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Mr ASHOK BISHNOI
Lecturer JINR
• First described by German psychiatrist
◦ Alois Alzheimer (1906)
Introduction:-
“is a slowly progressive disease of the brain
that is characterized by impairment of
memory and eventually by disturbances...
• Generally diagnosed in people over 65 years of
age
 -Early-onset (before 65); only 5-10% of patients
• 4.5+ million Ame...
 Idiopathic
 Cholinergic hypothesis
◦ -Caused by reduced synthesis of acetylcholine
◦ -Destruction of these neurons caus...
• Obesity
• High blood pressure
• Head trauma
• High cholesterol
• Depression
• Lower rates in highly educated
• Family hi...
Due to etiological factor
Amyloidosis ( Amyloid Decreased production
of acetylcholine
preserved protein
deposition in neur...
1.Mild AD:-
Memory disturbance
Poor judgement
Irritability
Agitation
Suspicious
Apathy
Cognitive impairment
Clinica...
2.Moderate A D:-
 Language disturbance
 Impaired word finding
 Spontaneous speech
 Paraphrasis (word used in the wrong...
3.Severe A D:-
Communication disturbance
Urinary, faecal incontinence
Pneumonia
 Memory loss that disrupts daily life.
 Challenges in planning or solving problems.
Some people may
experience changes i...
 New problems with words in speaking
or writing.
 Misplacing things and losing the
ability to retrace steps.
 Decreased...
 History
 Physical examination
 (MSE) Mental State Examination (used to
evaluate the cognitive impairments)
 C.T Scan
...
.
PET scan of the brain of a person with AD showing a loss of
function in the temporal lobe.
 Aricept Used to delay or slow the symptoms of AD
Donepezil • Loses its effect over time
• Used for mild, moderate and se...
Nursing management:-
ppt on Alzheimer’s disease
ppt on Alzheimer’s disease
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ppt on Alzheimer’s disease

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PPT regardind Alzheimer’s disease

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ppt on Alzheimer’s disease

  1. 1. Mr ASHOK BISHNOI Lecturer JINR
  2. 2. • First described by German psychiatrist ◦ Alois Alzheimer (1906) Introduction:-
  3. 3. “is a slowly progressive disease of the brain that is characterized by impairment of memory and eventually by disturbances in reasoning, planning, language, & perception” Definition:-
  4. 4. • Generally diagnosed in people over 65 years of age  -Early-onset (before 65); only 5-10% of patients • 4.5+ million Americans suffer from it • 1 in 6 women over 55 • 1 in 10 men over 55 Incidence:-
  5. 5.  Idiopathic  Cholinergic hypothesis ◦ -Caused by reduced synthesis of acetylcholine ◦ -Destruction of these neurons causes disruptions in distant neuronal networks (perception, memory, judgment)  Amyloid hypothesis ◦ -Abnormal breakdown; buildup of amyloid beta deposits ◦ -Damaged amyloid proteins build to toxic levels, causing call damage and death Genetics Etiology:-
  6. 6. • Obesity • High blood pressure • Head trauma • High cholesterol • Depression • Lower rates in highly educated • Family history Risk factors:-
  7. 7. Due to etiological factor Amyloidosis ( Amyloid Decreased production of acetylcholine preserved protein deposition in neurone) Memory loss, Forgetfulness, Depression, Loss their familiar Phases, Place, Object & Environment Pathophysiology:-
  8. 8. 1.Mild AD:- Memory disturbance Poor judgement Irritability Agitation Suspicious Apathy Cognitive impairment Clinical Manifestations according to types:-
  9. 9. 2.Moderate A D:-  Language disturbance  Impaired word finding  Spontaneous speech  Paraphrasis (word used in the wrong context)  Motor disturbance  Hyper orality (the desire to take everything in to the mouth to suck, chew, taste)  Swallowing difficulty  Depression  Delusion
  10. 10. 3.Severe A D:- Communication disturbance Urinary, faecal incontinence Pneumonia
  11. 11.  Memory loss that disrupts daily life.  Challenges in planning or solving problems. Some people may experience changes in their ability to develop and follow a plan or work with numbers. They may have trouble following a familiar recipe or keeping track of monthly bills. They may have difficulty concentrating and take much longer to do things than they did before.  Difficulty completing familiar tasks at home, at work.  Confusion with time or place.  Trouble understanding visual images and spatial relationships.
  12. 12.  New problems with words in speaking or writing.  Misplacing things and losing the ability to retrace steps.  Decreased or poor judgment.  Withdrawal from work or social activities.  Changes in mood and personality.
  13. 13.  History  Physical examination  (MSE) Mental State Examination (used to evaluate the cognitive impairments)  C.T Scan  MRI  PET Diagnostic evaluation:-
  14. 14. . PET scan of the brain of a person with AD showing a loss of function in the temporal lobe.
  15. 15.  Aricept Used to delay or slow the symptoms of AD Donepezil • Loses its effect over time • Used for mild, moderate and severe AD • Does not prevent or cure AD  Celexa Citalopram Used to reduce depression and anxiety • May take 4 to 6 weeks to work • Sometimes used to help people get to sleep  Depakote Used to treat severe aggression Sodium Valproate • Also used to treat depression and anxiety  Exelon Used to delay or slow the symptoms of AD Rivastigmine • Loses its effect over time • Used for mild to moderate AD • Can get in pill form or as a skin patch • Does not prevent or cure AD Management of AD:-
  16. 16. Nursing management:-

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