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Increasing Parent and Teacher Involvement: Employing Research Discoveries to Improve Communication Skills in Young Children

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Involving caregivers and teachers in the therapeutic process is a major component of successful therapy. However, social, familial, personal, and environmental factors can make caregiver and teacher involvement difficult.

In this course we identify the benefits of family involvement and will then provide five research-based strategies for how to improve our interactions with families and teachers. We refer to the strategies as SMILE (Sign, Model, Imitate, Label, and Expand). These strategies have been found to improve communication skills in young children. We will define the SMILE strategies, provide the rationale behind them, and demonstrate how to implement the strategies when serving an early-childhood population.

Published in: Education, Technology
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Increasing Parent and Teacher Involvement: Employing Research Discoveries to Improve Communication Skills in Young Children

  1. 1. 2012 American Community Survey (Kids Count Data Center)                                                         
  2. 2. Presentation Outline 1. Research supporting parent involvement 1. What have parents and researchers reported in successful interactions? 2. How to apply the research to the field 1. 8 ways to improve therapeutic outcome 3. Case study 1. Looking at an example of how to make therapy more successful by increasing parent and teacher involvement
  3. 3. Background • Development: ▫ Bilingual SLPs ▫ Home-based ECI Services ▫ Need for family involvement  When families are involved in the intervention process, language enrichment is ongoing rather than during “therapy” only (Rosetti, 2001)  Without family involvement, intervention is unlikely to be successful (Bronfenbrebrenner, 1974)
  4. 4. Learner Objectives Participants will list, identify, describe… 1. the importance of family involvement 2. factors affecting parent involvement 3. theoretical models of social systems 4. strategies to increase family involvement in intervention
  5. 5. Do you need Continuing Education or want  to listen to this course live? Click here to visit  the online courses.
  6. 6. Click for Audio‐over‐Powerpoint Presentation
  7. 7. 1. Importance of Family Involvement Research a. Language enrichment b. Empowerment c. Self-Efficacy d. Why family participation is critical
  8. 8. a. Language Enrichment • Parents use of language-based strategies leads to ▫ Increased receptive language skills in the first year (Baumwell, Tamis-LeMonda & Bornstein, 1997) ▫ Increased receptive and expressive language skills in the second and third years of life (Olson, Bates & Bayles, 1986) ▫ Greater receptive vocabulary at 12 years of age (Beckwith & Cohen, 1989)
  9. 9. a. Language Enrichment (cont’d) • Mother’s use of labeling and increased periods of interaction lead to increases in receptive vocabulary and greater expansion of expression in older children (Tomasello & Farrar, 1986) • Participation by fathers in early childhood programs has been shown to be beneficial to the child, father and other family members (Frey, Fewell, & Vadasy, 1989; Krauss, 1993)
  10. 10. b. Empowerment • Empowering parents increases their likelihood of accessing information pertaining to their child’s development
  11. 11. c. Self-efficacy • Empowerment leads to self efficacy or the belief that they can make a difference in their child’s development (Dempsey & Dunst, 2004)
  12. 12. d. Why participation is critical • When families are involved in the intervention process, language enrichment is ongoing rather than during “therapy” only (Rosetti, 2001) • Without family involvement, intervention is unlikely to be successful (Bronfenbrebrenner, 1974)
  13. 13. Models of Service Delivery: Find a balance Consultative Model Child Focused Model
  14. 14. Not on the same page Different Perspectives
  15. 15. Teacher and Family Perspective The therapist just plays with my child. They just sit and talk with me and do nothing with my child.This is all too overwhelming. I forget what to do after the therapist leaves. I don’t have time in my day to do this.
  16. 16. Speech Pathologist Perspective Families don’t always follow through with my suggestions. I can’t get families to incorporate ideas into daily routines. I don’t have easily accessible resources to share with families. Many times families don’t keep appointments.
  17. 17. All of the documents and charts in this presentation  can be downloaded from our Free Resource Library. Click here to visit the Resource Library
  18. 18. 2. Understanding families • Demographics • Theoretical models of social systems • Factors affecting family involvement
  19. 19. Demographics – using Texas as a case study
  20. 20. Demographics – using Texas as a case study Video Review
  21. 21. Demographics of Families Enrolled in ECI in Texas Research a. Economics b. Ethnicity c. Language d. Gender e. Reason Eligible f. Services on IFSP
  22. 22. a. Economics • Percentage of ECI children receiving Medicaid ▫ 2006: 61% ▫ 2008: 60.3% • Families at 250% of the poverty level or lower ▫ Approximately 84%
  23. 23. b. Ethnicity Race/Ethnicity Percent Hispanic/Latino 47 White 38 Black/African American 12 Asian/Pacific Islander 2 American Indian/Alaskan <1
  24. 24. c. Language Primary Language Percent English 81 Spanish 19 Other <1
  25. 25. d. Gender Gender Percent Males 63 Females 37
  26. 26. e. Reason Eligible Reason Eligible Percent Medical Diagnosis 11 Chromosomal Anomalies 35 Congenital Anomalies--Brain/Spinal Cord 16 Symptoms and Ill-Defined Conditions 14 Disorders of the Nervous System 12 Congenital Anomalies--Facial Clefts 9 Conditions Originating in Perinatal Period 7 Congenital Anomalies--Musculoskeletal 7 Developmental Delay 71 Atypical Development 18 Areas of Delay/Atypical Development Speech/Communication 67 Physical/Motor 43 Cognitive 26 Adaptive/Self-Help 21 Social/Emotional 16 Vision 2 Hearing 2 Children with more than one qualifying diagnosis 22 Children with more than one area of delay 37
  27. 27. f. Services on IFSP Percent of Children with Planned Service Types Percent Service Coordination 100 Developmental Services 78 Speech Language Therapy 58 Occupational Therapy 32 Physical Therapy 25 Nutrition 12 Family Training/Counseling 5 Vision 3 Audiology 3 Psychological/Social Work 3 Medical/Nursing 1
  28. 28. Theoretical Models on Social Systems Research a. Maslow’s Hierarchy of basic needs b. Kubler-Ross’ 5 stages of grief
  29. 29. a. Maslow’s Hierarchy of basic needs
  30. 30. b. Kubler-Ross’ Five Stages of Grief • Denial (this isn't happening to me!)
 • Anger (why is this happening to me?)
 • Bargaining (I promise I'll be a better person if...)
 • Depression (I don't care anymore)
 • Acceptance (I’m ready for whatever comes)
  31. 31. Research Findings Pertaining to Family Factors • Mothers with limited family support tend to withdraw from programs early (Luker & Chalmers, 1990) • Mothers engaged in family conflict show lower rates of involvement (Herzog, Cherniss, & Menzel, 1986) • Mothers engaged in substance abuse showed lower rates of involvement (Navaie-Waliser et al, 2000) • Mothers who are anticipating a change in residence also showed lower rates of participation (National Committee to Prevent Child Abuse, 1996)
  32. 32. Factors Affecting Family Involvement • Family Factors ▫ over which we have minimal influence but need to understand ▫ over which we have more influence • Minimal influence ▫ Social-emotional needs ▫ Economic needs ▫ Cultural parameters • More influence ▫ Education about disability ▫ Attendance ▫ Engagement in the intervention process
  33. 33. Provider Factors Affecting Parent Involvement ▫ Consistency and reliability ▫ Quantity (amount of services) ▫ Recognizing your assumptions ▫ Understanding family needs ▫ Engaging all family members ▫ Ability to adjust strategies to match family style ▫ Communicating rationale for intervention techniques ▫ Clearly specifying what families should do between intervention sessions ▫ Setting expectations ▫ Staff communication ▫ Staff education and training ▫ Staff turnover rates
  34. 34. Research Findings Pertaining to Provider Factors • The more services a child/family receives, the more progress the child makes • High staff turnover rates reduce family involvement ▫ Gomby (2007) • Quantity--There were some interesting studies that showed that white families received more services than others. Hispanics were rated as more engaged. African Americans received less child-focused activities. ▫ Wagner (2003)
  35. 35. Case Study #1: Understanding Kubler- Ross’ stages of grief How would you work with a family that is in denial? Example Interventionist: Lets work on the word “more”. Parent: She says that. Interventionist: Great, how about the words, mom or dad? Parent: She says that too. Interventionist: She only says twenty words and she is two years old Parent: We understand what she wants
  36. 36. Case Study #2: A client has been diagnosed with a receptive and expressive language disorder. How would you explain the rationale behind these suggestions and strategies? • Roll a ball back and forth with your child. • Add a word to what your child says and repeat the words back together. • Give your child more time to form a response.
  37. 37. Routine‐Based Early Intervention  Guidebook A Proven Program for Improving  Communication Skills with  Activities in English and Spanish Click here to view on  Amazon.com
  38. 38. 3. Connecting Therapy to Reality Applying research to our family sessions
  39. 39. How do we improve outcomes? We know it’s important, how do we do it? 1. Provide specific instructions 2. Provide a rationale 3. Keep it simple and consistent 4. Have it pertain to a family event or routine 5. Set expectations 6. Have something written 7. In their native language 8. Follow through • Make sure caregivers understand: ▫ WHAT? ▫ HOW? ▫ WHY? • Assess the caregivers • Give positive reinforcement • Take risks
  40. 40. Daily Routines
  41. 41. Daily Routines • 12 daily routines • Frequency and consistency • More natural • Extra time is not needed to implement strategies • Use objects in their environment as therapy materials
  42. 42. Daily Routines in the Schools • 36 yearly units ▫ Colors ▫ Cowboys ▫ Zoo ▫ Etc. • Once per week
  43. 43. Daily Routines •Each routine includes: • Speech/language focus • Examples of each strategy • Suggested target vocabulary and 6 pictures of signs • Homework sheet • Activity sheet •The amount of time spent on each routine varies
  44. 44. Strategies: Speech Language
  45. 45. Language Development
  46. 46. Language Development
  47. 47. • Improved communication and bonding (Goodwyn, Acredolo, & Brown, 2000; Tompson et al., 2007) • Children stop using sign when able to communicate orally (Pizer, Walters & Meier, 2007) • Provide visual support during language learning Language Development
  48. 48. • Frequency and consistency • The more a child hears a phrase the more likely they are to use it • Use phrases that the child is able to imitate Language Development
  49. 49. • Imitation is vital for speech and language development (Rogers & Williams, 2006) • Teach the child how to imitate, by imitating their sounds and movements Language Development
  50. 50. • Each routine focuses on different vocabulary • Multisensory learning for language targets • Label objects, actions and descriptors • Repeat object labels – the more a child hears a word, the more likely they are to use it Language Development
  51. 51. • Expand the child's utterances by adding semantic information or syntactic complexity can help their language grow. • It is important to keep phrases simple enough that your child can repeat them. Language Development
  52. 52. Speech Development
  53. 53. • Visual, tactile and motor cues • Examples: ▫ Clap out syllables in words ▫ Put hand in front of mouth to feel air on plosives Speech Development
  54. 54. • Auditory cues ▫ Emphasize specific sounds in words ▫ Melodic cues • Model appropriate speech production ▫ Break consonant clusters apart ▫ Model target words slowly with emphasis Speech Development
  55. 55. • Imitate sounds in the environment • Repeat an incorrect production correctly, repeating the correct production several times Speech Development
  56. 56. • Have a scavenger hunt • Label objects that begin with the same sound to increase phonological awareness Speech Development
  57. 57. • Follow the hierarchy of speech production • Help parents measure small successes Speech Development
  58. 58. Example by Brianne Ruhnke on www.speakingofspeech.com Speech Development
  59. 59. A case study of practical application Script for sample session 1. Review the plan and any progress 2. Select the strategy and daily routine 3. Model the strategy 4. Give the family time to practice the strategy
  60. 60. SMILE Example
  61. 61. SMILE Example Video Review
  62. 62. What strategies could you observe? A. Sign B. Model C. Imitate D. Label E. Expand F. All of the above
  63. 63. What strategies could you observe? A. Sign B. Model C. Imitate D. Label E. Expand F. All of the above
  64. 64. What was the language focus, or targeted skill? A. Turn-taking B. Requests C. Two-word Utterances D. Describing E. Contrasting – Yes/No Questions
  65. 65. What was the language focus, or targeted skill? A. Turn-taking B. Requests C. Two-word Utterances D. Describing E. Contrasting – Yes/No Questions
  66. 66. What daily routine was being used? A. Bath time B. Greetings C. Bedtime D. Getting Dressed E. Story time
  67. 67. What daily routine was being used? A. Bath time B. Greetings C. Bedtime D. Getting Dressed E. Story time
  68. 68. Sample session
  69. 69. Important Words Practiquen estas palabras importantes y agreguen más:
  70. 70. Important Words Practiquen estas palabras importantes y agreguen más:
  71. 71. Data Collection Sheet
  72. 72. Data Collection • What words or gestures does your child use? ▫ Greetings/Saludos:  Cuando saluda mueve la mano.  Translation: To give a greeting, he waves his hand. ▫ Getting Dressed/Vestirse:  Todavía no puede vestirse él solo. Le tengo que ayudar.  He still doesn’t get dressed on his own. I have to help him.
  73. 73. Data Collection • What words or gestures does your child understand? ▫ Greetings/Saludos:  Sí entiende pero no puede pronunciarlas.  Translation: He does understand, but he can’t pronounce them. ▫ Getting Dressed/Vestirse:  No response
  74. 74. Homework at home
  75. 75. Homework in the schools
  76. 76. Homework
  77. 77. Homework
  78. 78. Homework
  79. 79. Homework
  80. 80. Activity page
  81. 81. Session Record Form
  82. 82. In Summary Therapeutic improvements can be realized by increasing parent and teacher involvement: 1. Provide specific instructions 2. Provide a rationale 3. Keep it simple and consistent 4. Have it pertain to a family event or routine 5. Set expectations 6. Have something written 7. In their native language 8. Follow through
  83. 83. References • Goodwyn, Acredolo, & Brown (2000). Impact of symbolic gesturing on early language development. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 24, 81-103. • Kummerer, B., Lopez-Reyna, N.A., & Hughes, M.T. (2007). Mexican Immigrant Mothers’ Perceptions of Their Children’s Communication Disabilities, Emergent Literacy Development, and Speech-Language Therapy Program. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 16, 271-282. • McWilliams, R. (2007). Early Intervention in Natural Environments. Retrieved February 5, 2008 from http://naturalenvironments.blogspot.com/2007/10/toy-bags.html • Pizer, G., Walters, K., & Meier, R. P. (2007). Bringing up baby with baby signs: Language ideologies and socialization in hearing families. Sign Language Studies, 7 (4), 387-430. • Rogers, S. J., & Williams, J. H. G. (Eds.). (2006). Imitation and the Social Mind: Autism and Typical Development. New York: The Guliford Press. • Rogoff, B. (1990). Apprenticeship in Thinking. Oxford: Oxford University Press. • Thompson, R.H., Cotnoir-Bichelman, N.M., McKerchar, P.M., Tate, T.L., & Dancho, K.A. (2007). Enhancing early communication through infant sign training. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 40, 15-23. • Vygotsky, L. S. (1967). Play and its role in the mental development of the child. Soviet Psychology, 5, 6-18.
  84. 84. Click to visit www.bilinguistics.com

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