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Literature search, citation and
referencing
11/4/2017 Literature search, citation and referencing
Ashok Pandey
Research As...
Literature Review
Written explanation by you
In writing the literature review:
- your purpose is to convey to your reader ...
Literature Review
What information is already available?
- literatures and other sources
- audience:
receiver (researcher)...
Why?- Literature Review
Why? (in general)
• to avoid duplication
• to focus on the topic
• to better understand about subj...
•Demonstrating your skill and ability in library
searching
•Showing command of the subject area and
understanding of the p...
Literature search
Before you can write your literature review
1.Define your terms: Compile a list of keywords – and synony...
Sources of Literature
Published information (books, articles, indexes,
abstract journals)
Unpublished information (other r...
•Opinions, beliefs of key informants (through
interviews), in addition to written sources.
•Clinic- and hospital- based da...
•Articles from national journals, books identified
during literature searches at university and other
national libraries, ...
Rules for Good Literature Review
• Identify and discuss the relevant key study on the topic
• Include as much update mater...
Rules for Good Literature Review
•Use illustrations and examples to justify your
analyses and arguments
•Be analytical, ev...
Searching in the Internet
•Using online version of the Journals
•Using database: Pubmed, Hinari, Medline, Science
Direct, ...
Searching Outside the Library
•Discuss with experts
•Contact with supervisors
•Discuss with local people, non medical
prof...
Searching in the Internet
•Use a search engine: Yahoo, Google…..
•Use keywords, synonymous words of your topic
•Use journa...
Searching in Databases
11/4/2017 Literature search, citation and referencing
Database About
High quality evidence only!
NH...
11/4/2017 Literature search, citation and referencing
Exercise
Find out the difference
11/4/2017 Literature search, citation and referencing
Yahoo Google Google scholar
11/4/2017 Literature search, citation and referencing
Exercise
Find out the difference
Practical
11/4/2017 Literature search, citation and referencing
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28057047
11/4/2017 Literature search, citation and referencing
Full text searching
11/4/2017 Literature search, citation and referencing
https://sci-hub.cc/
11/4/2017 Literature search, citation and referencing
Hinari
http://www.who.int/hinari/about/en/
11/4/2017 Literature search, citation and referencing
Referencing
11/4/2017 Literature search, citation and referencing
What is Referencing?
Referencing is a standardized method of
acknowledging sources of information and ideas that
you have ...
Citation and Referencing
Citation is what you do in the actual text of your
assignment when you want to indicate the sourc...
References & citations
Ambiguous: Dioxins have been reported to cause cancer in
humans, dogs, rabbits, and squirrels (Birn...
Bibliography
If relevant sources that are not cited in the text are included, the list is called a
bibliography.
E.g
•Pand...
Reference Software
1. EndNote
2. Reference Manager
3. Mendeley
4. Zotero
Mendeley and Zotero are free, so you can look int...
11/4/2017 Literature search, citation and referencing
Referencing in Endnotes
11/4/2017 Literature search, citation and referencing
11/4/2017 Literature search, citation and referencing
Practice
Download and install Mendeley
Open Mendeley
Install MS word Plugin
Install Web Importer
Create the folder
Import ...
Reference style for Vancouver style
11/4/2017 Literature search, citation and referencing
Citing Journal: Use of ; : . space
11/4/2017 Literature search, citation and referencing
Authors. Title of article. Abbrev...
Citing Journal in the Internet
Format: Author/s (full-stop after last author, 1 space) Title of article (full-
stop, 1 spa...
Citing Website
Format: Author (full-stop after last author, 1 space) Title (full-
stop, 1 space) [Online] (full stop, 1 sp...
Citing Software
• Format: Title (1 space) medium in square brackets [eg. computer
program, computer file] (full-stop, 1 sp...
Citing Newspapers
Format: Author if given (full-stop, 1 space) Title of article
(full-stop, 1 space) Name of newspaper (1 ...
Personal Communications
• Personal communications should be included in the text of your document,
but they should not be ...
Conversation
• In a conversation with a colleague from the School of Population
Health (Jameson LI 2002, oral communicatio...
11/4/2017 Literature search, citation and referencing
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Literature review in Research

In writing the literature review:
your purpose is to convey to your reader what knowledge and ideas have been established on a topic, and what their strengths and weaknesses are.

It is not just a descriptive list of the material available or a set of summaries."

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Literature review in Research

  1. 1. Literature search, citation and referencing 11/4/2017 Literature search, citation and referencing Ashok Pandey Research Associate NHRC
  2. 2. Literature Review Written explanation by you In writing the literature review: - your purpose is to convey to your reader what knowledge and ideas have been established on a topic, and what their strengths and weaknesses are. - It is not just a descriptive list of the material available, or a set of summaries." 11/4/2017 Literature search, citation and referencing
  3. 3. Literature Review What information is already available? - literatures and other sources - audience: receiver (researcher) recipient (readers/reviewers) - basic knowledge vs. adaptation to local need - quality and correctness of the reviewed literature - relevant (title, abstract, full text sequence) 11/4/2017 Literature search, citation and referencing
  4. 4. Why?- Literature Review Why? (in general) • to avoid duplication • to focus on the topic • to better understand about subject area • to develop and to inform research approach • to develop justification of the study • to develop conceptual framework of the study 11/4/2017 Literature search, citation and referencing
  5. 5. •Demonstrating your skill and ability in library searching •Showing command of the subject area and understanding of the problems •Justifying the research topic, design and methodology 11/4/2017 Literature search, citation and referencing Review of literature: as an indicator of your knowledge on the topic
  6. 6. Literature search Before you can write your literature review 1.Define your terms: Compile a list of keywords – and synonyms for them 2. Search creatively: libraries, indexes and electronic databases, and the Internet. 3. Use the library 4. Journals Other less obvious sources • Conference papers • National and local Government publications • Publishers’ websites. 11/4/2017 Literature search, citation and referencing
  7. 7. Sources of Literature Published information (books, articles, indexes, abstract journals) Unpublished information (other research proposals in related fields, reports, records, computer data bases) Experts, scientific societies and organisations 11/4/2017 Literature search, citation and referencing
  8. 8. •Opinions, beliefs of key informants (through interviews), in addition to written sources. •Clinic- and hospital- based data from routine statistics, registers. •Clinical observations, reports of critical incidents. •Local surveys, annual service reports. •Statistics issued at provincial and district levels. •Newspapers, books, articles, mimeographed reports, etc. 11/4/2017 Literature search, citation and referencing
  9. 9. •Articles from national journals, books identified during literature searches at university and other national libraries, WHO, UNICEF libraries, etc. •Special collections, e.g., newspaper clippings, archival records, library or congress collections. •Documentation, reports and raw data from the Ministry of Health (e.g., 5-year plans), Central statistical offices, Non-governmental organisations, Bilateral and multilateral organisations (e.g., USAID, UNICEF, WHO). 11/4/2017 Literature search, citation and referencing
  10. 10. Rules for Good Literature Review • Identify and discuss the relevant key study on the topic • Include as much update material as possible • Critically evaluate the material and show your analysesDon’t omit classic word with out proper reference • Don’t use jargon • Don’t use the list of the materials 11/4/2017 Literature search, citation and referencing
  11. 11. Rules for Good Literature Review •Use illustrations and examples to justify your analyses and arguments •Be analytical, evaluative and critical and show this in your review •Make your review worth reading by making yourself clear, systematic, coherent •Explain why the topic is interesting 11/4/2017 Literature search, citation and referencing
  12. 12. Searching in the Internet •Using online version of the Journals •Using database: Pubmed, Hinari, Medline, Science Direct, CINAHL, Psychinfo, Cochrane, the lancet •Online magazines, e-books, etc. 11/4/2017 Literature search, citation and referencing
  13. 13. Searching Outside the Library •Discuss with experts •Contact with supervisors •Discuss with local people, non medical professional (to get different perspectives) •Discuss and share with your friends •Try to get many comments 11/4/2017 Literature search, citation and referencing
  14. 14. Searching in the Internet •Use a search engine: Yahoo, Google….. •Use keywords, synonymous words of your topic •Use journal+ keyword to find articles in the journal •Use “keywords” to avoid unrelated materials •Use keywords pdf to get PDF file only •Use keywords ppt to get power point file only •Joining chat groups, email group, professional association •Searching bibliographies in encyclopedias such as www.answer.com 11/4/2017 Literature search, citation and referencing
  15. 15. Searching in Databases 11/4/2017 Literature search, citation and referencing Database About High quality evidence only! NHS Evidence Great place to get the cream of the evidence – searches a limited number of high quality sources. TRIP database Great place to get the cream of the evidence – searches a limited number of high quality sources. Cochrane Library The source of systematic reviews. Royal Marsden Manual of Clinical Nursing Procedures includes over 350 evidence-based clinical procedures related to every aspect of care, from hand-washing to cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Great General Databases Pubmed Medline via Raven Medline via NHS ATHENS Great starting point for any health or medical literature search.
  16. 16. 11/4/2017 Literature search, citation and referencing
  17. 17. Exercise Find out the difference 11/4/2017 Literature search, citation and referencing Yahoo Google Google scholar
  18. 18. 11/4/2017 Literature search, citation and referencing Exercise Find out the difference
  19. 19. Practical 11/4/2017 Literature search, citation and referencing
  20. 20. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28057047 11/4/2017 Literature search, citation and referencing
  21. 21. Full text searching 11/4/2017 Literature search, citation and referencing
  22. 22. https://sci-hub.cc/ 11/4/2017 Literature search, citation and referencing
  23. 23. Hinari http://www.who.int/hinari/about/en/ 11/4/2017 Literature search, citation and referencing
  24. 24. Referencing 11/4/2017 Literature search, citation and referencing
  25. 25. What is Referencing? Referencing is a standardized method of acknowledging sources of information and ideas that you have used in your assignment, in a way that uniquely identifies their source. Both published and unpublished works must be referenced 11/4/2017 Literature search, citation and referencing
  26. 26. Citation and Referencing Citation is what you do in the actual text of your assignment when you want to indicate the source you have used or from which you have quoted e.g. Video and the participatory lecture are the most effective health education techniques for effective delivery of HIV/AIDS. (Pandey et al., 2015) Referencing is what do you do at the end of an assignment when you list the sources you have cited in the text e.g. Pandey, A., Umashankar, S., Dai, H., Pandit, C., Kunwar, M., Pandey, M., & Rai, N. (2015). Assessing Health Education Techniques in Enhancing the Knowledge of HIV/AIDS among Adolescents. International STD Research & Reviews, 3(1), 1–7. doi:10.9734/ISRR/2015/10961 11/4/2017 Literature search, citation and referencing
  27. 27. References & citations Ambiguous: Dioxins have been reported to cause cancer in humans, dogs, rabbits, and squirrels (Birnbaum et al, 2001; Xie and Lozano 2004; Flores, 2008). Dioxin induced cancer has been reported in humans, dogs, rabbits, and squirrels 1,2,3. vs. Clear: Dioxins have been reported to cause cancer in humans (Birnbaum et al, 2001), dogs (Xie and Lozano, 2004), and rabbits and squirrels (Flores, 2008). Dioxin induced cancer has been reported in humans,1 dogs,2 rabbits, and squirrels3. 11/4/2017 Literature search, citation and referencing
  28. 28. Bibliography If relevant sources that are not cited in the text are included, the list is called a bibliography. E.g •Pandey, A. (2014). Challenges Experienced by Adolescent Girls while Menstruation in Kathmandu, Valley: A Qualitative Study. Journal of Community Medicine & Health Education, 04(03), 41–45. doi:10.4172/2161-0711.1000285 •Chataut, R., Pandey, A., & Rao, N. S. N. (2015). and Cost of Care among Cancer Patients in Nepal, 2, 1–5. •Pandey, A., Umashankar, S., Dai, H., Pandit, C., Kunwar, M., Pandey, M., & Rai, N. (2015). Assessing Health Education Techniques in Enhancing the Knowledge of HIV/AIDS among Adolescents. International STD Research & Reviews, 3(1), 1– 7. doi:10.9734/ISRR/2015/10961 11/4/2017 Literature search, citation and referencing
  29. 29. Reference Software 1. EndNote 2. Reference Manager 3. Mendeley 4. Zotero Mendeley and Zotero are free, so you can look into using one of these if you do not have access to the others. 11/4/2017 Literature search, citation and referencing Computer –based References minimize error
  30. 30. 11/4/2017 Literature search, citation and referencing
  31. 31. Referencing in Endnotes 11/4/2017 Literature search, citation and referencing
  32. 32. 11/4/2017 Literature search, citation and referencing
  33. 33. Practice Download and install Mendeley Open Mendeley Install MS word Plugin Install Web Importer Create the folder Import the article files, etc to Mendeley Go to MS word 11/4/2017 Literature search, citation and referencing
  34. 34. Reference style for Vancouver style 11/4/2017 Literature search, citation and referencing
  35. 35. Citing Journal: Use of ; : . space 11/4/2017 Literature search, citation and referencing Authors. Title of article. Abbreviated Title of Journal. year; vol(issue):page number(s).
  36. 36. Citing Journal in the Internet Format: Author/s (full-stop after last author, 1 space) Title of article (full- stop, 1 space) Abbreviated title of electronic journal (1 space) [serial online] (1 space) Publication year (1 space) month(s) - if available (1 space) [cited year month (abbreviated) day] - in square brackets (semi colon, 1 space) Volume number (no space) Issue number if applicable in round brackets (colon) Page numbers or number of screens in square brackets (full-stop, 1 space) Available from (colon, 1 space) URL:URL address underlined Morse SS. Factors in the emergence of infectious disease. Emerg Infect Dis [serial online] 1995 Jan-Mar [cited 1999 Dec 25]; 1(1):[24 screens]. Available from: URL: http://www/cdc/gov/ncidoc/EID/eid.htm 11/4/2017 Literature search, citation and referencing
  37. 37. Citing Website Format: Author (full-stop after last author, 1 space) Title (full- stop, 1 space) [Online] (full stop, 1 space) Publication Year (1 space) [cited year month (abbreviated) day] (semi colon) Number of screens in square brackets or pages (full-stop, 1 space) Available from (colon, 1 space) URL: (no space) URL address underlined Example: Royal College of General Practitioners. The primary health care team. [Online]. 1998 [cited 1999 Aug 22];[10 screens]. Available from: URL:http://ww.rcgp.org.uk/informat/publicat/rcf0021.htm 11/4/2017 Literature search, citation and referencing
  38. 38. Citing Software • Format: Title (1 space) medium in square brackets [eg. computer program, computer file] (full-stop, 1 space) Version (full-stop, 1 space) Place of production (colon, 1 space) Producer (semi-colon, 1 space) Year (full-stop) Example: Epi Info [computer program]. Version 6. Atlanta (GA): Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 1994. 11/4/2017 Literature search, citation and referencing
  39. 39. Citing Newspapers Format: Author if given (full-stop, 1 space) Title of article (full-stop, 1 space) Name of newspaper (1 space) Date of edition (year Month Day) (semi-colon, no space) Section if applicable (section abbreviated to Sect.) (colon, no space) Page/s (1 space) Column number in round brackets (column abbreviated to col.) (full-stop) Lee G. Hospitalizations tied to ozone pollution: study estimates 50,000 admissions annually. The Washington Post 1996 Jun 21;Sect. A:3 (col. 5). 11/4/2017 Literature search, citation and referencing
  40. 40. Personal Communications • Personal communications should be included in the text of your document, but they should not be included in your reference list. It is recommended that permission is sought from the source/author of a personal communication if you wish to include quotes in your text. The details you need to include when referencing in text are: • the date of the communication; • whether the communication was in oral or written form; • the affiliation of the person might also be included to better establish the relevance and authority of the citation (recommended). 11/4/2017 Literature search, citation and referencing
  41. 41. Conversation • In a conversation with a colleague from the School of Population Health (Jameson LI 2002, oral communication, 7th August)... Letter • As stated in a letter from B.J. Samuels, MD, in July 2002... E-mail • Smith P. New research projects in gastroenterology [online]. E-mail to Matthew Hart (mh@hospital.wa.gov.au) 2000 Feb 5 [cited 2000 Mar 17]. 11/4/2017 Literature search, citation and referencing
  42. 42. 11/4/2017 Literature search, citation and referencing

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