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Writing Skills - Letter Writing
Overview <ul><li>Writing Routine & Pleasant Letter </li></ul><ul><li>Writing Unpleasant Letter </li></ul><ul><li>Writing t...
Writing Routine  &  Pleasant Letter
Understand Your Audience/Readers
AUDIENCE REACTION   <ul><li>Eager or interested </li></ul><ul><li>Pleased or neutral </li></ul><ul><li>Displeased </li></u...
Organize – Why? <ul><li>Encourages brevity and accuracy </li></ul><ul><li>Permits concentration </li></ul><ul><li>Saves ti...
Organize  (Deductively or Inductively)   <ul><li>deductive sequence-of-ideas pattern has several advantages: </li></ul><ul...
Business Letters - Situations <ul><li>Letters not likely to generate any emotional reaction are referred to as routine let...
Routine Claim  <ul><li>Persuasive claims, which will be discussed in a later chapter, assume that the request will be gran...
Routine claims <ul><li>When the claim is routine (not likely to meet resistance), the following outline is recommended: </...
When the response to a claim letter is favorable <ul><li>1.          Reveal the good news in the first sentence. </li></ul...
Routine Letters about Credit <ul><li>Request for information </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the request and name the applicant...
Favorable response to a request for credit <ul><li>Begin by saying credit terms have been arranged;  </li></ul><ul><li>Ind...
Routine Letters about Orders <ul><li>In the first sentence say “please ship,” “please send,” “I order,”  </li></ul><ul><li...
Favorable Response to an Order Letter <ul><li>Non-routine acknowledgments require individualized letters. Although initial...
Letters about Routine Requests <ul><li>Routine Requests . Businesspeople often write letters requesting information about ...
Favorable Response to a Routine Request. Many people say “yes” thoughtlessly   1.  Shows sincere interest in the request a...
Writing about the Unpleasant
Overview <ul><li>Saying “No” to an Adjustment Request </li></ul><ul><li>Saying “No” to a Credit Request </li></ul><ul><li>...
Remember <ul><li>Without empathy for the audience’s feelings, it is hard to gain its cooperation or persuade it to accept ...
The inductive sequence-of-ideas: <ul><li>Begin with a neutral idea that leads to the reason for the refusal.  </li></ul><u...
Four steps:  <ul><li>Introductory Paragraph </li></ul><ul><li>Facts, Analysis and Reasons </li></ul><ul><li>Refusal Statem...
SAYING “NO” TO AN ADJUSTMENT REQUEST <ul><li>(1) begin with a neutral or factual sentence that leads to the reasons behind...
SAYING “NO” TO A CREDIT REQUEST <ul><li>Including resale - favorable statements  </li></ul><ul><li>(1) it might cause cred...
SAYING “NO” TO  AN ORDER  FOR MERCHANDISE <ul><li>Unclear Orders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The buffer has a resale emphasis  <...
SAYING “NO” TO  A REQUEST FOR A FAVOR <ul><li>Introduces the subject without revealing whether the answer will be “yes” or...
SPECIAL PROBLEMS - ABOUT THE UNPLEASANT   <ul><li>Is an inductive outline appropriate for all letters that convey bad news...
Difficulties In Writing The Buffer <ul><li>Avoid saying “no.”   </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid using a know-it-all tone </li></ul...
Bad-News Sentence   <ul><li>E.g. </li></ul><ul><li>The preceding figures do not justify raising your credit limit to Rs 30...
Last Paragraph  <ul><li>Don’t refer to or repeat the bad news.   </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t apologize for the decision  </li>...
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Writing skills letter writing

  1. 1. Writing Skills - Letter Writing
  2. 2. Overview <ul><li>Writing Routine & Pleasant Letter </li></ul><ul><li>Writing Unpleasant Letter </li></ul><ul><li>Writing to Persuade </li></ul><ul><li>Preparing Resumes </li></ul><ul><li>Writing Application Letter </li></ul><ul><li>Structure & Layout of Letters </li></ul>
  3. 3. Writing Routine & Pleasant Letter
  4. 4. Understand Your Audience/Readers
  5. 5. AUDIENCE REACTION <ul><li>Eager or interested </li></ul><ul><li>Pleased or neutral </li></ul><ul><li>Displeased </li></ul><ul><li>Uninterested or unwilling </li></ul>
  6. 6. Organize – Why? <ul><li>Encourages brevity and accuracy </li></ul><ul><li>Permits concentration </li></ul><ul><li>Saves time in dictating/writing </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitates emphasis/de-emphasis </li></ul><ul><li>The relationships among ideas are easier to distinguish and remember </li></ul><ul><li>Reaction to the message and its writer is more likely to be positive. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Organize (Deductively or Inductively) <ul><li>deductive sequence-of-ideas pattern has several advantages: </li></ul><ul><li>1. The first sentence is easy to write </li></ul><ul><li>2. The first sentence is likely to attract attention. </li></ul><ul><li>3. When good news appears in the beginning, the message immediately puts readers in a pleasant state of mind. </li></ul><ul><li>4. The arrangement reduces the reading time. Once readers have grasped the important idea, they can move rapidly through the supporting details. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Business Letters - Situations <ul><li>Letters not likely to generate any emotional reaction are referred to as routine letters. </li></ul><ul><li>Routine Claim and ‘yes’ reply </li></ul><ul><li>Routine Letters about credit and favorable response to credit request </li></ul><ul><li>Routine Letters about orders </li></ul><ul><li>Letters about routine requests </li></ul>
  9. 9. Routine Claim <ul><li>Persuasive claims, which will be discussed in a later chapter, assume that the request will be granted only after explanations and persuasive arguments have been presented. </li></ul><ul><li>Routine claims - possibly because of guarantees, warrantees, or other contractual conditions - assume that the request will be granted quickly and willingly, without persuasion. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Routine claims <ul><li>When the claim is routine (not likely to meet resistance), the following outline is recommended: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Request action in the first sentence, </li></ul><ul><li>2. Explain the details supporting the request for action. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Close with an expression of appreciation for taking the action requested. </li></ul>
  11. 11. When the response to a claim letter is favorable <ul><li>1.         Reveal the good news in the first sentence. </li></ul><ul><li>2.         Explain the circumstances. </li></ul><ul><li>3.         Close on a pleasant, forward looking note. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Routine Letters about Credit <ul><li>Request for information </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the request and name the applicant early. </li></ul><ul><li>Assure the reader that the reply will be kept confidential. </li></ul><ul><li>Detail the information requested. Use a tabulated-form layout to make the reply easy. </li></ul><ul><li>End courteously. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Favorable response to a request for credit <ul><li>Begin by saying credit terms have been arranged; </li></ul><ul><li>Indicate the foundation upon which the credit extension is based. </li></ul><ul><li>Present and explain the credit terms. </li></ul><ul><li>Include some resale or sales-promotional material. </li></ul><ul><li>End with a confident look toward future business. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Routine Letters about Orders <ul><li>In the first sentence say “please ship,” “please send,” “I order,” </li></ul><ul><li>List the items ordered and give precise details. </li></ul><ul><li>Include a payment plan and shipping instructions. </li></ul><ul><li>Close the letter with a confident expectation of delivery. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Favorable Response to an Order Letter <ul><li>Non-routine acknowledgments require individualized letters. Although initial orders can be acknowledged through form letters, the letters are more effective if written individually. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Letters about Routine Requests <ul><li>Routine Requests . Businesspeople often write letters requesting information about people, prices, products and services. </li></ul><ul><li>Make the major request in the first sentence. </li></ul><ul><li>Follow the major request with the details that will make the request clear. If possible, use tabulation for added emphasis. </li></ul><ul><li>Close with a forward look at the reader’s next step. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Favorable Response to a Routine Request. Many people say “yes” thoughtlessly 1. Shows sincere interest in the request and the person. 2. Provides specific answers and guidelines. 3 . Provides additional helpful information.
  18. 18. Writing about the Unpleasant
  19. 19. Overview <ul><li>Saying “No” to an Adjustment Request </li></ul><ul><li>Saying “No” to a Credit Request </li></ul><ul><li>Saying “No’ to an Order for Merchandise </li></ul><ul><li>Saying ‘No’ to a Request for a Favor </li></ul>
  20. 20. Remember <ul><li>Without empathy for the audience’s feelings, it is hard to gain its cooperation or persuade it to accept tough decisions </li></ul>
  21. 21. The inductive sequence-of-ideas: <ul><li>Begin with a neutral idea that leads to the reason for the refusal. </li></ul><ul><li>Present the facts, analysis, and reasons for the refusal. </li></ul><ul><li>State the refusal using a positive tone and de-emphasizing techniques. </li></ul><ul><li>Close with an idea that moves away from the refusal. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Four steps: <ul><li>Introductory Paragraph </li></ul><ul><li>Facts, Analysis and Reasons </li></ul><ul><li>Refusal Statement </li></ul><ul><li>Closing Paragraph </li></ul>
  23. 23. SAYING “NO” TO AN ADJUSTMENT REQUEST <ul><li>(1) begin with a neutral or factual sentence that leads to the reasons behind the “no” answer, </li></ul><ul><li>(2) present the reasons and explanations, </li></ul><ul><li>(3) present the refusal in an unemphatic manner, and </li></ul><ul><li>(4) close with an off-the-subject thought. </li></ul>
  24. 24. SAYING “NO” TO A CREDIT REQUEST <ul><li>Including resale - favorable statements </li></ul><ul><li>(1) it might cause credit applicants to prefer our brand. </li></ul><ul><li>(2) it suggests that the writer is trying to be helpful; </li></ul><ul><li>(3) it makes the writing easier because negative thoughts are easier to de-emphasize when cushioned with resale material; </li></ul><ul><li>(4) It can confirm the credit applicant’s judgment in choosing the merchandise, thus making an indirect compliment. </li></ul>
  25. 25. SAYING “NO” TO  AN ORDER  FOR MERCHANDISE <ul><li>Unclear Orders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The buffer has a resale emphasis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The reason for not immediately filling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The close tells how the customer can solve the problem </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Back Orders </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(1) you are able to send only part of the order, or </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(2) you are able to send none of the order. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Substitutions </li></ul>
  26. 26. SAYING “NO” TO  A REQUEST FOR A FAVOR <ul><li>Introduces the subject without revealing whether the answer will be “yes” or “no.” </li></ul><ul><li>Gives reasons </li></ul><ul><li>Subordinates the refusal by placing it in the dependent clause of a complex sentence. </li></ul><ul><li>Closes on a more positive note by offering a counterproposal. </li></ul>
  27. 27. SPECIAL PROBLEMS - ABOUT THE UNPLEASANT <ul><li>Is an inductive outline appropriate for all letters that convey bad news </li></ul><ul><li>a) The letter is the second response to a repeated request. </li></ul><ul><li>b) A very small, insignificant matter is involved. </li></ul><ul><li>c) A request is obviously ridiculous, immoral, unethical, illegal or dangerous. </li></ul><ul><li>d) The writer’s intent is to shake the reader. </li></ul><ul><li>e) The writer-reader relationship is so close and longstanding that satisfactory human relations can be taken for granted. </li></ul><ul><li>f) The writer wants to demonstrate authority. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Difficulties In Writing The Buffer <ul><li>Avoid saying “no.” </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid using a know-it-all tone </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid wordy and irrelevant phrases and sentences. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid apologizing. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid writing a buffer that is too long. </li></ul><ul><li>Agreement, Appreciation, Cooperation, Fairness, Good news, Praise, Resale, Understanding </li></ul>
  29. 29. Bad-News Sentence <ul><li>E.g. </li></ul><ul><li>The preceding figures do not justify raising your credit limit to Rs 30,000 as you requested, but they do justify raising the limit to Rs 15,000. </li></ul><ul><li>If the price were Rs 35,000, the contract would have been signed. </li></ul><ul><li>By accepting the arrangement, the ABC company would have tripled its costs. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Last Paragraph <ul><li>Don’t refer to or repeat the bad news. </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t apologize for the decision </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t urge additional communication </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t anticipate problems </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t include clichés that are insincere in view of the bad news </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t reveal any doubt that you will keep the person as a customer </li></ul>
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Writing skills letter writing

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