils contain sarcomeres which are composed of actin and myosin. Individual muscle cells are lined with endomysium. Muscle cells are bound together by perimysium into bundles called fascicles. 58 DEEPAK.P
  59. 59. Muscular System These bundles are then grouped together to form muscle, and is lined by epimysium. 59 DEEPAK.P
  60. 60. Muscular System 60 DEEPAK.P
  61. 61. Muscular System 61 DEEPAK.P
  62. 62. DEEPAK.P62 Nervous systems
  63. 63. Nervous systems The task of controlling various functions of body and coordinating them in to a integrated living organism(human body) is the function of Nervous system It is the most complex system in the human body It is the communication network in the human body. It composed of Brain, Sensors, high speed communication links ,spinal cord. 63 DEEPAK.P
  64. 64. Nervous systems It provides regulation of body functions and sensory perception. Functions of Nervous systems 1. Control of the body 2. Integration 3. Communication 64 DEEPAK.P
  65. 65. Nervous systems Its center is a self adapting processor(Brain). Self adapting means --- If a certain section is damaged, other sections can adapt take over the function of damaged sections This processor has memory, computational power, decision making capability. 65 DEEPAK.P
  66. 66. Nervous systems With the use of this processor , human can take decisions, solve complex problems, create art, poetry and music, feel emotions and integrate input information from all parts of the body and produce output signals of meaningful information. Central computer has millions of communication lines( afferent and efferent nerves) that bring sensory information and transfer control information from brain. 66 DEEPAK.P
  67. 67. Nervous systems 67 DEEPAK.P
  68. 68. Nervous systems This lines are not single lines but complicated networks. Information signal are normally coded by means of electro chemical pulses that travel along the nerves. The output control signals are channeled to specific motor devices(motor units of muscles) 68 DEEPAK.P
  69. 69. Nervous systems In addition to brain , a large number of simple decision making g devices(Spinal reflexes) are present to control directly certain motor devices from certain sensory inputs.  69 DEEPAK.P
  70. 70. Divisions of Nervous systems The human nervous system can be divided into three main parts: 1. Central nervous system (CNS) *is composed of brain and spinal cord...* 2. Peripheral nervous system (PNS) *is composed of all body nerves that lie outside of your central nervous system...* 3. Autonomic nervous system (ANS) *Controls the involuntary actions of your body organs...* 70 DEEPAK.P
  71. 71. 1. Central Nervous systems Central Nervous System (CNS) Structures of the CNS: [1]  Brain [2]  Spinal cord The CNS coordinates and interprets information to determine the best response  71 DEEPAK.P
  72. 72. Anatomy of the Central Nervous systems 72 DEEPAK.P Spinal cord Cerebellum Brain stem Cerebrum
  73. 73. 2. Peripheral Nervous systems The primary role of the PNS is to connect the CNS to the organs, limbs and skin. The nerves that make up the peripheral nervous system are actually the axons or bundles of axons from neuron cells. The peripheral nervous system is divided into two parts: The somatic nervous system The autonomic nervous system 73 DEEPAK.P
  74. 74. Somatic Nervous systems The somatic system is the part of the peripheral nervous system responsible for carrying sensory and motor information to and from the central nervous system. This system contains two major types of neurons: Sensory neurons (or afferent neurons) that carry information from the nerves to the central nervous system. Motor neurons (or efferent neurons) that carry information from the brain and spinal cord to muscle fibers throughout the body. 74 DEEPAK.P
  75. 75. 3. Autonomic Nervous systems The autonomic system is the part of the peripheral nervous system responsible for regulating involuntary (reflex/Un intentional)body functions, such as blood flow, heartbeat, digestion and breathing. This system is further divided into two branches: The sympathetic system regulates the flight-or-fight responses. 75 DEEPAK.P
  76. 76. Autonomic Nervous systems The "fight or flight response" is our body's primitive, automatic, inborn response that prepares the body to "fight" or "flee" from perceived attack, harm or threat to our survival. Parasympathetic system helps maintain normal body functions and conserves physical resources 76 DEEPAK.P
  77. 77. Anatomy of the Nervous systems Basic unit of nervous system is the neuron. Neurons are the basic building blocks of the nervous system. Neuron is a single cell with a cell body. It is sometimes called soma 77 DEEPAK.P
  78. 78. Anatomy of the Nervous systems Neuron cells are the information-processing units of the brain responsible for receiving and transmitting information. One or more I/P fibers branches are called dendrites Long transmitting fiber is called axon Each part of the neuron plays a role in the communication of information throughout the body. 78 DEEPAK.P
  79. 79. Anatomy of the Nervous systems 79 DEEPAK.P
  80. 80. Anatomy of the Nervous systems Neurons Composed of: a. Cell Body Part that contains the nucleus b. Dendrite(s) Carries a nerve impulse towards the cell body c. Axon(s) Carries a nerve impulse away from the cell body (and towards the dendrite of the next neuron) Axons are also called nerve fibers. 80 DEEPAK.P
  81. 81. Types of Neurons The three basic types of idealized neurons include; Bipolar, (Pseudo) Uni polar Multi polar neurons, Typically these neurons are found in different places around the body: 81 DEEPAK.P
  82. 82. Types of Neurons 82 DEEPAK.P
  83. 83. Types of Neurons Bipolar – Specialized sensory neurons for the transmission of special senses. As such, they are part of the sensory pathways for smell, sight, taste and hearing functions. The most common example are the bipolar neurons found in the retina 83 DEEPAK.P
  84. 84. Types of Neurons (Pseudo) Unipolar Many types of primary sensory neurons are Unipolar. Multi polar – Multi polar neurons constitute the majority of neurons in the brain and include motor neurons and interneuron's. 84 DEEPAK.P
  85. 85. DEEPAK.P85 Sources of Biomedical Signals
  86. 86. Sources of Biomedical Signals  86 DEEPAK.P
  87. 87. DEEPAK.P87 Bio- Potential Electrodes
  88. 88. Measurement of Bioelectric potentials To measure bioelectric potentials , a transducer is required. Electrical signals produced by various body activities are used in monitoring / diagnosis In order to measure and record potentials and, hence, currents in the body, it is necessary to provide some interface between the body and the electronic measuring apparatus. .88 DEEPAK.P
  89. 89. Bio Potential Electrodes Bio-potential electrodes carry out this interface function. A transducer consists of two electrodes, which measure ionic potential difference between two points. The designation of the Bio potential waveform ends with “Gram”. The name of the instrument bio potential normally ends with “Graph” 89 DEEPAK.P
  90. 90. Bio Potential Electrodes Propagation of action potential through different body tissues produces final waveform recorded by electrodes Electrical activity is explained by differences in ion concentrations within the body (sodium, Na+; cloride, Cl–; potassium, K+) A potential difference (voltage) occurs between 2 points with different ionic concentrations 90 DEEPAK.P
  91. 91. DEEPAK.P91 Electrodes Theory
  92. 92. Equivalent circuit for bio-potential electrode 92 DEEPAK.P Body Electrolytes Vha=Electrode potential developed across interface C=Charges at the Interface at the skin metal interface MetalElectrode
  93. 93. Equivalent circuit for bio-potential with two electrode 94 DEEPAK.P
  94. 94. Bio Potential Electrodes Bio-potential electrodes transduce ionic conduction to electronic conduction so that bio-potential signals can be obtained They generally consist of metal contacts packaged so that they can be easily attached to the skin or other body tissues 95 DEEPAK.P
  95. 95. DEEPAK.P96 Classification of Electrodes
  96. 96. Bio Potential Electrodes 1. Micro Electrodes--- Bio electric potential near or within a single cell Metal Type—Tip must be tungsten or stainless steel Micro pipette---It is a glass micropipet with size of 1 micron, It is filled with electrolyte 2. Skin surface electrode —Measure ECG,EEG,EMG 3. Needle electrode ---Penetrate the skin to record EEG 97 DEEPAK.P
  97. 97. Microelectrodes Used to measure bio-potential signals at the cellular level Due to small dimensions (mm), impedance levels are high So amplifier needs very high input impedance
  98. 98. Microelectrodes
  99. 99. METAL MICROELECTRODES
  100. 100. MICROPIPETTE ELECTRODES
  101. 101. Surface electrodes These are placed in contact with the skin of the subject Early stages immersion electrodes were used. A bucket of saline water is used An improvement of immersion electrode is the plate electrode. Another old type electrode is suction type
  102. 102. Immersion electrodes
  103. 103. Surface electrodes
  104. 104. METAL-PLATE ELECTRODES Historically, one of the most frequently used forms of bio-potential sensing electrodes is the metal-plate electrode. In its simplest form, it consists of a metallic conductor in contact with the skin. An electrolyte soaked pad or gel is used to establish and maintain the contact.
  105. 105. METAL-PLATE ELECTRODES
  106. 106. Floating electrodes Conductive paste reduces effect of electrode slippage and resulting motion artifact
  107. 107. Needle electrodes Unipolar electrode---Single wire inside a needle Bipolar electrode---Two wires inside a needle Mostly used for contacting with internal body tissues (a) Insulated needle electrode . (b) Coaxial needle electrode . (c) Bipolar coaxial electrode . (d) Fine -wire electrode connected to hypodermic needle, before being inserted . (e) Coiled fine -wire electrode in place
  108. 108. Needle electrodes
  109. 109. Implantable electrodes
  110. 110. ELECTRODE ARRAYS
  111. 111. ELECTRODE ARRAYS
  112. 112. DEEPAK.P113 Transducers
  113. 113. Transducers A transducer is necessary to convert one variable in to another form Used to measure physiological variables Variable is a quantity that vary with time. The term active and passive has different meaning when they are applied to Transducers 114 DEEPAK.P
  114. 114. Transducers Transducer can be classified in to two Active Transducer Known principles is used to convert variables in to electrical signal Passive Transducer It involves control of an excitation voltage or modulation of a carrier signal 115 DEEPAK.P
  115. 115. Principles used in Active Transducers It can convert electrical signal in to physical variables and also in reverse direction. 1. Magnetic Induction 2. Piezoelectric effect 3. Thermoelectric effect 4. Photoelectric effect 116 DEEPAK.P
  116. 116. Passive Transducers Utilize the principles of controlling a DC excitation or an AC carrier signal. It consists of a passive circuit element which changes it value as a function of physical variables to be measured. It cannot convert electrical signal in to physical variables 117 DEEPAK.P
  117. 117. Principles used in Passive Transducers Using Resistive element 1. Ordinary Potentiometer a. Linear b. Rotary 2. Strain gage a. Un bonded b. Bonded c. Semiconductor strain gage Using Inductive element 1. Variable reluctance Transducer  LVDT • Using Capacitive element 118 DEEPAK.P
  118. 118. Transducers for Biomedical field 1. Force transducer 2. Photoelectric displacement transducer 3. Pressure Transducers 4. Flow transducers 5. Transducers with digital O/P 119 DEEPAK.P
  119. 119. Transducers for Biomedical field 1. Resistive transducers - Muscle force and Stress (Strain guge), Spirometry (Potentiont) , humidity, (Gamstrers), Respiration (Thermistor) 2. Inductive Transducers - Flow measurements, muscle movement (LVDT) 3. Capacitive Transducers - Heart sound measurement, Pulse pick up 4. Photoelectric Transducers - Pulse transducers, Blood pressure, oxygen Analyses 5. Piezoelectric Transducers - Pulse pickup, ultrasonic blood flowmeter 6. Chemcial Transducer - Ag-Agfallas (Electrodes, PH electrode 120 DEEPAK.P
  120. 120. DEEPAK.P121 Ag-Agcl Electrode
  121. 121. Reference Electrode The usual method of measuring the ion concentration by combination of two electrode. 1. Active Electrode 2. Reference Electrode • Commonly used reference electrode is Hydrogen Electrode. • It contains a piece of platinum wire partially immersed in a solution containing hydrogen ions. • This electrode is not stable. • Two stable electrodes are 1. Silver- Silver chloride Electrode 2. Calomel Electrode 122 DEEPAK.P
  122. 122. Ag-Agcl Electrode A silver chloride electrode is a type of reference electrode, commonly used in electrochemical measurements. The silver/silver chloride reference electrode is a widely used reference electrode because it is simple, inexpensive, very stable and non-toxic. Typical laboratory electrodes use a silver wire that is coated with a thin layer of silver chloride either by electroplating or by dipping the wire in molten silver chloride. 123 DEEPAK.P
  123. 123. Ag-Agcl Electrode  124 DEEPAK.P
  124. 124. Ag-Agcl Electrode The electrode functions as a redox electrode and the reaction is between the silver metal (Ag) and its salt — silver chloride (AgCl, also called silver(I) chloride). 125 DEEPAK.P
  125. 125. DEEPAK.P126 pH Electrode
  126. 126. pH Meter  127 DEEPAK.P
  127. 127. pH Electrode This is a device for measuring the concentration of hydrogen ions and hence the degree of acidity of a solution. pH is defined as the negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration. pH=7 means a concentration of 1x10-7 moles per litre. The most essential component of a pH electrode is a special, sensitive glass membrane which permits the passage of hydrogen ions, but no other ionic species. 128 DEEPAK.P
  128. 128. pH Electrode The relationship between the ionic concentration (activity) and the electrode potential is given by the Nernst equation: E = E0 + (2.303RT/ nF) x Log(A) Where   E = the total potential (in mV) developed between the sensing and reference electrodes.  E0 = is a constant which is characteristic of the particular ISE/reference pair.  (It is the sum of all the liquid junction potentials in the electrochemical cell, see later)  2.303 = the conversion factor from natural to base10 logarithm.  R = the Gas Constant (8.314 joules/degree/mole).  T = the Absolute Temperature.  n = the charge on the ion (with sign).  F = the Faraday Constant (96,500 coulombs).  Log(A) = the logarithm of the activity of the measured ion.  129 DEEPAK.P
  129. 129. pH Electrode When the electrode is immersed in a test solution containing hydrogen ions the external ions diffuse through the membrane until an equilibrium is reached between the external and internal concentrations. Thus there is a build up of charge on the inside of the membrane which is proportional to the number of hydrogen ions in the external solution. The potential difference developed across the membrane is in fact directly proportional to the Logarithm of the ionic concentration in the external solution. 130 DEEPAK.P
  130. 130. pH Reference Electrode  131 DEEPAK.P
  131. 131. pH Electrode  132 DEEPAK.P
  132. 132. Glass pH Electrode  133 DEEPAK.P

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