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Stuart hall ppt

cultural identity by stuart hall

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Stuart hall ppt

  1. 1. Cultural Identity and Diaspora - Stuart Hall
  2. 2. Stuart Hall  Stuart McPhail Hall,(3 February 1932 – 10 February 2014) was a Jamaican-born cultural theorist and sociologist.  Widely known as “godfather of multiculturalism"
  3. 3. Introduction:  Stuart Hall begins his discussion on Cultural Identity and Diaspora with a discussion on the emerging New Cinema in the Caribbean which is known as Third Cinema.  This new form of cinema is considered as the visual representation of the Afro-Caribbean subjects – “ blacks” of the diasporas of the West- the new post colonial subjects.  Using this discussion as a starting point Hall addresses the issues of identity, cultural practices and cultural production.
  4. 4. Cutural Identity and Diaspora:  Hall enunciates two different ways of thinking about cultural identity. The first one defines cultural identity in terms of ‘one shared culture.’  A Caribbean or black diaspora must discover, excavate, bring to light and express through cinematic representation, this identity  This understanding did play a crucial role in the Negritude movements.
  5. 5.  The second point that Hall points out is the related but different view of cultural identity.  This is an identity understood as unstable, metamorphic and even contradictory which signifies an identity marked by multiple points of similarities as well as differences.  Africans at the angle of “ what they are” and “ what they have become.”
  6. 6.  These writers of African diaspora have come out with “ one experience and ‘identity,’ along the other side, that is ‘ the ruptures and discontinuities which form the essence of Caribbean uniqueness.  Cultural identity is a matter of ‘becoming’ as well as of ‘being.’  Cultural identities come from somewhere, have histories, yet they undergo constant transformation.
  7. 7.  Hall elaborates the meaning of colonial experience through his second point.  The westerners had the power to make us see and experience through ourselves as ‘Other.’ Cultural identity is not a fixed essence. It has its histories and the past continuous to speak to us. It is always constructed through memory, fantasy, narrative, myth.  From the second point Hall confirms that one can understand the traumatic character of the “colonial experience.”
  8. 8.  Hall brings in the theory of Derrida to understand the difficulty of blacks to imitate the western style.  Derrida’s use of the word ‘differences’ offers a couple of meanings. Hall interprets it saying, meaning of a word is never finished or completed, but keeps on moving to encompass other, additional or supplementary meanings.
  9. 9.  Hall enumerates the repositioning of Caribbean cultural identities in relation to at least three presence- ‘ Presence Africanne’, ‘Presence Europeenne’, and ‘Presence Americaine.’  Only in 1970’s this Afro-Caribbean identity became historically available to Jamaican people.
  10. 10.  ‘Presence Africane’ is an origin of the displaced Africans identities.  The original Africa is no longer there. Hall pleads for restoration of Africa of all its pristine values by all especially by the Caribbeans.  Hall finds a delicate difference between Africa and Europe. ‘ Where Africa was a case of the unspoken, Europe was a case of hat which is endlessly speaking.’
  11. 11.  In terms of colonialism, underdevelopment, poverty and the racism of color, the European presence is that which, invisible representation, has positioned the black subject within its dominant regimes of representations.
  12. 12.  ‘Presence Europeenne’ is about exclusion, imposition and expropriation and therefore that power is considered as wholly external to the displaced African writers. They have to face the dominating European presence.  The New World is the third term- where the fatal encounter was staged between Africa and West.
  13. 13.  ‘ Presence Americaine’ continues to have its silence, its suppressions.  Diaspora are those, which are constantly producing and reproducing themselves a new. Thorough transformation and differences.  Hall brings he readers attention to the inevitable fact that the ‘uniqueness’ of Caribbean is the mixes of colors, pigmentation and also the blends of tastes that is Caribbean.
  14. 14. Conclusion:  In the newly emerging cinemas of the Caribbean islands, one has to apply a new relationship of the past, thus bringing together a new relationship of the past and a new cultural identity.  The modern black cinemas, according to Hall, reflect and recognize the different parts and histories of theirselves, thus constructing the points of identification of their cultural identities.

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