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Dekton fsi facades

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facades of sintered stone

Dekton fsi facades

  1. 1. Slide 1 of 79©2017, 2020 ∙ Table of Contents • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert < > This Online Learning Seminar is available through a professional courtesy provided by: Cosentino North America 355 Alhambra Circle, 10th Floor Coral Gables, FL 33134 Office Phone: 786-686-5060 Web: https://www.cosentino.com/ ©2017, 2020 Cosentino North America. The material contained in this course was researched, assembled, and produced by Cosentino North America and remains its property. “LEED” and related logo is a trademark owned by the U.S. Green Building Council and is used by permission. The LEED® Rating System was authored by and is the property of the USGBC. Any portion of the Rating System appearing in this course is by permission of the USGBC. Questions or concerns about the content of this course should be directed to the program instructor. This multimedia product is the copyright of AEC Daily. Ultracompact Surfacing: Redefining Boundaries of Interior and Exterior Spaces powered by Toronto, Canada (647) 923- 8957 blair@facadesystemsinc.com
  2. 2. Slide 2 of 79©2017, 2020 ∙ Table of Contents • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert < > To ensure the current status of this course, including relevant association approvals, please view the course details here. Ultracompact Surfacing: Redefining Boundaries of Interior and Exterior Spaces The American Institute of Architects Course No. AECXXX This program qualifies for 1.0 LU/HSW Hour Course Expiry Date: MM/DD/YYYY AEC Daily Corporation is a registered provider of AIA-approved continuing education under Provider Number J624. All registered AIA CES Providers must comply with the AIA Standards for Continuing Education Programs. Any questions or concerns about this provider or this learning program may be sent to AIA CES (cessupport@aia.org or (800) AIA 3837, Option 3). This learning program is registered with AIA CES for continuing professional education. As such, it does not include content that may be deemed or construed to be an approval or endorsement by the AIA of any material of construction or any method or manner of handling, using, distributing, or dealing in any material or product. AIA continuing education credit has been reviewed and approved by AIA CES. Learners must complete the entire learning program to receive continuing education credit. AIA continuing education Learning Units earned upon completion of this course will be reported to AIA CES for AIA members. Certificates of Completion for both AIA members and non-AIA members are available upon completion of the test.
  3. 3. Slide 3 of 79©2017, 2020 ∙ Table of Contents • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert < > AEC Daily Corporation has met the standards and requirements of the Registered Continuing Education Program. Credit earned on completion of this program will be reported to RCEP at RCEP.net. A certificate of completion will be issued to each participant. As such, it does not include content that may be deemed or construed to be an approval or endorsement by the RCEP.
  4. 4. Slide 4 of 79©2017, 2020 ∙ Table of Contents • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert < > Purpose and Learning Objectives Purpose: Sinterization is a specialized manufacturing process that uses extreme heat and pressure to create a unique product called ultracompact surfacing material. This cutting-edge material can be used in ways that natural stone, solid surface, or quartz material cannot. This course examines the advantages of ultracompact surfaces in terms of life cycle environmental impact, strength, durability, chemical resistance, absorption, abrasion resistance, and ASTM testing. Design flexibility with ultracompact surfaces in terms of color, texture, and format is also discussed and possible interior/exterior application options are considered. Learning Objectives: At the end of this program, participants will be able to: • discuss the evolution of surfaces and the various types of surfacing material for interior and exterior applications • define ultracompact surfacing (UCS) and discuss the innovative production process that creates superior tile properties and reduced environmental impact • discuss the advantages of compact surfaces in terms of strength, durability, chemical resistance, absorption, abrasion resistance, and ASTM testing • discuss selecting UCS in terms of life cycle environmental impact, color, texture, format, and general design flexibility, as well as the various possible interior and exterior applications, and • identify key attributes of UCS, explaining how they influence material performance, safety, durability, and sustainability.
  5. 5. Slide 5 of 79©2017, 2020 ∙ Table of Contents • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert < > This CEU is registered with the Interior Design Continuing Education Council (IDCEC) for continuing education credits. This credit will be accepted by the American Society of Interior Designers (ASID), International Interior Designers Association (IIDA) and Interior Designers of Canada (IDC). The content included is not deemed or construed to be an approval or endorsement by IDCEC of any material or construction or any method or manner of handling, using, distributing or dealing in any material or product. Questions related to specific materials, methods and services should be directed to the instructor or provider of this CEU. This program is registered for 0.1 CEU value. The IDCEC class-code is: CC-107023-1000. • This CEU will be reported on your behalf to IDCEC and you will receive an email notification. Please log in and complete the electronic survey for this CEU. • Certificates of completion will be automatically issued once you have submitted the online survey for this CEU. • Attendees who do not belong to ASID, IIDA or IDC and do not have a unique IDCEC number will be provided with a Certificate of Completion after this CEU.
  6. 6. Slide 6 of 79©2017, 2020 ∙ Table of Contents • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert < > How to Use This Online Learning Course • To view this course, use the arrows at the bottom of each slide or the up and down arrow keys on your keyboard. • To print or exit the course at any time, press the ESC key on your keyboard. This will minimize the full-screen presentation and display the menu bar. • Within this course is a test password that you will be required to enter in order to proceed with the online test. Please be sure to remember or write down this test password so that you have it available for the test. • To receive a certificate indicating course completion, refer to the instructions at the end of the course. • For additional information and post-seminar assistance, click on any of the logos and icons within a page or any of the links at the top of each page.
  7. 7. Slide 7 of 79©2017, 2020 ∙ Table of Contents • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert < > Contents Evolution of Surfacing Materials Ultracompact Surfaces Manufacturing Process Attributes of Ultracompact Surfaces Case Studies Summary Click on title to view
  8. 8. Slide 8 of 79©2017, 2020 ∙ Table of Contents • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert < > Exterior Design UCS can move easily from inside to outside, offering a beautiful and seamless look that complements any design.
  9. 9. Slide 9 of 79©2017, 2020 ∙ Table of Contents • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert < > Exterior Flooring Versatile, durable, and functional exterior flooring is able to survive all types of weather conditions and temperature fluctuations. While interior flooring in large formats can be accomplished with an 8mm thickness, outdoor parameters for large-format flooring require a thicker UCS material of 1.2cm for long-term use.
  10. 10. Slide 10 of 79©2017, 2020 ∙ Table of Contents • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert < > External Cladding Using ultracompact surfacing materials as exterior cladding offers building owners increased energy savings, acoustic insulation, protection against water infiltration, structural wall insulation, and thermal insulation. There are three types: ventilated, bonded, and curtain wall. The ventilated façade, as pictured on the right, is a high-performance solution for building enclosures that takes advantage of mechanical anchoring elements. Through connections between the cladding material and the mechanical assembly, design loads are effectively transferred back to the structural wall, providing a safe and secure façade.
  11. 11. Slide 11 of 79©2017, 2020 ∙ Table of Contents • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert < > External Cladding For bonded façades (on the bottom left) fixed with glue, it is very important to select the appropriate adhesives. Mechanical tie-backs may also be used where needed. Spandrel panels (on the bottom right) are used in place of glazing units in curtain wall systems where it is necessary to hide the edges of floor slabs, ceiling details, insulation, and other building elements.
  12. 12. Ultracompact Surfaces
  13. 13. Slide 13 of 79©2017, 2020 ∙ Table of Contents • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert < > Raw Materials A straightforward way to understand this new product category is to learn about the raw materials. All materials are categorized as either organic or inorganic.
  14. 14. Slide 14 of 79©2017, 2020 ∙ Table of Contents • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert < > Materials • UCS uses inorganic minerals not only for the bulk of the product but also for pigmentation and veining • More than 20 inorganic minerals are used to create an UCS slab • Pigments are mineral based and complement the final product’s performance characteristics Olivine Ca-Plagioclase feldspar Halite Gypsum Na-Plagioclase feldspar Pyroxene Amphibole Orthoclase feldspar Limonite Biotite Quartz Hematite Calcite Muscovite
  15. 15. Slide 15 of 79©2017, 2020 ∙ Table of Contents • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert < > Green Extraction and Raw Materials Along with manufacturing, extraction and generation of the raw materials has one of the largest environmental impacts for this type of material. This can be mitigated by engaging in sustainable quarry restoration programs and introduction of recycled materials into the mix. Also, look for Health Product Declarations® (HPDs) for these products, which lay out any health impacts of the raw materials.
  16. 16. Slide 16 of 79©2017, 2020 ∙ Table of Contents • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert < > The Metamorphic Process in Nature The metamorphic process is nature’s way of forming minerals into solid rock via high temperature and pressure over time. Ultracompact surfacing features sintering, a manufacturing process that employs an accelerated version of the metamorphic process where minerals are exposed to extreme pressure and high temperature, causing a profound physical and chemical transformation. Basically, ultracompact surfacing mimics what mother nature creates in millions of years in a fraction of the time. Manufacturing essentially speeds up the metamorphic process.
  17. 17. Manufacturing Process
  18. 18. Slide 18 of 79©2017, 2020 ∙ Table of Contents • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert < > Manufacturing Process The manufacturing process takes a number of hours, but a plant can produce up to 1500 slabs a day. From start to finish the process includes the following steps: 1. Decontamination of raw material 2. Mixing of materials 3. Addition of pigment 4. Distribution of materials on conveyor belt 5. Volume decoration process 6. Compaction 7. Drying and secondary decoration 8. Sinterization
  19. 19. Slide 19 of 79©2017, 2020 ∙ Table of Contents • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert < > Decontamination and Mixing The manufacturing of UCS materials is a multi-step process beginning with the decontamination of raw materials. Once they are cleaned, the materials are mixed together. The materials are kept in large hoppers prior to mixing. It is important to note that the materials are essentially milled to a similar small particle size that allows the rounded particulates to interact at a molecular level. The same particle size feature of UCS helps to create a zero-porosity material, free of the micro-defects that cause tension or weak spots in other surfacing materials. Pigments are similar in size and consistency to the milled base materials and are added in a dry format to the existing dry bed of milled minerals. These pigments are added randomly or uniformly, depending on the desired appearance of the UCS material. Inside the pigment machine, the heat reaches 1022° F. The milled/processed raw material mixture is dry “sprayed” with a dry pigment. The result is that small, colored mineral spheres are introduced to the UCS material-in-process. Some colors are through-body, while some designs are only surface due to the extreme density of the UCS material.
  20. 20. Slide 20 of 79©2017, 2020 ∙ Table of Contents • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert < > Volume Decoration Process The volume decoration process uses multiple devices similar to large printers to create patterns in and/or on the slab and provide the color-through feature of UCS. The random nature of this process reduces the chances of visual repeat patterns. Different combinations of colored mineral spheres are used to produce different colored UCS products. At this stage, the material feels light, like a talc. Pictured here is a gray-based sheet. Every slab goes through this process, and this is where the pigments are introduced to the product.
  21. 21. Slide 21 of 79©2017, 2020 ∙ Table of Contents • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert < > A Multi-Step Process: Compaction Compacted using a unique press made specifically for the manufacturing of ultracompact surface panels Ultracompact Surface Panel =
  22. 22. Slide 22 of 79©2017, 2020 ∙ Table of Contents • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert < > Drying Process The drying process ensures the panels are completely dry and free of moisture This is very important as it sets up the right conditions for the next heat step—the sinterization process Second Decoration Process (when needed), for surface printing and design, after the drying process is completed
  23. 23. Slide 23 of 79©2017, 2020 ∙ Table of Contents • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert < > • The kiln is about 180 meters or 196 yards long • Temperature reaches approximately 1,250° Celsius (2,300° Fahrenheit) • Total resonance time is about 4 hours A Multi-Step Process: Sinterization
  24. 24. Slide 24 of 79©2017, 2020 ∙ Table of Contents • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert < > Sinterization Process Below is a flow chart of the sinterization process. Materials are compacted Minerals crystallize Crystal network in drying kiln, 392° F Heat increased in in sinterization kilns to 2192° F for 4 hours, materials liquify Heat decreases and material slowly resolidifies into UCS
  25. 25. Slide 25 of 79©2017, 2020 ∙ Table of Contents • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert < > Green Strategies Many ultracompact manufacturers are concerned about the environment and have integrated several energy-saving procedures into the manufacturing process. Some energy-saving strategies are listed below: • water recovery and reprocessing • dust recovery and reprocessing • raw material waste recovery and reuse • heat recovery from furnace, saving 5% of fuel (natural gas) consumption • use of renewable energy • automated transport system used throughout logistic centers, reducing emissions and fuel consumption Check with your manufacturer to see if environmentally efficient techniques are being implemented in the creation of the products used in your project.
  26. 26. Review Question UCS can be used as exterior cladding. List the three types.
  27. 27. Answer Ventilated, bonded, and curtain wall.
  28. 28. Attributes of Ultracompact Surfaces
  29. 29. Slide 29 of 79©2017, 2020 ∙ Table of Contents • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert < > Key Attributes The key attributes of ultracompact surfacing materials include: • limitless design possibilities • dimensional stability • extremely flat • UV and thermal resistance • scratch resistance • low coefficient of thermal expansion • color stability • high heat resistance • high abrasion resistance • high stain resistance • low porosity • durability, and • sustainability.
  30. 30. Slide 30 of 79©2017, 2020 ∙ Table of Contents • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert < > Limitless Design Possibilities Ultracompact surfacing is available in a variety of colors and multiple textures, giving designers maximum flexibility when creating plans for both interiors and exteriors. Some of the more popular finishes include: slate, leather, wood grain, linen, matte, shine, and natural. Wood grain textureShine textureMatte texture
  31. 31. Slide 31 of 79©2017, 2020 ∙ Table of Contents • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert < > Custom Design Possibilities Custom design options are available and are added during the volume decorating process and/or the secondary design process. The secondary decorating process is similar to a CNC (computer numeric control) hard surface system used on other hard surfaces; however, tooling and set-ups are specific to UCS.
  32. 32. Slide 32 of 79©2017, 2020 ∙ Table of Contents • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert < > Custom Design Possibilities: Book-Matching Here is an example of an ultra-sized custom computer generated design. The large panels have the appearance of large marble slabs.
  33. 33. Slide 33 of 79©2017, 2020 ∙ Table of Contents • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert < > Dimensional Stability Ultracompact surfacing materials are very consistent in both dimension and thickness throughout the slabs, which minimizes the need for field corrections. The unique manufacturing process produces a dead-flat panel as measured by ISO 10545-2, “Ceramic tiles - Part 2: Determination of Dimensions and Surface Quality.” Using a consistent and dimensionally stable panel provides easier installation and a uniform flat appearance in the final product. Many different sizes of slabs are offered including ultra-sized. This extremely large size opens the door for design flexibility. Being lighter than traditional flooring and cladding materials, ultracompact surfacing is able to be installed in many diverse applications. Typical thicknesses are 2cm (20mm), 1.2cm (12mm), and 0.8cm (8mm), while panel sizes are 126″x56″.
  34. 34. Slide 34 of 79©2017, 2020 ∙ Table of Contents • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert < > Extremely Flat Ultracompact slabs are incredibly flat mainly due to the manufacturing process—compaction from a large 50-million-pound press—as compared to classic porcelain processes that lend themselves to possible doming and lippage problems. As a result, the ultracompact surface makes it easier to create a flat surface when installing large-format flooring, or provide a completely flat look for a façade application. As you can see from the example on the right, the large, extremely flat slabs provide a clean, even, uniform appearance for this hotel’s exterior.
  35. 35. Slide 35 of 79©2017, 2020 ∙ Table of Contents • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert < > UV and Thermal Resistance Ultracompact surfaces are highly resistant to ultraviolet (UV) light and will not fade or degrade over time. Outdoor applications may include wall cladding, kitchens, barbeque areas, swimming pools, tiles, and furniture.
  36. 36. Slide 36 of 79©2017, 2020 ∙ Table of Contents • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert < > Scratch Resistance UCS material is the most scratch-resistant surface on the market today and while the slip of a knife won’t cause damage, cutting boards are still recommended to protect your household utensils. It is advisable to not cut directly on the countertop using ceramic utensils because the materials are of similar hardness and the UCS may dull the knife blade. Always check with your manufacturer for specific warnings and instructions.
  37. 37. Slide 37 of 79©2017, 2020 ∙ Table of Contents • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert < > Low Coefficient of Thermal Expansion Unlike granite façades where you need to allow for large expansion joints, ultracompact surfacing has very low expansion and contraction during temperature fluctuations as per ASTM C372, “Standard Test Method for Linear Thermal Expansion of Porcelain Enamel and Glaze Frits and Fired Ceramic Whiteware Products by the Dilatometer Method.” This allows for extremely tight seams on the floors, walls, or countertops, providing a cleaner, sleeker design. Smaller joint surfaces reduce areas for dirt to stain. The low coefficient of thermal expansion also means that the surfacing is thermal shock proof from both extreme heat and extreme cold, making it extremely durable and perfect for both indoor and outdoor applications.
  38. 38. Slide 38 of 79©2017, 2020 ∙ Table of Contents • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert < > Color Stability The manufacturer’s control of ultracompact pigmentation and decoration gives better color consistency from slab to slab, resulting in a long-lasting product that will not fade over time. The surface you install today will maintain the same new appearance for the life of the product. There are many color variations to choose from and the color is consistent throughout the entire slab.
  39. 39. Slide 39 of 79©2017, 2020 ∙ Table of Contents • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert < > Heat Resistance Ultracompact surfacing can withstand high temperatures without burning, scorching, or cracking. Hot pots and appliances like crock pots can be placed directly on the surface with no worry of damage. European Standard testing EN 13501 and ASTM E136, “Standard Test Method for Behavior of Materials in a Vertical Tube Furnace at 750° C,” classify ultracompact surfaces as noncombustible. However, while this type of surface can withstand extreme heat, it is always best to avoid direct contact between the surfacing material and the metal parts of an electric broiler, cooking worktops, or ovens; very high temperature objects such as chimneys, barbecues, etc.; and contact with flame. Always check with the manufacturer for specific instructions.
  40. 40. Slide 40 of 79©2017, 2020 ∙ Table of Contents • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert < > High Abrasion Resistance According to ASTM C1243, “Standard Test Method for Relative Resistance to Deep Abrasive Wear of Unglazed Ceramic Tile by Rotating Disc,” ultracompact surfaces are even more resistant to abrasion than granite, making them the ideal surface for flooring in commercial applications and other high traffic areas. While other surfaces show wear over time, the ultracompact surface finish will last for the life of the product and never needs to be resurfaced or refinished. As with any product, designers must always check with the manufacturer’s instructions as product performance will vary. While this type of surfacing material has a very high abrasion resistance, it is advisable to not polish the surface using metal sponges or use abrasive particles unless otherwise directed.
  41. 41. Slide 41 of 79©2017, 2020 ∙ Table of Contents • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert < > High Stain Resistance and Low Porosity Drips or splashes of common household chemicals like bleach, drain cleaners, or oven degreasers will not harm the surface. The low porosity of the slab means it never needs to be sealed. It naturally prevents liquids and gasses from penetrating the surface, making it a low-maintenance surface that is easy to clean.
  42. 42. Slide 42 of 79©2017, 2020 ∙ Table of Contents • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert < > Countertop Maintenance For everyday cleaning of these countertops, gentle soap and hot water are recommended. In the case of aggressive stains, either from products that are resistant to normal cleaning agents or because they have remained on the work surface for a long time without being removed, using more specific products such as solvents (acetone or universal solvent type) is usually recommended. The accompanying table shows the various types of stains with their corresponding cleaning products. Acid cleaning products can include any product that contains acid or descaling agents, etc. Alkaline products include basic cleaning agents, ammonia, etc. Solvents can include products such as universal solvents, turpentine (white spirit), acetone, alcohol, etc. Oxidants include products such as hydrogen peroxide and diluted bleach. Stain Cleaning Product Grease, oil Alkaline detergent/solvent Ink, tire rubber, resin/nail polish, candle wax, epoxy adhesive, grouting, tar Solvent Rust, limescale, residual cement, gesso Acid Wine, coffee Alkaline detergent/acid Ice cream Alkaline detergent Cola, fruit juices Oxidant Nicotine Solvent/oxidant
  43. 43. Slide 43 of 79©2017, 2020 ∙ Table of Contents • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert < > Flooring Maintenance For everyday dry cleaning (of dust) of ultracompact surface flooring, use a dry mop without additives, or a conventional vacuum cleaner, or broom. For everyday wet cleaning with a mop, use a neutral, soapy cleaning product and follow the manufacturer’s instructions. For everyday wet cleaning of non-slip flooring and paving, use a neutral, soapy cleaning product with a cotton mop (not a microfiber one) and follow the manufacturer’s instructions. The regular use of other common cleaning products such as bleach, hydrogen peroxide, or caustic soda—commonly used in commercial establishments, hospitals, veterinary clinics, industrial sites, and other public spaces—is perfectly compatible with ultracompact surfaces without any precautionary measures required beyond those indicated by each manufacturer.
  44. 44. Slide 44 of 79©2017, 2020 ∙ Table of Contents • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert < > Flooring Maintenance The chart below recommends the most suitable cleaning products to use to eliminate stubborn stains . Stain Cleaning Product Liquids and organic residues Conventional detergent and grease remover Grease, oil, rubber, tar Degreaser Resin, putties, silicone residue, dyes Solvent, acetone Traces of cement adhesives Acid Plaster Plaster remover, acid Nicotine Abrasive cleaning product, solvent, acetone Rust Hydrochloric acid
  45. 45. Slide 45 of 79©2017, 2020 ∙ Table of Contents • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert < > ASTM Standards and Testing Test Standard Determination Units Typical Ultracompact Material Moisture expansion ASTM C370 Average moisture expansion % 0.02 Breaking strength ASTM C648 Average breaking strength ft·lbf 3962 Flexural properties ASTM C674 Average modulus of rupture psi 10828 Water absorption, bulk density, apparent porosity, and apparent specific gravity ASTM C373 Average water absorption % 0.03 (impervious) Static coefficient of friction (skid resistance) ASTM C1028 Static coef. friction dry Static coef. friction wet - - 0.08 0.66 Wet dynamic coefficient of friction (DCOF) ANSI A126.1 section 9.6.1 Average DCOF - 0.57 Relative resistance to wear (Taber abrasion) ASTM C501 Average abrasive wear index 182.2 Thermal shock resistance ASTM C484 Defects - No defects Bond strength ASTM C482 Average bond strength psi 423 Resistance to chemical substances ASTM C650 Common household cleaning chemicals - Not affected
  46. 46. Slide 46 of 79©2017, 2020 ∙ Table of Contents • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert < > ASTM Standards and Testing Test Standard Determination Units Typical Ultracompact Material Resistance to chemical substances ASTM C650 Common household cleaning chemicals: Acetic acid, 3%, 10% (v/v), Ammonium chloride, 10g/L, Citric acid solution, 30g/L, Citric acid solution 100g/L, Lactic acid, 5% (v/v), Phosphoric acid, 3%, 10%, (v/v), Sulfamic acid, 30g/L, Sulfamic acid 100g/L, Swimming pool chemicals, Sodium hypochlorite solution, 20mg/L, Acids and bases, Hydrochloric acid solution 3%, 18% (v/v), Potassium hydroxide, 30g/L Potassium hydroxide, 100g/L - Not affected Absorption and bulk gravity ASTM C97 Average weight percent absorption Average density % lb/ft3 0.02 156 Modulus of rupture ASTM C99 Average modulus of rupture - dry conditions Average modulus of rupture - wet conditions psi psi 8128 7490 Flexural strength ASTM C880 Average flexural strength - dry conditions Average flexural strength - wet conditions psi psi 6840 6205 Compressive strength ASTM C170 Average compressive strength - dry conditions Average compressive strength - wet conditions psi psi 34409 17823 Abrasion resistance ASTM C1353 Average index of abrasion - 349
  47. 47. Slide 47 of 79©2017, 2020 ∙ Table of Contents • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert < > Environmental Impact of Installation, Use, and Maintenance According to one manufacturer’s Environmental Product Declaration, during the installation phase of the UCS life cycle, there is no impact on environmental performance, use of resources, and waste management. The maintenance phase does have a small impact due to use of water and cleaning products. Lastly, recycling of part of the UCS waste as a raw material for other products gives rise to a positive effect as this prevents the impact of using virgin raw materials. Environmental performance per functional Unit (1.000 kg UCS)
  48. 48. Slide 48 of 79©2017, 2020 ∙ Table of Contents • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert < > Green Material and LEED® Credits With its zero porosity and high strength, UCS products are durable. This durability means replacement and repair will be minimal and use of new raw materials limited. Manufacturers who incorporate green practices to mitigate the environmental impacts of raw materials acquisition and production contribute to further lowering the environmental footprint of UCS. UCS products are available with transparency documents, like Health Product Declarations and Environmental Product Declarations, along with green building certifications for low emissions, like GREENGUARD. These green initiatives contribute to green building program credits—for instance, credits within the USGBC’s LEED v4 Materials and Resources category and Indoor Air Quality category.
  49. 49. Slide 49 of 79©2017, 2020 ∙ Table of Contents • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert < > GREENGUARD Certification An ultracompact surfacing material that has earned GREENGUARD Certification has met rigorous and comprehensive standards for low emissions of VOCs. The GREENGUARD Gold standard limits emissions of more than 360 VOCs and total chemical emissions, and ensures that the UCS material is acceptable for use in healthcare facilities. Always check with your manufacturer to see if the UCS material in your project has GREENGUARD or GREENGUARD Gold certification.
  50. 50. Slide 50 of 79©2017, 2020 ∙ Table of Contents • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert < > NSF NSF International is a non-profit, non-governmental organization that works with regulators and companies to issue certification in the areas of health, hygiene , and the environment. It is currently the most recognized entity in these fields and is endorsed by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the World Health Organization (WHO). It is the only entity of its kind that is fully accredited by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). Many ultracompact surfacing materials have been tested and evaluated by NSF under NSF/ANSI 51. Always check with your manufacturer to see if the ultracompact surfacing material in your project has NSF certification.
  51. 51. Review Question Label this diagram to show the sinterization process.
  52. 52. Answer . Materials are compacted Minerals crystallize Crystal network in drying kiln, 392° F Heat increased in in sinterization kilns to 2192° F for 4 hours, materials liquify Heat decreases and material slowly resolidifies into UCS
  53. 53. Slide 53 of 79©2017, 2020 ∙ Table of Contents • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert < > Case Study: Spain Pavilion Expo Milano 2015/Flooring Almost 1000m2 of innovative ultracompact surfacing material was placed in the Spain Pavilion of Expo Milano 2015. The material was applied on the floors of the public space, exhibition area, multi-purpose room, vegetable garden, workshops, and restoration areas. Designed by the Fermin Vazquez Studio, the Spain Pavilion aims to be a benchmark for excellence in Spanish architecture. Ultracompact surfacing material has many advantages for interior and exterior flooring and stairs. Functionally, its hardness, high resistance to abrasion, easy maintenance, and size versatility make it a perfect product for spaces that receive heavy foot traffic. One of the most innovative interior design features at the pavilion was the recreation of the tomato genome, printed using ink jet technology on the floor. This amazing floor design was created using ultra-large UCS slabs sized 3200mm x 1440mm. Because of the innate abrasion resistance in the floor, there was no worry that the design would rub off.
  54. 54. Slide 54 of 79©2017, 2020 ∙ Table of Contents • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert < > Case Study: Spain Pavilion Expo Milano 2015/Worktops UCS material was used as countertops in the kitchen and bar areas of the expo because of its excellent heat and scorch resistance. The very low porosity of UCS material and its high hydrolysis resistance enabled it to be used in the vegetable garden as well.
  55. 55. Slide 55 of 79©2017, 2020 ∙ Table of Contents • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert < > Case Study: Cajamar Group Building in Almerίa The ultracompact surfacing material selected allowed for a uniform design to be created on the exterior of the building, making all the walls appear as if clad in a single covering. The low thermal expansion and dimensional stability of the slabs contributed to the success of the overall design. Additionally, qualities such as its high resistance to ultraviolet rays, resistance to frost and thawing, color stability, and high stain resistance are essential properties for exterior façades. This building used a hidden longitudinal fastening system, which works using compression exerted by the system on the back of the tile. The precision of the UCS material along with the metal structural support used to attach the UCS panels contributed to its ease of installation.
  56. 56. Slide 56 of 79©2017, 2020 ∙ Table of Contents • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert < > Case Study: The Chares, Atlanta, GA The Charles is a 22-story mixed-use building that utilized UCS from grade to the top of the building using 1.2cm slabs for a total of 12 500ft2. The ground floor retail space had a custom pattern designed by the architect. When planning the exterior in an urban area, the architect loved the superior performance of UCS, its dead flatness, graffiti resistance, and wide color palette. UCS’s durability will ensure this building will maintain its beautiful façade for many years.
  57. 57. Slide 57 of 79©2017, 2020 ∙ Table of Contents • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert < > Case Study: LUMA Hotel, New York, NY The LUMA Hotel, designed by Peter Poon Architects, used UCS slabs in 1.2cm and 2cm for a total of 900ft2 for its ventilated façade. The slabs are attached to the CMU (concrete masonry unit) substrate using a mechanical assembly and adhesives. The UCS cladding is used both as a rainscreen and as a decorative element to tie the design of the overall hotel entry together. The UCS material was used to continue the modern, flat appearance into the lobby for stair treads and large format flooring. The finished façade is sleek and sophisticated. Even though this hotel is in a busy city center, the durability, stain and graffiti resistance, thermal shock resistance, UV stability, and other attributes, will keep this façade looking new for many years to come.
  58. 58. Slide 58 of 79©2017, 2020 ∙ Table of Contents • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert < > Case Study: LUMA Hotel, New York, NY
  59. 59. Slide 59 of 79©2017, 2020 ∙ Table of Contents • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert < > Case Study: University of Missouri Stadium, Columbia, MO In conceptualizing the University of Missouri south endzone stadium entrance, the architect wanted to create a stunning aesthetic with an extremely durable product. A custom design was created to match the team’s iconic diamond pattern using 1.2cm slabs in a black gloss and black matte finish. Additionally, UCS offered the following benefits: stain/graffiti resistance, a matte and gloss finish, zero-porosity, UV resistance, and dimensional stability.
  60. 60. Slide 60 of 79©2017, 2020 ∙ Table of Contents • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert < > Case Study: University of Missouri Stadium, Columbia, MO
  61. 61. Slide 61 of 79©2017, 2020 ∙ Table of Contents • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert < > Rafa Nadal Academy, Manacor, Mallorca Rafa Nadal Academy by Movistar, came into being in 2016 with the aim of becoming a benchmark centre in the world of tennis at an international level. The architectural project consists of more than 24 000m2 located throughout a range of facilities including the halls of residence, training school, hotel, sports courts, changing rooms, bar, clinic, and outdoor common areas. The project was fitted with more than 40 000 m2 of UCS panels of all thicknesses and for different applications, such as facades, flooring, interior wall cladding, countertops, stairs, baseboards, swimming pools.
  62. 62. Slide 62 of 79©2017, 2020 ∙ Table of Contents • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert < > Rafa Nadal Academy, Manacor, Mallorca The ventilated façade of the Rafa Nadal Academy is composed mainly of UCS large format panels and glass. The qualities of UCS, such as its high resistance to ultraviolet rays, its resistance to frost and thawing, its color stability and high stain resistance are essential properties for its use outside and the result is visually spectacular. David Iglesias, Architect: “The best feature of [UCS] is something which we architects love: its format. It allows you to play with large dimensions and with different forms of quartering. It is very easy to work with [UCS] and the result is perfection.”
  63. 63. Slide 63 of 79©2017, 2020 ∙ Table of Contents • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert < > Case Study: Porsche Design Boutique, Oak Brook, IL In conceptualizing the Porsche Design boutique, architect Eric Styer of DXU Architects sought a façade material that would embody the client’s design philosophy and that would set it apart from adjacent storefronts in an upscale retail development. The design concept required a material that would achieve a minimalist, homogeneous look, with understated detailing. Key considerations such as budget, performance, and aesthetic eliminated initial materials including stone, tile, and fiber cement board. However, the zero-porosity, UV and freeze/thaw resistance, and dimensional stability characteristics of UCS made the material an ideal solution for the installation.
  64. 64. Slide 64 of 79©2017, 2020 ∙ Table of Contents • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert < > Case Study: Porsche Design Boutique, Oak Brook, IL The façade was applied as a rainscreen that is structurally independent from the base building structural system, allowing for water and air to circulate behind the 1.2cm thick, 320cmx144cm (approx. 5ftx10ft) UCS slabs, installed using a railing system. The large format size of UCS slabs minimizes the number of visible joints on the façade, creating a sleek, sophisticated appearance that mirrors the brand identity of Porsche. Additionally, the durability of the façade was a key consideration. The storefront is located at a high-traffic corner in the retail development so the material must be able to stand up to day-to-day wear and tear without damage. Foot-traffic concerns aside, the climate is highly varied from season to season, so the freeze/thaw resistance and stability offered by UCS is essential in ensuring the façade’s integrity.
  65. 65. Slide 65 of 79©2017, 2020 ∙ Table of Contents • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert < > Case Study: Case Study: ToHa Project, Tel Aviv, Israel This project combines more than 300 000ft2 of UCS in ventilated facades, flooring, elevators, ceiling, and interior wall cladding. From the functional point of view, this ambitious project inverts the organization of the conventional office block, placing all the infrastructure and machinery on the first floors enabling the roof to become a public space, accommodating an upscale restaurant with views of Tel Aviv and the Mediterranean Sea. The offices start on the seventh floor, allowing the occupants to take advantage of natural daylight and beautiful views.
  66. 66. Slide 66 of 79©2017, 2020 ∙ Table of Contents • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert < > Case Study: ToHa Project, Tel Aviv, Israel Using eleven different colors and four different thicknesses: 4, 8, 12, and 20mm. This project reflects the unlimited design potential of ultracompact surfacing.
  67. 67. Summary
  68. 68. Slide 68 of 79©2017, 2020 ∙ Table of Contents • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert < > Summary Using ultracompact surfacing materials in building projects gives designers and architects many options for both the exterior and interior. The UV resistance, dimensional stability, and low thermal coefficient allow UCS materials to be installed in almost any climate, providing the builder with a uniform, flat external appearance for cladding and durable, scratch- resistant external flooring. Using UCS materials inside can lend a continuous look for internal floors and stairs. Its scratch- ,scorch-, and mold- resistant surface makes it a perfect choice for kitchens and bathrooms. Because of the many textures available, such as leather or wood grain, UCS materials will enhance any décor.
  69. 69. Slide 69 of 79©2017, 2020 ∙ Table of Contents • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert < > Conclusion If you desire AIA/CES, state licensing or CE credits for another organization, please click on the button to commence your online test. A score of 80% or better will allow you to print your Certificate of Completion; you may also go to your AEC Daily Transcript to see your completed courses and certificates. For additional knowledge and post-seminar assistance, click on the Ask an Expert link above. If you have colleagues that might benefit from this seminar, please let them know. Feel free to revisit the AEC Daily website to download additional programs from the Online Learning Center. ©2017, 2020 Cosentino North America. The material contained in this course was researched, assembled, and produced by Cosentino North America and remains its property. “LEED” and related logo is a trademark owned by the U.S. Green Building Council and is used by permission. The LEED® Rating System was authored by and is the property of the USGBC. Any portion of the Rating System appearing in this course is by permission of the USGBC. Questions or concerns about the content of this course should be directed to the program instructor. This multimedia product is the copyright of AEC Daily. Questions? Ask an Expert – click here Exit Click Here to Take the Test MORE powered by
  • NinaLutska

    May. 23, 2021

facades of sintered stone

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