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Classification of crude drugs (Pharmacognosy)

Crude medicinal Plant's classification

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Classification of crude drugs (Pharmacognosy)

  1. 1. TOPIC CLASSIFICATION OF CRUDE DRUGS
  2. 2. SUBMITTEDBY; GROUP NO. 07 (M) M.AKHTAR GHELA………….. 36 M M. MUBASHIR MUKHTAR...… 17 M M. SALMAN KHAN…….….... 51 M M. KASHIF AMAN…….…...... 52 M M. BAQIR RAZA NAQVI.....… 27 M SUBMITTED TO; MR. HAFIZ IMRAN AZIZ FACULTY OF PHARMACY GOMAL UNIVERSITY,DERA ISMAIL KHAN.
  3. 3. INDEX Introduction about crude drugs--------- -----------05  Classification------------------------ ----------------06  Alphabetical classification------------- ------------07  Taxonomical classification.------------ -------------10  Morphological classification----------- ------------14  Therapeutic classification.------------- -------------19
  4. 4. WHAT QURAN SAYS ? ABOUT PLANT’S ARRANGEMENT ??
  5. 5. CLASSIFICATION OF CRUDE DRUGS:- o Crude Drugs:- These are naturally occurring unrefined substances collected from the ‘natural sources’ through the process of drying. o Natural sources:- All the substances found in nature, comprising of whole plants, animals and their anatomical parts such as saps, extracts, secretions, glands and other constituents are known as natural substances.
  6. 6. IN THE SITE OF PHARMACOGNOSY CRUDE DRUGS ARE CLASSIFIED IN FOLLOWING DIFFERENT WAYS;  Alphabetical classification  Morphological classification  Taxonomical classification  Pharmacological classification  Chemical classification  Chemo-taxonomical classification
  7. 7. 1. ALPHABETICAL CLASSIFICATION:- The crude drugs are arranged according to the alphabetical order of their Latin and English names, in the form of dictionaries and encyclopedias of Materia medica. Some of the Pharmacopias and referance books which classify crude drugs according to this system are as follows;
  8. 8. i. European Pharmacopia.(E.P) - (Latin). ii. British Pharmacopia.(B.P) - (English). iii.United States Pharmacopia.(U.S.P) - (English) iv. Pakistani Pharmacopia.(P.P) - (English) v. Indian Pharmacopia.(I.P) - (Latin, English) Examples:- Acacia, Agar, Beeswax, Digitalis, Datura, Fennel and Ginger etc.
  9. 9. Advantages:- It is simple method and no technical person is required for its handling. In this system location, tracing and addition of drug is easy. Disadvantages:- Original source of drug is not clear by this classification. Scientific nature of drugs can’t be identified, that whether the drug is organized or unorganized.
  10. 10. 2. TAXONOMICAL CLASSIFICATION:-  In such classification, drugs are classified on the basis of natural relationship among plants or animals. This natural relationship is called as “Phylogeny”.  The drugs are arranged into different Phylogenetic groups or taxa such as; phylum, order, family, genus and species.  For plant drugs such classification is called ‘Botanical classification’ while in case of animals it is called as ‘Zoological classification’.
  11. 11. Phylum Order Family Drugs Angiosper m (Monocot) Liliforae Liliaceae Colchicum, Garlic, Aloe Angeosper m (Dicot) Papaverale s Papaveraca e Opium, Singuneria // Umbellifor a Umbellifer ae Fennel, Coriander // Solanaceae Belladona, Datura, Capsicum.
  12. 12. Advantages:-  Useful to study evolutionary development of drugs.  As all families have distinguishing characteristics, so easy to study various drugs at a time. Disadvantages:-  As the whole plant is not used as drug, so this system has no significant importance for identification.
  13. 13.  Technical person is required.  Location and tracing of drug is not easy.  This system fails to recognize the organized or unorganized nature of crude drugs in their morphological studies.  This system does not correlate in between the chemical constituents and therapeutic significance of crude drugs.
  14. 14. 3.MORPHOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION:-  Here the crude drugs are arranged according to the part of plant or animal used, represented into organized or unorganized drugs.  organized drugs:-  Drugs are direct part of plant containing tissue structure and are divided into leaves, barks, wood, root, rhizome, seeds, fruits, flowers, stem, hair and fibers.
  15. 15. Plant’s Parts Drugs Roots Aconite, Colchicum, Garlic, Ginger, etc. Rhizom es Glycerrhiza, Jalap Podophyllum etc. Leaves Digitalis, Senna, Pepermint, Belladona etc. Fruits Fennel, Caraway, Cardamom, Capsicum etc. Flowers Clove, Pyrethrum, Santonica etc.
  16. 16. Un organized drugs:-  The drugs which are products of plant, animal or mineral sources.  These are prepared from plants or animals by physical processes such as incision, drying or extraction with a solvent. Examples of such drugs are gums, resins, waxes, oils and latex etc.
  17. 17. Plant’s parts Drugs Gums Acacia, Tragacanth etc. Resins Coal tar, Benzoin, Colophonin (rosin) etc. Waxes Beeswax, Spermeceti etc. Dried Latex Opium, Papain etc. Fixed oils Castor oil, Coconut, Cottonseed oil, Olive, Almond oil etc. Volatile oils Turpentine, Peppermint, Clove etc. Animal Beeswax, Catharides, Cod liver
  18. 18. Advantages:- o Convenient, Adulterants can be easily identified. o Organized and unorganized drugs can be differentiated. Disadvantages:- o It does not give idea about biological source, chemical constituents and uses. o When different parts of plants contains different chemical constituents, it is
  19. 19. 4. THERAPEUTIC CLASSIFICATION:-  Here the crude drugs are classified according to Pharmacological action or Therapeutic action of their chief active constituents.  For Example, Digitalis is used as a cardio tonic.  the other important therapeutically active plants are as following;
  20. 20. Pharmacologic al actions Drugs Anti- inflammatory Colchicum, Turmeric, Corn etc. Analgesic Opium, Cannabis etc. Carminative Cinnamon bark, Cardamom seed etc. Purgatives Cascara, Senna, Rhubarb, Aloe, Husks Expectorant Glycerrhiza etc. Cardio tonic Digitalis, Strophanthus etc.
  21. 21. Pharmacologic al actions Drugs Anesthetics Cocoa Anti-cancer Vinca, Podophyllum, Colchicum Anti-rheumatics Aconite, Guggul, Colchicum Anti- hypertensive Rauwolfia Anti-aging Garlic Anti-Malarial Cinchona
  22. 22. Advantages:-  It is useful in studying the therapeutic uses of the drugs.  Such type of classification forms the basis for the science of Pharmacology. Disadvantages:-  Main drawback is that a drug can be placed in various classes according to its pharmacological actions.  It gives no idea about the chemical constituents and morphology of crude drugs.
  23. 23. 5. CHEMICAL CLASSIFICATION:-  Here, the crude drugs are divided into different groups according to the chemical nature of their most important constituents present in the drug to which the pharmacological activity of drug is attributed.  Living organisms are known as biosynthetic laboratory because they synthesize chemical compounds that are as following;
  24. 24. Chemical constituents Drug examples CARBOHYDRATES; 1- Gums 2- Mucillages Starch, agar, pectin, cotton. Acacia, Tragacanth etc. Plantago seeds GLYCOSIDES; 1- Anthraquinone 2- Saponin 3- Cardiac glycosides Aloe, Senna, Rhubarb Glycerrhiza Digitalis, Strophanthus PROTEINS; Gelatin, Papain, Ficin etc.
  25. 25. Chemical constituents Drug examples LIPIDS; 1-Fixed oils 2- Fates 3- Waxes Castor, Olive, Cottonseed oil, Lanolin, Theobroma. Beeswax. RASINS; Cannabis, Ginger, Jalap etc. ALKALOIDS; 1- Tropane 2- Purine Belladona,Datura,Stram nium.
  26. 26. Advantages:-  Chemical constituents are known.  Medicinal uses are known. Disadvantages:-  Drugs of different origins are grouped under similar chemical titles.  This type of classification makes no proper placement of drugs containing two different types of chemicals.
  27. 27. 6. CHEMO-TAXONOMICAL CLASSIFICATION:- In this system equal importance is given to taxonomical status and chemical constituents. There are some chemical constituents which are common in certain classes of plants.  For Example, • Tropane alkaloids generally present in most members of Solanaceae. • Volatile oils occur in the members of
  28. 28. LITERATURE SITED;  Text book of Pharmacognosy & Phytochemisty (beiren shah).  www.SlideShare.com.  Basic concept of Pharmacognosy ( Abdul Haqq).  Mr. Imran Aziz Lectures. BUNDLE OF THANKS FOR WATCHING…. {WRITTEN BY- BAQIR NAQVI, Multan}

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Crude medicinal Plant's classification

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