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Human Resource Planning | Assignment | Project Report


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Human Resource Planning | Assignment | Project Report

  1. 1. Final Group Project Of Human Resource Management On “Develop Human Resource Plan” (Human Resource Planning) Submitted to: Submitted by: Prof. Group no. 6 PGDM 2018-20 Semester- 2nd Section- C
  2. 2. PERFACE This Project Report has been prepared in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the subject Entrepreneurship in the academic year 2018-20. For preparing the Project Report, we have taken help of our mentor Prof. ……..Ma’am in our semester to avail the necessary information. The blend of learning and knowledge acquired during our practical studies at the college is presented in this Project Report. The Project Report is to study the business strategies like marketing department, services, human resource department and financial department. The Project Report starts with the basic concepts of Human Resource its functional departments like marketing department, human resource departme nt and financial department. The information presented in this Project Report is obtained fromsources like Company Personnel, Company Websites, Other Websites, Company Reports and other literatures.
  3. 3. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Apart from the efforts of our group, the success of any project depends largely on the encouragement and guidelines of many others. We take this opportunity to express our gratitude to the people who have been instrumental in the successful completion of this project. We would like to show our greatest appreciation to Prof. …….. Can‘t say thank you enough for her tremendous support and help. Without her encouragement and guidance this project would not have materialized. The guidance and support received from all the members who contributed and who are contributing to this project, was vital for the success of the project. We are grateful for their constant support and help.
  4. 4. DECLARATION We, ............................hereby declare that this project is the record of authentic work carried out by us during the academic year 2018-20 and has not been submitted to any other University or institute towards the award of any other degree. Signature’s of the Students: Place: Date
  5. 5. PROGRAM: Post Graduate Diploma in Management Subject Human Resource Management Subject Code PGDM XX Semester/Year 2 Section C ASSIGNMENT No. Final Assignment title Students Name Submission Date 13/04/2017 Due Date Faculty Name Prof. ……………. Grade Assigned by the Faculty Signature
  6. 6. INTRODUCTION Infinity optics and glasses Type of business Private Type of site E-commerce Founded 2013 Headquarters Noida, India Area served India Founders Name of students Industry Internet Products Sunglasses, Eyeglasses, Contact Lenses Services E-commerce (Online Shopping) Tag line Look better ! See better. Employees 500+ Website is a Indian eyewear company, headquartered in Noida, U.P., India. The company was founded in 2013 by…………………….. The company specializes in prescription eyeglasses, sunglasses and contact lenses. The company follows a hybrid business model with both online and offline retail stores. *Mission – 1) Our company focus on Providing Quality Product to Consumer at Competitive Price 2) One to one interaction with customers for better bonding
  7. 7. 3) Transparent and easy to access for customer *Vision – 1) Long Life of Our Company Keeping Mind of both Employees and Consumer to Acquire Big Market Share 2) To recognize the unique needs of clients 3) Build professional environment within the organization and retail outlets *Strategic plans – 1) Acquire customers trust 2) Extra and additional offers to increase more footfalls in our stores and website 3) Proper services of technicians and doctors for consumer satisfaction 4) Micro precision zero-error manufacturing 5) On time delivery Internal scan for purposes of human resource planning Organizational Structure If you haven’t reviewed your organizational structure lately or have never created a comprehensive organization chart, consider doing so. The key to maximizing the effectiveness of your human resources function starts with determining your optimal staffing needs. Create an org chart, ranking each position and clearly delineating who works for whom. Write a job description for each position to determine if every task you need performed has been assigned. Don’t be afraid to include positions for which you don’t have employees or to leave out staff members who don’t fit into your optimal organization chart. Once you see these holes or redundancies, you can better plan how to address them.
  8. 8. Budget An obvious internal factor to consider when looking at your staff planning is your budget. Some positions are demand-sensitive, such as those in production, warehousing, customer service and shipping. You’ll get the money to fill those positions from increased revenues. Other positions that don’t generate revenue but still bring value require you to find the money for those positions. To stretch your staffing budget, offer a smaller base pay. Add voluntary benefits that cost you nothing, can reduce your payroll taxes and offer your employees attractive, low-cost benefits they can pay for or fund, such as health insurance, a 401(k) account or a flexible spending account. Skill Levels As your company grows, you might have additional administrative or operational needs that can’t be fulfilled by your current workers. Instead of hiring contractors or additional employees, consider offering staff training. Add employee development to your human resources planning, including on-site training, tuition reimbursement and sending workers to seminars and workshops. Productivity To get the most out of your workers, create the most positive workplace possible. Offer clear job descriptions and annual reviews, a wellness program, morale-building activities such as contests or outings, an employee newsletter and frequent communications about individual, departmental or company successes. Compliance Work with your insurance company, local fire department, a security professional and an employment expert to make sure you cover your legal requirements as they apply to your workers. This includes following state and federal labor laws and regulations, creating a safe and secure office space, store, plant or warehouse, instituting and enforcing company policies and procedures and paying all required taxes and insurance Human resource planning linked to overall strategic planning? Strategic Planning Strategic planning focuses on what a company wants to do, rather than how it does it. For example, a company might decide it needs to diversify into new business areas because the
  9. 9. chance for increasing its current market share is small. The strategic options might include developing new products within its current market, entering a completely new market or buying a business. A corporate finance department might create a strategic plan to improve cash flow. This could include tactics such as negotiating more favorable credit terms with customers and suppliers, improving receivables turnover or changing production schedules to stockpile inventory during slow periods. Human Resources Planning HR planning involves looking at the long-term needs of a business, rather than addressing current needs. Examples of HR planning include creating an organization structure, evaluating the use of contractors vs. employees, reviewing a company’s benefits plan, determining the return on investment of a wellness program or creating policies and procedures to keep an employer compliant with all its labor and employment obligations. Impact Assessments When a business considers a strategic plan, it floats the idea with its different department heads to see how it will affect them. HR gives the management team the personnel costs associated with an initiative based on the necessary additional hiring or overtime pay. It tells management if the company needs to retrain employees, if the idea can work using contractors or how long it takes to hire or retrain employees to be able to handle the new initiative. Execution After management decides to move ahead with a strategic plan, HR readies personnel for the initiative. HR works with department heads who have to execute the various aspects of a strategic plan, discussing what they need in the way of human resources. This might include recruiting new employees, working with a production department on scheduling, training new employees or soliciting requests for proposals from contractors. Monitoring With a strategic initiative in place, HR monitors any changes or additions to the workforce it introduced to determine if they are in line with its projections and representations to management during the assessment stage. HR modifies these areas where necessary and reports to management on the status of personnel-related issues regarding the strategic initiative.
  10. 10. Roles and responsibilities Recruitment This is the one function which is hand in glove with HR. Recruitment has been one of the major responsibilities of the HR team. It is the job of HR personnel to plan and devise strategic campaigns and guidelines for recruiting suitable candidates for a required job description. They also have to serve as a mediator between the employer and the candidate and communicate company policies and terms of the contract to the candidate before he is hired. This is the first pillar of HR management that every HR manager starts with. It’s probably one of the most important aspects of any HR professional’s career. The recruitment function comprises 2 main objectives: Attract-Talent Attracting talent starts with first planning the requirement of manpower in the organization. Gauging needs of the organization’s human resource requirements, and accordingly putting a plan of action to fulfill those needs with placement of “talented professionals”. That’s followed by creating an “employer brand” which will be representative of the organization’s good image and portray an attractive impression in the minds of potential candidates. The employer branding aspects have become very important owing to the new-age media and awareness of employee rights. Putting the best foot forward is no longer enough, it needs to be followed through with honest actions in favor of the employees. And finally… the HR manager needs to them create detailed recruitment strategies carry out the hiring process. Hire-Resources This is where the recruitment strategies are put in action. In the current age, there’s ton of competition vying for the attention of the best talent in the market. The HR manager needs to run all possible engines to go out there in the market and find that one suitable gem. This part of the role includes things like finding relevant locations to look in, reach out to maximum potential candidates using mass communication mediums, aggregate all responses, filter out irrelevant applications, judge suitable incumbents and coordinate internally to get them interviewed. Once the finalists are decided, the HR manager turns into a ‘negotiator’ of sorts, working as a mediator between the company and the candidate to find that win-win ground. Training Not all is done once you’ve recruited a suitable candidate for the job. Many organizations perform tasks a tad differently. Training employees is important to help the new hires get acquainted with the organization’s work pattern. It is imperative for the HR department to
  11. 11. incorporate a training program for every new employee based on the skill set required for their job. It will further also contribute towards employee motivation and retention. For the training to be effective, every new employee can be subjected to an on-the-job training for the initial days to get him in sync with the work guidelines of the organization. This training will not only be of assistance to the employee but also give the HR team an insight into the employee’s workmanship. On completion of the training, HR plays a significant role in assessing the results of the training program and grading employees on the same. Professional Development Closely related to training, developing your employees professionally is an added bonus for the employee as well as the organization. Enrolling the employee to attend conferences, trade shows, seminars etc that may be in his personal interest will make the employee feel cared-for and a vital part of the organization, thus increasing employee engagement. It will be beneficial to the organization by way of the employee’s added skill set. In short, it is a win-win. It is the HR head’s job to get to know the employee’s hobbies and areas of interest and look out for opportunities that will help them build onto those hobbies. For example, if an employee wants to master the technique of SEO, the HR could enroll him for seminars and conferences that talk on the same. However, this should not turn out to be a selfish attempt that benefits the organization only. Appraisals Since HRM is a body meant for the employees, carrying out timely performance appraisals is a given. Performance appraisals help in employee motivation by encouraging them to work to their fullest potential. It also enables to give them feedback on their work and suggest necessary measures for the same. This helps employees to have a clear view of what is expected of them and what they are delivering. They can thus, work better towards improving their performance and achieving targets. The role of HR (especially the HR manager) in this would be to have a policy of generating timely appraisal reports and a review of the same by the authorities. The HR team should communicate individually with employees and give a clear feedback or suggestion on their performance. A system to reward employees excelling at their work would help in employee motivation and thus garner a higher degree of productivity and employee engagement. Maintaining Work Culture
  12. 12. It is the duty of the HR to maintain a healthy, safe, and fun work environment to ensure a level of comfort amongst the employees and eliminate any stressful or awkward atmosphere that may hinder the performance of the staff. It is vital to have an efficient work atmosphere, because an individual’s performance a largely dependent on the surrounding he’s working in. It would be great to have an open-door policy up to some extent wherein employees can freely communicate and voice their opinions to be given consideration. The HR department’s role is to be a friendly body with an open attitude. By communicating and treating every employee as equal, the HR can build a rapport with the employees. This goes a long way in increasing employee engagement and gives a higher job satisfaction. Resolving Conflicts Where different people have different views, conflicts are almost inevitable. Whether the dispute is amongst two or more employees or between the employee and the management, an HR manager has the right to intervene and help map out a solution. The HR should be available at the disposal of the conflicting parties and hear out their issues without being judgmental. Prior investigations are a must before passing any judgment. The HR head is not expected to discriminate or play favorites in this matter and always deliver an unbiased and practical decision. A reimbursement in case of any loss caused and strict actions against the defaulter should be practiced for effective conflict resolution by the HRM. Employee Relations The Human Resources is called so because its major responsibility is dealing with the human part of the organization and this involves having great interpersonal skills. An HR manager who sits in the office all day will not turn out to be good at building connections with the employees and thus fail to serve the purpose of being an HR head. As an HR person, employees should feel comfortable coming up to you with their problems and for that, it is important that the HR team builds a good public image within the organization. The HR team has to be proactive and know their employees. An HR personnel’s job is not a desk job altogether. The HR head’s role is to establish the trust and confidence of the employees and not have a “don’t mess with me” demeanor. He should be looked upon as both an HR expert and an employee advocate. Rewards and Incentives
  13. 13. Rewarding the employees for a work well done imparts motivation and at the same time induces a desire to excel at tasks in hope of obtaining rewards. It serves as bait for inculcating a healthy competitive environment amongst employees to achieve targets and meet deadlines. A reward need not be materialistic always. It could just be a word of appreciation in front of all coworkers for a menial task done with complete honesty. However, with globalization and evolving trends, compensations like holiday packages, pay incentive, bonuses, and promotion are taking a backseat. If as an HR manager you are wanting to reward your employees efficiently, it’s time you adapt new ways of awarding benefits such as flexible work times, paternity leave, extended holidays, telecommuting etc. These non-traditional rewards will prove fruitful not only in engaging existing workforce but also as an added benefit to attract new talent to your organization. Legal Knowledge This may seem the least glamorous of all, but is an important aspect of the HRM. An HR manager should always be in compliance with the law. Whether it’s drafting new policies or writing terms of a contract, it is the HR department’s job to build guidelines keeping the laws in mind. This ensures an organization’s continued growth and existence. While drafting policies, the HR should always ensure to be at an upper hand legally and keep the organization’s practices in tune with the labor laws, tax laws, permissible working hours, minimum wages, and a no- discrimination policy. Organization An HR head is responsible for organizing all functions of the organization. To start with, it includes employee on-boarding, i.e. welcoming new employees. It is a must for every HR head to carry out an induction for every new hire, and give them an orientation regarding the company policies and rules. The HR personnel should also introduce the new employees to their colleagues and assign them a mentor. It also involves listing out job expectations and defining roles and responsibilities, thus getting the new employees in tune with the working of the organization. The HR personnel are also responsible for organizing and storing all employee data efficiently and keeping it secure. Management
  14. 14. Management is the most important job of an HR manager. It is what defines a good HR manager. Management extends right from managing employees to managing the employers and the whole HR department as well. The role of an HR manager is to manage, create, implement and supervise policies/regulations, which are mandatory for every employee and also have knowledge of its appropriate functioning. Monitoring attendance and tracking leaves forms a major chunk of the HR management function. There should be a proper management of the clock-in/out time to avoid late arrivals and track overtimes and half-days. As mentioned before, the HR as a department should also be well managed by the HR head. If the HR department itself is in a state of chaos, it cannot serve as a peacemaker for the other departments. Payroll Management Once all the attendance monitoring, leave tracking, clock in/outs etc is tracked and monitored, it’s time for the most important aspect–calculating the payroll. Efficient calculation of salaries, wage-cuts, reimbursements, and generation of pay slips amounts to the role of HR managers in payroll management. The HR manager should maintain transparency and provide the employees with information as and when asked. The HR should ensure not only accurate calculations of salaries but also timely transfer of the same. They also have an obligation towards exiting employees in settlement of dues and compensations. Talent Acquisition: Talent acquisition is the process of finding and acquiring skilled human labor for organizational needs and to meet any labor requirement. When used in the context of the recruiting and HR profession, talent acquisition usually refers to the talent acquisition department or team within the Human Resources department. E-recruitment technique to our HR plan for recruitment E-recruitment also known as online recruitment is the practice of using technology and in particular Web-based resources for tasks involved with finding, attracting, assessing, interviewing and hiring new personnel. Many big and small organizations are using Internet as a source of recruitment. They advertise job vacancies through worldwide web. The job seekers send their applications or curriculum vitae (CV) through an e-mail using the Internet. The online promotion of an organization as a desirable place to work, through the corporate website or other venues, is one element of e-recruitment. The purpose of e-recruitment is to make the processes involved more efficient and effective, as well as less expensive. Online recruitment can reach a larger pool of potential employees and facilitate the selection process.
  15. 15. The two kinds of e- recruitment technique that can we use are – 1. Job portals – Here the position with the job description and the job specification are posted on the job portal and also searching for the suitable resumes posted on the site corresponding to the opening in the organization. 2. Resume Scanners: Resume scanner is one major benefit provided by the job portals to the organizations. It enables the employees to screen and filter the resumes through pre-defined criteria’s and requirements (skills, qualifications, experience, payroll etc.) of the job. Job sites provide a 24*7 access to the database of the resumes to the employees facilitating the just-in-time hiring by our organization. Also, the jobs can be posted on the site almost immediately and is also cheaper than advertising in the employment. Online recruitment helps us to automate the recruitment process, save our time and costs on recruitments. Advantages of this E-Recruitment technique are: o No intermediaries. o Lower costs. o Posting jobs online is cheaper than advertising in the newspaper. o Facilitates the recruitment of right type of people with the required skills. o Reduction in the time for recruitment (over 65 percent of the hiring time). o Gives a 24*7 access to an online collection of resumes. o Online recruitment helps the organizations to weed out the unqualified candidates in an automated way. Disadvantages of E-Recruitment o There is low Internet penetration and no access and lack of awareness of internet in many locations across India. o Screening and checking the skill mapping and authenticity of millions of resumes is a problem and time consuming exercise for organizations. o Organizations cannot be dependant solely and totally on the online recruitment methods. Techniques will we apply to gauge capabilities of the candidate We apply following technique to gauge capabilities of the candidates-
  16. 16. A. Cognitive Ability Tests – Cognitive ability tests typically use questions or problems to measure ability to learn quickly, logic, reasoning, reading comprehension and other enduring mental abilities that are fundamental to success in many different jobs. Cognitive ability tests assess a person aptitude or potential to solve job-related problems by providing information about their mental abilities such as verbal or mathematical reasoning and perceptual abilities like speed in recognizing letters of the alphabet. Advantages Disadvantages  Have been demonstrated to produce valid inferences for a number of organizational outcomes (e.g., performance, success in training).  Have been demonstrated to predict job performance particularly for more complex jobs.  Can be administered via paper and pencil or computerized methods easily to large numbers..  Will not be influenced by test taker attempts to impression manage or fake responses.  Are typically more likely to differ in results by gender and race than other types of tests.  Can be time-consuming to develop if not purchased off-the- shelf. B. Integrity Tests - Integrity tests assess attitudes and experiences related to a person honesty, dependability, trustworthiness, reliability, and pro-social behavior. These tests typically ask direct questions about previous experiences related to ethics and integrity OR ask questions about preferences and interests from which inferences are drawn about future behavior in these areas. Integrity tests are used to identify individuals who are likely to engage in inappropriate, dishonest, and antisocial behavior at work. Advantages Disadvantages  Have been demonstrated to produce valid inferences for a number of organizational  May lead to individuals responding in a way to create a positive decision outcome rather
  17. 17. outcomes (e.g., performance, inventory shrinkage difficulties in dealing with supervision).  Can reduce business costs by identifying individuals who are less likely to be absent, or engage in other counterproductive behavior. than how they really are (i.e., they may try to positively manage their impression or even fake their response).  May be disliked by test takers if questions are intrusive or seen as unrelated to the job. B. Interviews – Interviews vary greatly in their content, but are often used to assess such things as interpersonal skills, communication skills, and teamwork skills, and can be used to assess job knowledge. Well-designed interviews typically use a standard set of questions to evaluate knowledge, skills, abilities, and other qualities required for the job. The interview is the most commonly used type of test. Employers generally conduct interviews either face-to-face or by phone. Advantages Disadvantages  Are expected and accepted by many job applicants.  Provide an opportunity for a two-way exchange of information.  Provide a measure of skills such as oral communication skills not measured via paper and pencil or computerized tools.  May be affected by different kinds of rating errors and biases by interviewers.  Are often more time-consuming to administer than paper and pencil or computerized tools.  May be practically less useful when a large number of individuals must be evaluated because of administration time. C. Job Knowledge Tests – Job knowledge tests typically use multiple choice questions or essay type items to evaluate technical or professional expertise and knowledge required for specific jobs or professions. Examples of job knowledge tests include tests of basic accounting principles, A+/Net+ programming, and blueprint reading.
  18. 18. Advantages Disadvantages  Have been demonstrated to produce valid inferences for a number of organizational outcomes, such as job performance.  Can reduce business costs by identifying individuals for hiring, promotion or training that possesses the needed skills and abilities.  May require frequent updates to ensure test is current with the job.  May be inappropriate for jobs where knowledge may be obtained via a short training period.  Can be costly and time- consuming to develop, unless purchased off-the-shelf. D. Personality Tests – Some commonly measured personality traits in work settings are extraversion, conscientiousness, and openness to new experiences, optimism, agreeableness, service orientation, stress tolerance, emotional stability, and initiative. Personality tests typically measure traits related to behavior at work, interpersonal interactions, and satisfaction with different aspects of work. Personality tests are often used to assess whether individuals have the potential to be successful in jobs where performance requires a great deal of interpersonal interaction or work in team settings. Advantages Disadvantages  Have been demonstrated to produce valid inferences for a number of organizational outcomes.  Can reduce business costs by identifying individuals for hiring, promotion or training that possesses the needed skills and abilities. .  May contain questions that do not appear job related or seem intrusive if not well developed.  May lead to individuals responding in a way to create a positive decision outcome rather than how they really are (i.e., they may try to positively manage their impression or even fake their response). E. Physical Ability Tests –
  19. 19. Physical ability tests typically use tasks or exercises that require physical ability to perform. These tests typically measure physical attributes and capabilities, such as strength, balance, and speed. Advantages Disadvantages  Have been demonstrated to produce valid inferences regarding performance of physically demanding tasks.  Can identify applicants who are physically unable to perform essential job functions.  Can reduce business costs by identifying individuals for hiring, promotion or training that possess the needed skills and abilities, by minimizing the risk of physical injury to employees and others on the job, and by decreasing disability/medical, insurance, and workers compensation costs.  Will not be influenced by test taker attempts to impression manage or fake responses.  Are typically more likely to differ in results by gender than other types of tests.  May be problematic for use in employee selection if the test is one used to diagnose medical conditions (i.e., a physical disability) rather than simply to assess ability to perform a particular job-related task.  Can be expensive to purchase equipment and administer.  May be time consuming to administer.  May be inappropriate or difficult to administer in typical employment offices.  Talent Maintenance Talent management refers to the anticipation of required human capital for an organization and the planning to meet those needs. Talent management is the science of using strategic human resource planning to improve business value and to make it possible for companies and organizations to reach their goals.  Training and development Training and development is vital part of the human resource development. It is assuming ever important role in wake of the advancement of technology which has resulted in ever increasing competition, rise in customer’s expectation of quality and service and a subsequent need to lower costs. It is also become more important globally in order to prepare workers for new jobs. In the
  20. 20. current write up, we will focus more on the emerging need of training and development, its implications upon individuals and the employers. Training and Development Before we say that technology is responsible for increased need of training inputs to employees, it is important to understand that there are other factors too that contribute to the latter. Training is also necessary for the individual development and progress of the employee, which motivates him to work for a certain organization apart from just money. We also require training update employees of the market trends, the change in the employment policies and other things. The following are the two biggest factors that contribute to the increased need to training and development in organizations: 1. Change: The word change encapsulates almost everything. It is one of the biggest factors that contribute to the need of training and development. There is in fact a direct relationship between the two. Change leads to the need for training and development and training and development leads to individual and organizational change, and the cycle goes on and on. More specifically it is the technology that is driving the need; changing the way how businesses function, compete and deliver. 2. Development: It is again one the strong reasons for training and development becoming all the more important. Money is not the sole motivator at work and this is especially very true for the 21st century. People who work with organizations seek more than just employment out of their work; they look at holistic development of self. Spirituality and self awareness for example are gaining momentum world over. People seek happiness at jobs which may not be possible unless an individual is aware of the self. At ford, for example, an individual can enroll himself / herself in a course on ‘self awareness’, which apparently seems inconsequential to ones performance at work but contributes to the spiritual well being of an individual which is all the more important. The critical question however remains the implications and the contribution of training and development to the bottom line of organizations performance. To assume a leadership position in the market space, an organization will need to emphasize on the kind of programs they use to improvise performance and productivity and not just how much they simply spend on learning!
  21. 21. 1. Describe employee training program methods that you think will fit for various skill developments of different roles designed by you? These are the training program method which will be fit for various skill developments of different roles designed by us A. Classroom or Instructor-Led Training - In this training techniques There are many types including are : Blackboard or whiteboard This may be the most “old-fashioned” method, but it can still be effective, especially if you invite trainees to write on the board or ask for feedback that you write on the board. Overhead projector This method is increasingly being replaced with PowerPoint presentations, which are less manually demanding, but overheads do allow you to write on them and customize presentations easily on the spot. Video portion Lectures can be broken up with video portions that explain sections of the training PowerPoint® Presentation. topic or that present case studies for discussion. Presentation software is used to create customized group training sessions that are led by an instructor. Training materials are provided on CDROM and displayed on a large screen for any number of trainees. Employees can also use the programs individually, which allows for easy make-up sessions for employees who miss the group session. This method is one of the most popular lecture methods and can be combined with handouts and other interactive methods. Storytelling Stories can be used as examples of right and wrong ways to perform skills with the outcome of each way described. This method is most effective with debriefing questions, such as: How does this story relate to training? How did the main character’s choices make you feel? What assumptions did you make throughout the story? Were they correct? What would you have done differently?
  22. 22. This technique makes communication easier since it is nonthreatening with no one right answer. It is cost effective, especially if trainers have their own stories to tell. Stories can also make sessions more personal if they involve people trainees know. We can also find many training stories online. Advantages  Instructor-led classroom training is an efficient method for presenting a large body of material to large or small groups of employees.  It is a personal, face-to-face type of training as opposed to computer-based training and other methods we will discuss later.  It ensures that everyone gets the same information at the same time.  It is cost-effective, especially when not outsourced to guest speakers.  Storytelling grabs people’s attention. Disadvantages  Sometimes it is not interactive.  Too much of the success of the training depends on the effectiveness of the lecturer.  Scheduling classroom sessions for large numbers of trainees can be difficult—especially when trainees are at multiple locations. B. Interactive Methods: C. In this training techniques there are many types including are: Quizzes For long, complicated training, stop periodically to administer brief quizzes on information presented to that point. You can also begin sessions with a prequel and let participants know there will also be a follow-up quiz. Trainees will stay engaged in order to improve their prequel scores on the final quiz. Further motivate participants by offering awards to the highest scorers or the most improved scores. Small group discussions Break the participants down into small groups and give them case studies or work situations to discuss or solve. This is a good way for knowledgeable veteran employees to pass on their experience to newer employees. Case studies Adults tend to bring a problem-oriented way of thinking to workplace training. Case studies are an excellent way to capitalize on this type of adult learning. By analyzing real job-related situations, employees can learn how to handle similar situations. They can also see how various elements of a job work together to create problems as well as solutions.
  23. 23. Active summaries Create small groups and have them choose a leader. Ask them to summarize the lecture’s major points and have each team leader present the summaries to the class. Read aloud a prewritten summary and compare this with participants’ impressions. Q & A sessions Informal question-and-answer sessions are most effective with small groups and for updating skills rather than teaching new skills. For example, some changes in departmental procedure might easily be handled by a short explanation by the supervisor, followed by a question-and- answer period and a discussion period. Question cards During the lecture, ask participants to write questions on the subject matter. Collect them and conduct a quiz/review session. Role-playing By assuming roles and acting out situations that might occur in the workplace, employees learn how to handle various situations before they face them on the job. Role-playing is an excellent training technique for many interpersonal skills, such as customer service, interviewing, and supervising. Participant control Create a subject menu of what will be covered. Ask participants to review it and pick items they want to know more about. Call on a participant to identify his or her choice. Cover that topic and move on to the next participant. Demonstrations Whenever possible, bring tools or equipment that are part of the training topic and demonstrate the steps being taught or the processes being adopted. Other activities Create a personal action plan Raise arguments to issues in the lecture Paraphrase important or complex points in the lecture Advantages
  24. 24. Interactive sessions keep trainees engaged in the training, which makes them more receptive to the new information. They make training more fun and enjoyable. They provide ways for veteran employees to pass on knowledge and experience to newer employees. They can provide in-session feedback to trainers on how well trainees are learning. Disadvantages Interactive sessions can take longer because activities, such as taking quizzes or breaking into small groups, are time-consuming. Some methods, such as participant control, can be less structured, and trainers will need to make sure that all necessary information is covered. C Hands-On Training- Experiential, or hands-on, training, offers several more effective techniques for teaching employees, including: Cross-training This method allows employees to experience other jobs, which not only enhances employee skills but also gives companies the benefit of having employees who can perform more than one job. Cross-training also gives employees a better appreciation of what co-workers do and how their own jobs fit in with the work of others to achieve company goals. Demonstrations Demonstrations are attention-grabbers. They are an excellent way to teach employees to use new equipment or to teach the steps in a new process. They are also effective in teaching safety skills. Combined with the opportunity for questions and answers, this is a powerful, engaging form of training. Coaching The goal of job coaching is to improve an employee’s performance. Coaching focuses on the individual needs of an employee and is generally less formal than other kinds of training. There are usually no set training sessions. A manager, supervisor, or veteran employee serves as the coach. He or she gets together with the employee being coached when time allows and works with this employee to:  Answer questions  Suggest more effective strategies
  25. 25.  Correct errors  Guide toward goals  Give support and encouragement  Provide knowledgeable feedback Apprenticeships Apprenticeships give employers the opportunity to shape inexperienced workers to fit existing and future jobs. These programs give young workers the opportunity to learn a trade or profession and earn a modest income. Apprenticeship combines supervised training on the job with classroom instruction in a formal, structured program that can last for a year or more. Drills. Drilling is a good way for employees to practice skills. Evacuation drills are effective when training emergency preparedness, for example. Advantages  Hands-on training methods are effective for training in new procedures and new equipments.  They are immediately applicable to trainees’ jobs.  They allow trainers to immediately determine whether a trainee has learned the new skill or procedure. Disadvantages  They are not good for large groups if you do not have enough equipment or machines for everyone to use.  Personal coaching can be disruptive to the coach’s productivity.  Apprenticeship can be expensive for companies paying for employees who are being trained on the job and are not yet as productive as regular employees. D. Computer-Based Training (CBT)- Computer-based training is becoming increasingly prevalent as technology becomes more widespread and easy to use. Though traditional forms of training are not likely to be replaced completely by technological solutions, they will most likely be enhanced by them. Human interaction will always remain a key component of workplace training. Nonetheless, it is a good idea to look more closely at what training technologies have to offer and how they might be used to supplement existing training programs or used when developing new ones. Computer-based training formats vary from the simplest text-only programs to highly sophisticated multimedia programs to virtual reality. Consider the following types: Text-only
  26. 26. The simplest computer-based training programs offer self-paced training in a text-only format. These programs are similar to print-based, individualized training modules with the addition, in most cases, of interactive features. While simple in format, these programs can be highly effective and present complicated information and concepts in a comprehensible and easily accessible way. CD-ROM A wide variety of off-the-shelf training programs covering a broad range of workplace topics are available on CD-ROM. Programs can also be created by training consultants for the specific needs of the particular organization or individual departments. Multimedia These training materials are an advanced form of computer-based training. They are much more sophisticated than the original text-only programs. In addition to text, they provide stimulating graphics, audio, animation, and/or video. Multimedia tends to be more provocative and challenging and, therefore, more stimulating to the adult mind. Although costs are higher than text-only software, the benefits in terms of employee learning may well be worth it. Multimedia training materials are typically found in DVD format. Virtual reality Virtual reality is three-dimensional and interactive, immersing the trainee in a learning experience. Most virtual reality training programs take the form of simulation, which is a highly effective form of training. It is hands-on experience without the risks of actual performance. Flight simulators, for example, have been used successfully for years to train airline and military pilots in critical flying skills, as well as to prepare them for emergency situations in a safe and forgiving environment. Advantages  Computer-based training programs are easy to use.  They can often be customized or custom designed.  They are good for helping employees develop and practice new skills.  They are useful for refresher training. They are applicable to self-directed learning.  They can be cost-effective because the same equipment and program can be used by large numbers of employees.  They are flexible because trainees can learn at their own pace and at a time that’s convenient for them. Computer-based programs are available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. No matter which shift an employee works, training is always available.
  27. 27. Some programs are interactive, requiring trainees to answer questions, make choices, and experience the consequences of those choices. This interaction generally results in greater comprehension and retention. They are uniform, which makes it possible to standardize training. They are measurable. When computers are used for training, it is possible to track what each employee has learned right on the computer. Most programs have post-tests to determine whether the employee has understood the training. Test scores give trainers statistics for training evaluations. Disadvantages  These programs require trainees to be computer literate.  They require trainees to have computer access.  There is little or no interaction with a trainer; if trainees have questions, there’s no one to ask.  These programs are not effective at teaching “soft-skills,” such as customer service, sales, or sensitivity training.  They are not the best choice for new or one-time training. Trainers need live interaction to ensure new skills or concepts are being communicated. Trainees need to be able to ask questions and receive feedback.  Some poorly designed programs are “boring” and result in trainees having a poor retention rate of the material as well as a low finish rate. E. Online or E-Learning- In addition to computer-based training, many companies with employees in a variety of locations across the country are relying on other technologies to deliver training. According to the “State of the Industry” report, companies are using a record level of e- learning, and they predicts that number will continue to rise. This method is becoming more and more popular as access to the Web becomes more widely available. Some examples include: Web-based training This method puts computer-based training modules onto the Web, which companies can then make available to their employees either on the company’s intranet or on a section of the vendor’s website that is set up for your company. There are many courses available on the Internet in many different topic areas. These courses provide a hands-on, interactive way for employees to work through training presentations that are similar to CD-ROM or PowerPoint, on their own. Training materials are standardized because all trainees will use the same program. Materials are also easy to update, so your training is always in step with your industry. Web- based training programs are also often linked with software (a learning management system, or LMS) that makes trainees’ progress trackable, which makes recordkeeping very easy for the training administrator.
  28. 28. Tele- or video conferencing These methods allow the trainer to be in one location and trainees to be scattered in several locations. Participants are networked into the central location and can usually ask questions of the trainer via the telephone or by a web chat feature. Lectures and demonstrations can be effective using this method. Audio conferencing This method is similar to videoconferencing but involves audio only. Participants dial in at the scheduled meeting time and hear speakers present their training. Question and answer sessions are frequently held at the end of sessions in which participants can email questions or call in and talk to a presenter. Web meetings, or webinars This method contains audio and visual components. Participants dial in to receive live audio training and also follow visual material that appears on their computer screens. These presentations are similar to CD-ROM or PowerPoint presentations and sometimes offer minimal online interactivity. Q & A sessions may also be held at the end of sessions. Online colleges and universities. This method is also known as distance learning, and many schools now offer certificates or degrees through online programs that require only minimal on- campus residency. We can use e-mail to promote or enhance training. Send reminders for upcoming training. Solicit follow-up questions for trainers and/or managers. Conduct training evaluations through e-mail forms. Advantages  Online or e-learning programs are effective for training across multiple locations.  They save the company money on travel expenses.  They can be a less expensive way to get training from expert industry professionals and consultants from outside the company.  They are useful for refresher training.  They are good for self-directed learning.  They can be easy to update with new company policies or procedures, federal regulations, and compliance issues.  They offer trainers a growing array of choices for matching training programs to employee knowledge and skill levels. Disadvantages  These programs require trainees to be computer literate.
  29. 29.  They are usually generic and not customized to your company’s needs.  Some employees may not like the impersonal nature of this training.  Employees may be too intimidated by the technology or the remoteness of the trainer to ask questions.  Lack of computer terminals or insufficient online time may restrict or preclude access to training.  Inadequate or outdated hardware devices (e.g., sound cards, graphics accelerators, and local area networks) can cause programs to malfunction.  Your company’s Internet servers may not have enough bandwidth to receive the materials.  Self-instruction offers limited opportunities to receive context-specific expert advice or timely response to questions We evaluate the effectiveness of various training methods We will evaluate our training method through these four stages :- LEVEL 1 = Reaction LEVEL 2 = Learning LEVEL 3 = Behaviour LEVEL 4 = Results Level 1 The first stage is about the reaction of the trainee to the training. This sort of measurement is concerned with how the trainees "feel” about the course. The usual course feedback sheets are an example of the Kirkpatrick level 1 evaluation. Most organizations do not do any more than this type of measurement and analysis. The drawback is that we do not really know if the trainee has actually learnt anything. What really seems to be being asked of the trainee was how "happy” were you with the course; hence the somewhat derogatory description that is often applied to the "happy sheets”! We will now look at the next level of evaluation concerned with Learning. Level 2 Things can be improved by using a pre-test and post-test and comparing the results. The questions need to be objective and closely related to the course objectives (more about that later). In this way we can determine if the training actually delivered knowledge and this was understood by the trainees at the time. An organization that does this can be confident that the trainee has actually learnt something at that time. Why do I make the point that we have to make the measurement and consider the learning at a certain time? Well because we do not know if the
  30. 30. learning has had time to be internalised and become "concrete”. All too often trainees (and delegates at conferences for example) will have difficulty remembering what was in the course or seminar they attended a few days later let alone months later. There are various techniques that we can employ to improve the level of recall but basically "if we don’t use it we will lose it”! Level 3 This is concerned with behaviour. By that we mean the measurable change in an individual as a result of their attendance on the training course. This is, in my opinion, the least we should be expecting from any training program. After all what is the point of spending money and using resources if the training does not effect some measurable change in the behaviour of the trainee? Level 4 These are metrics which really have an impact on the "bottom line” and for that reason feature in the companies balance sheets and KPIs. We have to ask ourselves is this not the real reason for training? Training has to make a real difference in performance and effectiveness; this is tied closely to competence. Training has be proven to deliver results and be cost effective. It might sound simple but it is not for most organizations. The reason is that most do not have in place any system for measuring the improvement in competence of the individual; let alone a systematic approach to identifying the most effective means of assisting the individual to becoming competent. Appraising the Talent Role from our company and design performance evaluation worksheet of that role An operations manager fills a pivotal role in a business, government or other organization. The precise tasks of an operations manager depend in large part upon the nature and size of the enterprise, but she needs a wide range of business and interpersonal skills to succeed. In general, an operations & manager plans, oversees and smooth communication.  Management of Resources Operations managers play a leading role in managing both raw materials and personnel. Oversight of inventory, purchasing and supplies is central to the job. Human resources tasks
  31. 31. include determining needs, hiring employees, overseeing assignment of employees and planning staff development.  Financial Management Operations managers play a key role in budgeting, controlling costs and keeping the organization on track financially. Their management of the supply chain and other resources helps minimize costs of production. Business forecasts, sales reports and financial statements to find ways to maximize results. They use methods such as cost-benefit analysis to improve efficiency. Modern operations management even includes sustainability in the financial equation.  Goal-setting Operations managers set goals and objectives and establish policies for various departments in the organization. For example, operations manager duties include sales forecasting and planning of sales promotions. In cooperation with other managers, they help establish procedures and put them into effect.  Communications Operations managers need good communication and interpersonal skills to help the different parts of an organization work together. Their job includes creating a positive culture where the work can get done. They facilitate communication between employees and departments. At times, operation managers help resolve disputes or disagreements. Operations managers cooperate in high-level decision making with other top executives of an organization, such as the president, chief financial officer and chief executive.  Salary Operations and general managers averaged an annual income of $113,100 in 2010, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Managers at the 10th percentile received $47,280 per year, while those at the 75th percentile got $142,030 per year. The government does not report a specific figure at the 90th percentile, stating only that it was at least $166,400 annually.  Education and Outlook Most operations managers have a minimum of a bachelor's degree in business, finance or another field relevant to the organization. Some have a master's in business administration or other advanced degree. The number of positions for operations managers will remain unchanged from 2008 to 2018, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics. As existing operations managers move to similar positions in different organizations, new applicants will face strong competition. Those
  32. 32. with good leadership skills, a proven ability to get results and foreign language skills have the best chances of securing jobs.  Policy Formulation Formulating policy is one of the core duties of an operations manager. Companies must operate and function on a daily basis within a prescribed set of guidelines. These guidelines are generally established by operations managers. These can include how different departments within the company or organization communicate and cooperate with one another. Policies can also include disciplinary actions taken when employees break company rules.  Planning The planning of various company operations and activities is another major concern of the operations manager. Operations managers tend to determine which products are bought and sold, what prices they are bought or sold for and to whom they will be marketed, according to O*NET Online. The operations manager also helps plan and coordinate activities between various departments such as determining what types of sales promotions the company will engage in.  Controlling Resources Controlling major company resources is yet a third major function of an operations manager. Operations managers oversee the implementation of payroll policies and procedures, how much employees are paid, how funds are allocated for benefits packages and how other funds are spent to keep the company operating smoothly on a day-to-day basis. Operations managers regularly review financial statements to ensure that the company is operating as efficiently and as profitably as possible. THANK YOU