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Anumana and Research Methods

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Author:
Dr. Vinod Kumar MV, Professor, Department of Basic Principles, VPSV Ayurveda College, Kottakkal

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Anumana and Research Methods

  1. 1. Research Process in the Light of Anumana-Pramana Dr. Vinodkumar M V Professor in Dept. of Basic Principles of Ayurveda at VPSV Ayurveda College, Kottakkal, Kerala.
  2. 2. Human beings are special  Reflective practices  Thinking  Planning  Imagination  Deduction  Interpretation  Inference 2
  3. 3. Beyond perception  Philosophy sees things beyond visible nature  Science speaks about principles behind natural phenomena  History is nothing but logical sequencing of incidences  Arts and literature nourishes personal imagination  Scientific method adopts logical deductions from visible evidences  Three out of six padarthas are assumptive  Management is well projected experience  There is no discourse without An Internal Process
  4. 4. Research process • Observation • Experimentation • Inference • Interpretation • Conclusion • Reporting
  5. 5. Research process • Observation • Primary hypothesis • Experimentation • Testing of hypothesis • Final conclusion • Open discussion/Reporting 09.01.2018 5
  6. 6. reasoning  Inductive  Hypothesis generation  Observation based  Inclusion based  Sambhava  Deductive  Hypothesis testing  Comparison based  Exclusion based  Parisesha
  7. 7. Projection method  Sample - Population  Man - Universe  Vyakta – Avyakta  Udara - Mandagni  Jwarachikitsa - Chikitsa
  8. 8. Testing what? Association What Sort of association? Incidental finding Repeated finding Correlation Causality Inherence
  9. 9. designs • Observational • Experimental • Observation without inference • Observation with Inference • Intervention without comparison • Intervention with comparison • Descriptive study • Analytical study • Single group trial • Controlled Trial
  10. 10. • Descriptive study • Analytical study • Open trial • Controlled Trial Prospective cohort Retrospective cohort Case control Cross sectional
  11. 11. Research question  Descriptive  Relational  Causal 09.01.2018 11 Temporal Causal
  12. 12. causal Cause Effect Effect Cause Cohort Case control Cross sectional
  13. 13. temporal Cause Effect Effect Cause
  14. 14. Observation - inference Where? Sample What ? Result On what base ? Based on evidences and findings Why? Due to invariable association Are the findings specifically present in the sample? Yes
  15. 15. Additional terms  Saadhyavachanam – Hypothesis  Sadhyasadhanam – Research methodology  Saadhyanirnayam – Final result  Saadhyaprakhyaapanam – Research thesis/publication
  16. 16. samples  Testing sample  An ideal sample fulfilling reference criteria  An ideal sample excluding reference criteria
  17. 17. Ideal evidences  Should be derived from the proposed sample  Should follow an approved criteria (inclusion criteria)  Should abstain from exclusion criteria  Should not be self contradictory, all the findings in the proposed criterion should be equally satisfied  Should not be contradicted by another criterion  Should be complaint with multiple trials/designs of the study 09.01.2018Pramana - Kannur 17 Sad-hetu
  18. 18. Invariable correlation  Positive  Negative
  19. 19. Sensitivity and specificity  Sensitivity – true positive – measures the proportion of positives that are correctly identified as such  Where ever X is there really Y also is there  Specificity – true negative – measures the proportion of negatives that are correctly absent  Wherever X is absent Y also is absent
  20. 20. Ideal instrument Should be sensitive and specific (Eg: RA factor in sero positive arthritis) Some tools are specific but not sensitive Eg: ESR in RA (active) Some other tools are sensitive but not specific Eg: X ray findings in IVDP
  21. 21. Research fallacy (hetwabhasa)  Over extensive criteria  Intervention claimed to be effective in cancer after relieving anemia  Non repeatable evidence  Present in the study sample only  Over extensive sample  Absence of negative evidence  Selecting a criteria present in the proposed sample only  No control group  Self contradictory evidence  Increase of symptoms justified as good result  Proposed evidence challenged by another evidence  A finding supporting the result, another finding refuting the result Sadharana hetwabhasa Asadharana hetwabhasa Anupasamharee Viruddha Sat-pratipaksha
  22. 22.  Challenged in different model  Result in clinical trial challenged by that in animal model  Study completed in an imaginary sample  Fraudulent research  Study completed with fake results  Fraudulent research  Result affected by confounding factors  Confounding factor = a condition affecting the result Badhita Asrayasiddha Swarupasidhha Vyapyatwasidhha
  23. 23. Research reporting  Statement of hypothesis  Stating the method, findings and evidences  Quoting standard findings  Comparing with standard findings, interpreting the present findings  Conclusion
  24. 24. inference  Observational inference - Anumana  Interventional inference - Yukti
  25. 25. Anumana Yukti Based on single finding Based on multiple finding Based on mere observation Based on observation after intervention Lesser probability Greater probability Suggestivity Predictivity 09.01.2018Pramana - Kannur 25
  26. 26. Logical deduction of unknown factors  Elimination method  Deductive method  Tarka
  27. 27. conclusion  There is no research without applying prime principles of Anumana  Yukti is the interventional model of Anumana  Research methods, by concepts, are one and the same at different points of time  Change is only in the subject being researched
  28. 28. Thank You

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