Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Case study on Apartment


Published on


Published in: Education
  • Login to see the comments

Case study on Apartment

  2. 2. 2 TABLE OF CONTENTS 1.Introduction 2. Acknowledgement 3. Objectives 4. Literature review 5.Case study:Eastern city,Biratnagar nepal 6.Case study: Omaxe heights, Vibhuti Khand , Gomti Nagar, Lucknow 227106 Uttar pradesh,India 7.Case study:Habitat ‘67’, 8. Conclusion 9. Referance
  3. 3. 3 INTRODUCTION The study entitle “Present Status of Apartment Building in world“ is undertaken as a project work in the context of completing “Apartment Design” conducted by Department of Architecture, Purwanchal Campus Dharan. The National Census (2068 B.S.) revealed that the total population in Nepal is 26,494,504. Out of which the male and female population are 48.50% and 51.50% respectively. The populations settling in the urban areas are 17.07%.The density of population in the urban area is 1381 compared to 153 persons per square kilometer in rural area. Though Nepal has the lowest urbanization rate in south Asia at 14 per cent its urban growth rate is 6.4 per cent which is the highest in south-Asia. In the last decade population growth in the urban areas was 3 times that of the country as a whole. Kathmandu has high population density (4416 person per square kilometer) compared to other part of the country. Nepal has a total of 5,423,297 households, of which 85.26% and 12.81% families are residing in their own house and rented houses respectively. The total number of houses/buildings or residential structures until 2068 are 4,768,196. The development pace between rural and urban parts of the country resulted people migrating to urban areas for better opportunities and quality life. Opportunities for self- employment in enterprises have attracted people in urban areas. Health, education and other facilities are well developed in urban areas compared to rural. The migration of the large rural population from the countryside and the influx of foreigner for business and other purposes have created a need for additional housing facilities. The available land in the urban areas is limited to provide housing facilities to the growing population. In order to cater the housing needs of increasing population, multi-story buildings in the forms of collective and apartment housings are being developed. People residing in urban areas have less time to arrange the various physical facilities and security measures on their own. Further, those residing in the individual houses also prefer to move into the apartments for availing better security and physical facilities. The good earning populations, who are unable to spend time for building their house are also seeking for the readymade apartments/buildings. These factors necessitate the need for the apartment buildings. Increase in demand of housing will continue as the new generation prefers nuclear families. The growing demand of the apartments has provided the opportunities for business communities to diverse the investment in the multi-story building sector. The local municipalities were the only authority to give approval to construct a house after examining the drawings and inspecting the construction site. The limited technical and financial resources in the municipalities has posed a problem to examine the overall aspects of construction that includes environmental assessment, structural design, sanitary, water supply and plumbing system, firefighting system, electrical system and design etc. in details. These factors are of utmost importance to maintain safe and quality living.
  4. 4. 4 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Several individuals have helped us in bringing this project on “Case study about Apartment Building”. We extend our gratitude to them all for helping us in their own individual way. We would like to express our gratitude to our teachers, for providing concept and motivation to us to complete this project. We are highly grateful to all our teachers and friends, who suggest us with valuable feedbacks and suggestion for our project. We are also thankful to our brothers and our classmates helping in this project. Lastly, but not the least we thanks our family members whose invaluable support made the whole project possible.
  5. 5. 5 OBJECTIVES OF CASE STUDY To Study:  The history of urbanization.  The Trend of Urbanization in Nepal.  The Future cities in rapid Urbanization.  The Challenges of Urbanization  The apartment.  The need of apartment.  The characteristics of high rise apartments.  Amenities & services in apartment.  The practical use of byelaws in apartment.  The inter relationship between the surrounding and the building.  The relation between social and apartment.  Factors affecting high rise apartments.
  6. 6. 6 Literature review Urbanization Defination An increase in a population in cities and towns versus rural areas. Urbanization began during the industrial revolution, when workers moved towards manufacturing hubs in cities to obtain jobs in factories as agricultural jobs became few in common. Urbanization is not merely a modern phenomenon, but a rapid and historic transformation of human social roots on a global scale, whereby predominantly rural culture is being replaced by urban culture. Urbanization can describe a specific condition at a set time, i.e. the proportion of total population or area in cities or towns, or the term can describe the increase of this proportion over time. Urbanization •Urbanization in context of Nepal is defined as the: change in urban growth and cities form. •The transformation of rural area (or hinterland or fringes) into urban form which links with transportation to grow into cities.Urban growth: economy and population density. Trend of Urbanization in Nepal •Urbanization is an essential part of economic growth, social and political change, technical and scientific advances and progress in various areas. Urbanized settlement or the cities are probably the most complex settlements evolved from primitive villages to towns, then to the cities. •The origin of urban settlements in Nepal is obscure. Very little is known about urban living in Nepal during the period of Kirants.The historical evidences on the existence of towns in the Kathmandu valley are found only for the Lichhavis period (100 BC to 1000 AD). By the eleventh century, three principle settlements in the Kathmandu valley had already started to be referred to as capital towns. Future cities in rapid Urbanization •Rapid urbanization is taking place across the globe. Future Cities will explore the components of a successful city, and will use these discoveries to drive critical planning across all relevant sectors, internationally. •Future Cities will consider the pillars that create the foundation of a Future City: -Security, -Water & Waste Management,
  7. 7. 7 -Tourism & Hospitality, -Efficient transport, -Energy Management, -Disaster Relief and Green Building Challenges of Urbanization •Environmental impacts •Unemployment •Urban poverty (poor living condition) •Criminal activities •Original fabric of building will be lost due to physical changes •Directly effect on conservation of nature as well as heritage. •Urban congestion •Rise in market price of service utilities relating to daily life activities Others -Traffic problems -Environment pollution -Traffci jam -Rise in concrete jungles in cities -Lack of pedestrian -Congestion APARTMENT An apartment, or flat, is a self-contained housing unit that occupies only part of a building. Such a building may be called an apartment building, especially if it consists of many apartments for rent. Apartments may be owned by an owner/occupier or rented by tenants. In simple words apartment is the building in which accommodation is provided for 3 or more families living independently of one another. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND High-rise apartment buildings had already appeared in ancient antiquity: the “insulae in ancient Rome” and several other cities in the Roman Empire, some of which might have reached up to 10 or more stories, one reportedly having 200 stairs. In Egypt, there were many high-rise residential buildings, some seven stories tall that could reportedly accommodate hundreds of people. Al-Muqaddasi in the 10th century described them as resembling minarets, while Nasir Khusraw in the early 11th century described some of them rising up to 14 stories, with roof gardens on the top storey complete with ox-drawn water wheels for irrigating them. By the 16th century, Cairo also had high-rise apartment
  8. 8. 8 buildings where the two lower floors were for commercial and storage purposes and the multiple stories above them were rented out to tenants. The 16th century Yemeni city of Shibam is made up of over 500 tower houses, each one rising 5 to 11 stories high, with each floor having one or two apartments. The city has the tallest mud buildings in the world, with some of them over 30 meters (100 feet) high. During the 19th century tenements became the predominant type of new housing in Scotland's industrial cities, although they were very common in the Old Town in Edinburgh from the 15th century where they reached ten or eleven storeys high and in one case fourteen storeys. Built of sandstone or granite, Scottish tenements are usually three to five storeys in height, with two to four flats on each floor. In 1839, the first New York City tenement was built, housing mainly poor immigrants. The Dakota (1884) was one of the first luxury apartment buildings in New York City. The majority, however, remained tenements. Some significant developments in architectural design of apartment buildings came out of the 1950s and 60s. Apartments were popular in Canada, particularly in urban centers like Vancouver, Toronto and Montreal in the 1950s to 1970s. By the 1980s, many multi-unit buildings were being constructed as condominiums instead of apartments, and both are now very common. Specifically in Toronto, high-rise apartments and condominiums have been spread around the city, giving almost every major suburb a skyline. Earliest apartment buildings were in the major cities of Sydney and Melbourne as the response to fast rising land values. Melbourne Mansions on Collins Street, Melbourne (now demolished), built in 1906 for mostly wealthy residents is believed by many to be the earliest. NEED OF APARTMENTS  Scarcity of land.  Higher land value.  Inconveniency of services like water supply in individual level.  Inconveniency of construction work in individual level.  Security and privacy.  Increase in population.  Migration to city.  Trend of parent-child unit eliminating the extended family concept. CHARACTERISTICS OF HIGH RISE APARTMENTS  Two entrances/exits, front and back.
  9. 9. 9  Laundry, water, heating, telephone, cable, electricity facilities common, parking, air conditioner, extra storage, and garbage disposed in trash containers, provision of fire escape and lifts because of the no. of stories.  Space must be simple and universal for variety of lifestyles.  Balconies for aesthetic purpose, visual extension of living space, outdoor sitting are green area, extra storage space. AMENITIES & SERVICES PUBLIC FACILITIES • Water supply • Laundry and Drier • Electricity • Surface drainage • Garbage and the Drainage system • Pedestrian and Vehicular lane COMMUNITY FACILITIES • Telecommunication • Park and playground • Multipurpose hall • Security • Healthcare and recreational spa COMMERCIAL FACILITIES  Market and stores  Bank  Entertainment sector FACTORS AFFECTING HIGH RISE APARTMENTS  Land topography: slope – economics  Available materials/ technology: steel structure  Skilled manpower  Market situation: people to buy, available land
  10. 10. 10 TYPES OF APARTMENTS A. According to vertical movement 1.Central corridor 2. Point block 3. Multi core 4. Exterior corridor system 5. Skid stop system B. According to design 1. Simplex apartments 2. Duplex apartments 3.Triplex apartments 4.Efficiency apartments C. According to no. of bedrooms  Single  Double  3 bedroom  4 bedroom
  11. 11. 11 The Better Apartments Design Standards Building setback Objectives To ensure the setback of a building from a boundary appropriately responds to the urban context. To allow adequate daylight into new dwellings. To limit views into habitable room windows and private open space of new and existing dwellings. To provide a reasonable outlook from dwellings. To ensure the building setbacks provide appropriate internal amenity to meet the needs of residents. Decision Guidelines Before deciding on an application, the responsible authority must consider: The purpose of the zone or overlay that applies to the land. Any relevant urban design objective, policy or statement set out in this scheme. The urban context report and site description. The design response. The relationship between the proposed building setback and the building setbacks of existing adjacent buildings, including the interface with laneways. The extent to which the proposed dwellings are provided with reasonable daylight access through the layout of rooms and the number, size, location and orientation of windows. Apartment size 1 bedroom apartment minimum 45 sq.m 2 bedroom apartment Minimum 73 sq.m 3 bedroom apartment Minimum 90 sq.m Studio apartment minimum 40 sq.m Functional layout Objectives To encourage dwellings that provide functional areas that meet the needs of residents. To provide dwellings that can be adapted to meet the changing needs of residents. Minimum room dimensions
  12. 12. 12 Room depth Objective To ensure that single aspect habitable rooms allow for adequate daylight. Decision Guidelines Before deciding on an application, the responsible authority must consider: The design response.
  13. 13. 13 The extent to which the habitable room is provided with reasonable daylight access through the number, size, location and orientation of windows. The useability, functionality and amenity of the dwelling based on layout, siting, size and orientation of habitable rooms. Any overhang above habitable room windows that limits daylight access
  14. 14. 14 Room depth and ceiling height dimension Windows Objective To allow adequate daylight into new habitable room windows. Standard A window in a habitable room should be located in an external wall. A window may provide daylight to a bedroom from a smaller area within the room, where: The area is at least: A minimum width of 1.2 metres. A maximum depth of 1.5 times the width, measured from the external surface of the window. The window is clear to the sky. Decision Guidelines Before deciding on an application, the responsible authority must consider: The design response. The extent to which the habitable room is provided with reasonable daylight access through the number, size, location and orientation of windows.
  15. 15. 15 The useability and amenity of the dwelling based on the layout, siting, size and orientation of habitable rooms. Window location and layout Storage Objective To provide adequate storage facilities for each dwelling. Table 1 Storage Dwelling type Total minimum storage volume Minimum storage volume within the dwelling Studio 8 cubic metres 5 cubic metres 1 bedroom dwelling 10 cubic metres 6 cubic metres 2 bedroom dwelling 14 cubic metres 9 cubic metres 3 or more bedroom dwelling 18 cubic metres 12 cubic metres Decision Guidelines Before deciding on an application, the responsible authority must consider: The design response. The useability, functionality and location of storage facilities provided for the dwelling. External storage layout
  16. 16. 16 Internal storage layout
  17. 17. 17
  18. 18. 18 Noise impacts Objectives To contain noise sources in developments that may affect existing dwellings. To protect residents from external and internal noise sources. A building within a noise influence area specified in Table 1 should be designed and constructed to achieve the following noise levels: Not greater than 35dB(A) for bedrooms, assessed as an LAeq,8h from 10pm to 6am. Not greater than 40dB(A) for living areas, assessed LAeq,16h from 6am to 10pm. This does not apply to a building, or part of a building that is obstructed by an existing solid building or works or the natural topography of the land. Noise levels should be measured in an unfurnished and finished floor with thewindows closed. Table 1 Noise influence area Noise source Noise influence area Zone interface Industrial zone 1, 2 & 3 300m to the zone boundary Road Freeways and tollways 300m Other roads 300m and carrying 40,000 Annual Average Daily Traffic Volume Railway Railway servicing passengers in Victoria 80m Railway servicing freight in non Metropolitan Melbourne 80m Railway servicing freight in Metropolitan Melbourne 135m Decision guidelines Before deciding on an application, the responsible authority must consider: The design response. An acoustic report by a suitably qualified consultant submitted with the application or demonstration that the design treatment incorporated into the development meets the noise levels. Internal noise sources
  19. 19. 19 Energy efficiency Objectives To achieve and protect energy efficient dwellings and buildings. To ensure the orientation and layout of development reduce fossil fuel energy use and make appropriate use of daylight and solar energy. To ensure dwellings achieve adequate thermal efficiency. Standard Buildings should be: Oriented to make appropriate use of solar energy.
  20. 20. 20 Sited and designed to ensure that the energy efficiency of existing dwellings on adjoining lots is not unreasonably reduced. Living areas and private open space should be located on the north side of the development, if practicable. Decision Guidelines Before deciding on an application, the responsible authority must consider: The size, orientation and layout of the site. The existing amount of solar access to abutting properties. The availability of solar access to north-facing windows on the site. Solar access to communal open space Objective To allow adequate solar access into communal outdoor open space. The communal outdoor open space should be located on the north side of a building, if appropriate. At least 50 percent or 125 square metres, whichever is the lesser, of the primary communal outdoor open space area used by occupants should receive a minimum of two hours of sunlight between 9am and 3pm on 21 June. Decision Guidelines Before deciding on an application, the responsible authority must consider: The design response. The useability and amenity of the primary communal outdoor open space areas based on the urban context, the orientation of the building, the layout of dwellings and the sunlight it will receive.
  21. 21. 21 Minimum sunlight access Natural ventilation Objectives To encourage natural ventilation of dwellings. To allow occupants to effectively manage natural ventilation of dwellings. Decision Guidelines Before deciding on an application, the responsible authority must consider: The design response. The size, orientation, slope and wind exposure of the site. The extent to which the orientation of the building and the layout of dwellings maximises opportunities for cross ventilation. Whether an alternative design meets the relevant objectives having regard to the amenity of the dwelling and the site context. Effective cross ventilation layout
  22. 22. 22 Private open space Objective To provide adequate private open space for the reasonable recreation and service needs of residents. Standard A dwelling should have private open space consisting of: Table 1 Balcony size Dwelling Type Minimum Area Minimum Dimension Studio or 1 bedroom dwelling 8 square metres 1.8 metres 2 bedroom dwelling 8 square metres 2 metres 3 or more bedroom dwelling 12 square metres 2.4 metres Decision Guidelines Before deciding on an application, the responsible authority must consider: The design response. The useability, accessibility and functionality of the private open space. The amenity of the private open space based on the orientation of the lot, the wind conditions and the sunlight it receives. The availability of and access to public or communal open space.
  23. 23. 23 Minimum private open space dimensions Communal open space Objectives To provide adequate and useable communal open space for the benefit of residents. To integrate the layout of development with communal open space provided in the development. Standard Developments with 40 or more dwellings should provide a minimum area of communal open space of 2.5 square metres per dwelling or 250 square metres, which ever is lesser.
  24. 24. 24 Decision guidelines Before deciding on an application, the responsible authority must consider: Any relevant urban design objective, policy or statement set out in this scheme. The design response. The amenity of the communal space based on the orientation of the lot, the wind conditions and the sunlight it receives. The useability of the communal open space based on its size, accessibility and reasonable recreation needs of residents. The availability of and access to public open space. Landscaping Objectives To encourage development that respects the landscape character of the neighbourhood. To encourage development that maintains and enhances habitat for plants and animals in locations of habitat importance. To provide appropriate landscaping. To encourage the retention of mature vegetation on the site. To promote climate responsive landscape design and water management in developments that supports thermal comfort and reduces the urban heat island effect. Decision Guidelines Before deciding on an application, the responsible authority must consider: Any relevant landscape character objective, policy or statement set out in this scheme. Any relevant plan or policy for landscape design in the State Planning Policy Framework and Local Planning Policy Framework, including the Municipal Strategic Statement and local planning policies. The design response. The location and size of gardens and the predominant plant types in the neighbourhood. The health of any trees to be removed. Whether a tree was removed to gain a development advantage. The suitability of the proposed location and soil depth for canopy trees. The ongoing management of landscaping within a development. The soil type and drainage patterns of the site.
  25. 25. 25 Accessibility Objective To ensure the design of dwellings meets the needs of people with limited mobility. Standard At least 50% of dwellings should comply with all of the following requirements: A clear opening width of at least 850mm at the entrance to the dwelling and main bedroom. A clear path with a minimum width of 1.2 metres that connects the dwelling entrance to the main bedroom, an adaptable bathroom and the living area. At least one adaptable bathroom that meets one of the design options specified in Table 1: Minimum accessible room dimensions Minimum accessible bathroom dimensions Building entry and circulation Objectives
  26. 26. 26 To provide each dwelling and building with its own sense of identity. To ensure the internal layout of buildings provides for the safe, functional and efficient movement of residents. To ensure internal communal areas provide adequate access to daylight and natural ventilation. Standard Entries to dwellings and buildings should: Be visible and easily identifiable. Provide shelter, a sense of personal address and a transitional space around the entry. The layout and design of buildings should: Clearly distinguish entrances to residential and non-residential areas. Provide windows to building entrances and lobbies, including open stairs and lift areas. Provide common areas and corridors that: Include at least one source of natural light and natural ventilation. Avoid obstruction from building services. Maintain clear sight lines. Building entry layout
  27. 27. 27 Waste and recycling Objectives To ensure dwellings are designed to encourage waste recycling. To ensure that waste and recycling facilities are accessible, adequate and attractive. To ensure that waste and recycling facilities are designed and managed to minimise impacts on residential amenity, health and the public realm. Decision Guidelines Before deciding on an application, the responsible authority must consider: The design response. Any relevant waste and recycling objective, policy or statement set out in this scheme. Integrated water and stormwater management Objectives To encourage the use of alternative water sources such as rainwater, stormwater and recycled water. To facilitate on-site stormwater collection, utilisation and infiltration within the development. To encourage measures to filter sediment and waste from stormwater prior to its discharge from the site.
  28. 28. 28 FEATURES SITE Environmental Site Servicing Access and Transportation Environmental Protection Built Environment Exterior Space Landscaping Storm Water Management Circulation BUILT FORM Safety & Security Accessibility Structure Building Envelope Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning(HVAC) Exhaust Fans Ductwork Plumbing and Drainage Electrical Lighting Roofing Windows Door Design Building Entrance Unit Entrances Finished Hardware Materials/Finishes Acoustical Equipment Furnishings Outdoor Storage Common Corridors Stairs Elevators Elevator Lobbies Moving Room Amenity Space/Multipurpose room Bicycle Room Scooter Room/Area ECO FRIENDLY Fountain Landscape Garden
  29. 29. 29 Rain Water Harvesting Sewage Treatment ENTERTAINMENT & SOCIALIZING Billiards Conference room Jacuzzi Multipurpose Hall Party Lawn Reading Lounge Sauna Theater Home • SPORTS & FITNESS • Aerobics Centre • Golf Course • Indoor Games • Infinity Pool • Jogging Track • Spa • Squash Court • Steam Room • Swimming Pool • Table Tennis • Yoga/Meditation Area • CONVENIENCE & SECURITY • 24x7 Security • CCTV Camera Security • Changing Area • Piped Gas • Property Staff • Video Door Security • Water Softener Plant • Wi-Fi Connectivity LIFTS • 2 passenger lifts of 15 persons capacity and 1 service lift to access your apartment FIRE SAFETY • Fire sprinkler system in all apartments and common areas • Smoke detectors in all apartments and common areas • Fire hydrant system in common areas • Manual call points with hooters near staircase landing on all floors AC AND ELECTRICAL • VRV unit with adequate tonnage • Modular switches - Le Grand / equivalent • Fire resistant electrical wires of reputed brand • One earth leakage circuit breaker for each apartment
  30. 30. 30 • Sufficient power outlets with concealed wiring with PVC insulated copper wires. PARKING REQUIREMENTS 1.Parking Slot 2.50m x 5.00m – perpendicular and diagonal 2.15m x 6.00m – parallel parking 3.00m x 9.00m – Jeepney parking 3.60m x 12.00m- Truck or Bus Parking 3.60m x 18.00m- Articulated truck SLOPE CLASSIFICATION 0-5% excellent 5-10% good/ fair 10-25% poor over 25% unsuitable BYELAWS  Minimum land area should be 2 Ropani  Maximum ground should be 50% of the total  FAR excluding old city areas should be: Terai : 1.5, Mountain : 2, Kathmandu Core City: 3, Kathmandu Outer City: 3.5  The main access road should have minimum width of -4 m for 4 housing unit - 4.5m for 10 housing unit - 6m for 50 housing unit -8m for 80 housing unit -Dead end can only be on straight road and the maximum length should be 100m -The radius of driving curve should be 9m and the intersection curve of 2 roads have minimum radius of half the width of the road.  Open spaces for city areas of Terai: 40%, Mountain: 30%, Kathmandu Valley: 30%  Width of main gate should be minimum 4.5m. REGION TERAI MOUNTAIN KATHMANDU Front 8m 6m 6m, Back 6m 4m 4m, Side 6m 4m 4m  Minimum set back should be: Front: for Terai 8 m, Mountain 6 m, Kathmandu 6 m , Back and Side: Terai 6m, Mountain 4 m, Ktm 4m The distance between two blocks in the city areas of Terai, mountain and Kathmandu valley region should be 6 m  Ground floor, basement or semi basement of these apartments should not be used as
  31. 31. 31 housing purpose. If those ground floor, basement or semi basement is used as lift well, electrical room, water tank then that area is not counted in FAR.  Basic infrastructure like water supply, drainage should be fully equipped. Lift, Fire escape stair, stand by generator, overhead tank (20,000 lit), underground tank (50,000 lit) should compulsory provided.  Minimum parking area for a housing unit of area 80 m2 or more should have a space for 1 car, 2 motorbikes, and 2 bicycles. For every 4 housing units, area less than 80 m2 should have space for 1 car, 4 motorbikes, and 4 bicycles.  The height of a building cannot exceed, H = 2 x (a+b+c) BYELAWS OF KATHMANDU VALLEY • Max ground coverage – 50% • Max far – 3 • Min parking area – 15% total land • Min circulation – 15% of total land • Min open or green space – 20% of total land • Min set back in both side and back side – 4m • Min set back in front – 6m • Min gap between 2 blocks – 6m • If ground floors basement or semi basement is used for liftwell, water tank, then area is not counted in far • Min width of main gate – 4.5m • Lift of escalator should be provided for bldg with height more then 17m • Fire escape stair, stand by generator, over head tank of capacity 20,000ltrs and underground tank of 50,000 should be compulsarily provided.
  32. 32. 32 HOUSING CASE STUDY : 1 . EASTERN CITY Biratnagar, a very beautiful city located in the eastern part of Nepal, is all set to witness a work of art, which ensures the excellent living that you have dreamt of. Eastern City Developers proudly presents its state-of-the-art and magnificent – Eastern City Located at the heart of the city, yet far away from the hustles and bustles of the city, Eastern City is perfectly designed keeping the natural properties intact and tantalizing. Beautifully blended with the nature, the luxuriant Eastern City offers you serene ambience and an easy access to modern amenities. The first project of its kind in Biratnagar, located at Shahid Marg Eastern City has four magnificent buildings spread across an area of approximately 12.5 kathas. Fig. Location of eastern apartment The elegant Eastern city offers well furnished 156 apartments. The apartments available from approximately 470 square feet to approximately 1450 square feet are especially crafted for you keeping in mind the best standards of urban living. The high quality materials used in the buildings assure you the safety. All rooms are airy and make sure that plenty of natural light compliments the air circulation ensuring good health of your family. The amenities provided by Eastern City cater to every specific need and aspiration of the family members. Adequate play area for the kids energizes your children's physical development. The Eastern City equipped with lush garden, community house, amphitheatre and temple ensures comfortable as well as spiritual living. If you want to refresh in a healthy way, then you have different options like gym, sauna steam and Jacuzzi. Or if you want to take a refreshing dip in the world-classpool and relax your senses just sitting around the poolside, the options are infinite.
  33. 33. 33 EASTERN CITY Project Name: Eastern City Developer: Eastern City Developers Project Consist of: Apartment Project Status: Planning Construction Date: January, 2012 Handover Date: March, 2014 Total Number of Units: 156 Total Site Area (Ropani, Sq. Ft): 8-2-0-0.02 (44493 Sq. Ft.) Price Range: NRs.1,200,000.00 to NRs.5,500,000.00 Area Sizes Range: 0-1-1-2.44 (480 Sq. Ft.) to 0-4-0-1.45 (1400 Sq. Ft.) Fig. Site plan
  34. 34. 34 FACILITIES / AMENITIES -Available of Basement Parking -Fire safety by supply of water pipes in each floor -proper excess to the buildings from gates -Single lift system in each blocks -Proper sanitation system STP(Soil and Treatment) management underground tunnel supply for disposal of waste PROJECT HIGHLIGHTS * Premium location with widest road accessibility * Earthquake Resistance RCC Frames structure * Branded Sanitary ware and fittings * Grand Entrance * Automatic elevators in each tower * Adequate water supply * Ample car/motorbike parking space * Emergency power back-up for all common area * Amphitheatre with sitting area * Hydrant fire fighting system * Community hall * Sewage treatment plant * Swimming pool & children play area * 24 hours security and cctv surveilance
  35. 35. 35 FACILITIES 24 hr generator backup Car and bike parking Fire fighgting system RSS frame structure Security-community hall Swimming pool Treated water supply TVtelephone points
  36. 36. 36 MERITS Good Facilities is provided to the owners There is good facilities of parking, community hall and communication Proper sanitation within the building is done RSS frame structure is there in the building Proper sanitation system around the building Security system is there in the apartment DEMERITS No proper shading devices It lies within the busy city zone There is no proper maintenance around the building. There was no proper space around the buildings Facilities for elder people, children and playing area is not allocated. CONCLUSION In this growing age the demand of people for apartment is growing and in the eastern part of Nepal Eastern City is its part. The developer had tried their best to highlight the facilities for the owners of the people. Eight story apartment has lots of facilities for the owners.
  37. 37. 37 HOUSING CASE STUDY : 2 .OMAXE HEIGHTS • Name : Omaxe Height • Type : Residential – Apartment • Developers: Omaxe Constructions Ltd. • Architect : C.P. KUKREJA • Planning Type : Circular • Locations: Vibhuti Khand , Gomti Nagar, Lucknow 227106 UTTAR PRADESH,INDIA • Total Building Units : 11 • Approved By Authority : LDA • Omaxe heights consists of 3BHK,4BHK Pent house LOCATION Vibhuti Khand , Gomti Nagar, Lucknow 227106 UTTAR PRADESH,INDIA
  38. 38. 38 SITE AREA Total site area : 28,282 metere square 11 building Block 3 entry/exit SITE PLAN PLANNING
  39. 39. 39 AMENITIES
  40. 40. 40
  41. 41. 41 INFERENCES Merit • Security guards at every gates,provided cctv. • Well ventilated and proper lighting. • Aminities likeswiming pool,gym,spa,banquet hall,play court. • Basement parking. • Rooms were funtional. Demerit • In occuring seepage problems. • Circular planning causing negative spaces. • Problems in the fittings of split ac. • The glasseson the balcony of the pent houses due to heat absorption. • Low quality of materials. Conclusion • High rise building. • Development in the aspect of modernisation building blocks in linear Form. • Made for hig and mig. Formal entry • Amenities like swimming pool , gym, spa,playing court ,dance floor , Lounge etc. • Site area 28282sqm • Concrete wall • Aluminium frame • Glass window • Ceramic and vitrified tiles used for flooring. • Area of 3 bhk 104197746.1sqmm
  42. 42. 42 HOUSING CASE STUDY: 3.HABITAT ‘67’ INTRODUCTION Moshe Safdie is an Israeli-born leading architect, urban planner, educator, theorist, and author. Embracing a comprehensive and humane design philosophy. He is committed to architecture that supports and enhances a project’s program; that is informed by the geographic, social, and cultural elements that define a place; and that responds to human needs and aspirations. Having completed a wide range of projects, such as cultural, educational, and civic institutions; neighbourhood's and public parks; mixed-use urban centres and airports; and master plans for existing communities and entirely new cities. Safdie moved to Canada in the 1950s, first developed the ‘’Habitat ’67‘’ concept as part of his thesis at McGill University in 1961, entitled "A Case for City Living" .When Safdie, still an intern, starting his career in the office of Louis Khan, he submitted his design for the Montreal Expo ’67 entitled as “Man and his World’’
  43. 43. 43 INSPIRRATION Habitat's living units resembled a Taos Indian pueblo. Pueblos,( community - town – village) Communities housed in apartment structures built of stone, adobe mud, and other local material. These structures were usually multi-storied buildings surrounding an open plaza. The rooms were accessible only through ladders lowered by the inhabitants, thus protecting them from break-ins and unwanted guests PROJECT OVERVIEW Habitat 67 is a housing complex located in Montreal, Canada designed by Moshe Safdie and built in 1967 for the World’s Exposition. The housing complex is made up of prefabricated modules combined in different ways to make up various combinations. Each uses between one and five modules. The complex consists of 354 modules making up 158 residences. The residences themselves range from 600 square feet (one bedroom) to 1800 square feet (four bedrooms). The complex contains three elevator cores that stop every fourth floor of the twelve story complex, giving the residents access to pedestrian footpaths that link the dwellings. The complex contains roof gardens, private terraces, central heating and cooling, and covered parking for the residents in each dweling. The original design was meant to contain 1000 units, including a retail facility. However, the project was minimized for the World’s Exposition. All the parts of this 12 story complex are load bearing and connected by post tensioning cables, hightension rods, cables, and welding. This makes the complex one continuous suspension system. It’s a multi-leveled residential modules on five different stories and was built in 1967. It took three years to develop (1964-67) and cost $17 million Canadian. The total area of the property comprises 22,160 sq. m. (238,500 sq ft).
  44. 44. 44 MAIN CHARACTERISTICS Habitat ’67 pioneered the combination of two major housing typologies – the urban garden residence and the modular highrise apartment building. The Habitat ’67 is actually 12- storey complex (158 dwelling units) with the following main characteristics: - 15 models varying between 1 and 5 modules - Views on 3 sides and landscaped terraces - Surface areas vary from 624 to 3,000 square feet, - Spread out over 1, 2, 3 floors - Private terraces from 225 to 1,000 square feet - 6 elevators - Walkways at various levels giving access to residences - Central heating and air conditionin - Central heating and air conditioning - excellent Sound proof CONSTRUCTION As Habitat was designed, it resembled a curious concrete mountain of dwelling places, strikingly modern. Each rectangular module would cross over another, so the roof of the one underneath would bear the load of the one on top, with the non- overlapping areas generating patches of outdoor space.  The apartments consist of one to four 55m² boxes creating various configurations.  All of the houses have one 20m² to 90m² private roof garden.  Each unit looks similar to the rest , creating a common external appearance. But every house is differs from the others when it comes to the interior, as the resident can transform his space.
  45. 45. 45 CIRCULATION  Common circulation =Circulation within the habitat is achieved through 18 external corridors- streets 7 stair shafts and 6 elevator shafts, without the elevator being the main access to upper stories as it stops at every forth floor.  Private circulation= Many of the apartment consist of more than one boxes that are interconnected through small staircases The circulation system gives to the habitat the essence of a vertically developed village. Diagrams-Sections Every apartment gets at least three hours of sunlight every day. Combining private and public elements Views-Common Areas-Parking Lot-Entrance
  46. 46. 46
  47. 47. 47 CONCLUSION Not only revolutionary in its time, Habitat 67 has continued to influence architecture throughout the decades as a manifesto for a universal, modular, urban housing.  Habitat 67 is a historic monument, recognized around the globe. This emblematic building, had significant press coverage and caused a lot of ink to flow, both locally and internationally and still does.  Moshe Safdie and his work, have definitely brought an architectural revolution. His fresh ideas about how a housing complex should actually be, have changed the way we design and the way we think about the apartment blocks once and for all  Not only he came up with ways to improve the housing complexes :with the prefabricated interlocking and interconnecting overlapping modules, creating private and communal spaces, planted terraces and more , but he also sets the tone as to where architecture should be taking as next in this new lifestyle witch demands different housing qualities. REFERENCE  NEUFERT DATA  TIMESAVER STANDARDS  WIKIPEDIA  SITE VISIT : Eastern city,Biratnagar, Nepal  WWW.GOOGLE.COM : Omaxe heights, Vibhuti Khand , Gomti Nagar, Lucknow 227106 Uttar pradesh,India and Habitat ‘67’, THANK YOU