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Rural Development Program Kampot

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Rural Development Program Kampot

  1. 1. RURAL DEVELOPMENT in KAMPOT PROVINCE, CAMBODIA REPORT on the PROGRAM OF WORKS implemented on behalf of APHEDA-Union Aid Abroad Aug 2000 to Aug 2001 A component of the AusAID supported program ADULT EDUCATION AND TRAINING FOR POOR RURAL AND URBAN COMMUNITIES 1999-2001 Prepared for APHEDA-Union Aid Abroad, Cambodia By Brian Lund Principal Consultant Lund & Associates
  2. 2. RURAL DEVELOPMENT in KAMPOT PROVINCE, CAMBODIA REPORT on the PROGRAM OF WORKS 2000 - 2001 Prepared by Lund & Associates page 2 of 43
  3. 3. RURAL DEVELOPMENT in KAMPOT PROVINCE, CAMBODIA REPORT on the PROGRAM OF WORKS 2000 - 2001 Contents 1 Introduction.........................................................................................................................4 2 Program in General............................................................................................................4 2.1 Terms of Reference.....................................................................................................4 2.1.1 Education and Training..........................................................................................4 2.1.2 Project Co-ordination.............................................................................................4 2.2 Implementation.............................................................................................................5 2.3 Summary of achievements...........................................................................................5 3 Aquaculture Extension........................................................................................................6 3.1 Aims.............................................................................................................................7 3.2 Implementation.............................................................................................................7 3.3 Program implementation..............................................................................................7 3.3.1 Pond Digging 2001................................................................................................7 3.3.2 Pond rearing (fingerlings to harvest) 2001.............................................................9 3.3.3 Pond rearing (fingerlings to harvest) 2000...........................................................10 3.3.4 Farmer Fish Stations 2001...................................................................................11 3.3.5 Overall program to 2001......................................................................................14 3.4 Recommendations.....................................................................................................15 3.4.1 General................................................................................................................15 3.4.2 Pond digging program.........................................................................................16 3.4.3 Pond Rearing.......................................................................................................16 3.4.4 Community ponds / Fish refuge...........................................................................16 3.4.5 Farmer Fish Stations...........................................................................................17 4 Aquaculture Production....................................................................................................18 4.1 Implementation...........................................................................................................19 4.1.1 Production targets 2001.......................................................................................19 4.2 Achievements.............................................................................................................20 4.3 Future direction..........................................................................................................21 4.3.1 Market development............................................................................................21 4.3.2 Management & operations...................................................................................22 4.3.3 Development of training facility............................................................................23 4.4 Recommendations.....................................................................................................23 4.4.1 Revise support.....................................................................................................23 4.4.2 APHEDA as a client.............................................................................................23 4.4.3 Target groups for training....................................................................................24 5 Agriculture Extension IPM.................................................................................................25 5.1 Aims...........................................................................................................................26 5.2 Implementation...........................................................................................................26 5.3 Recommendations.....................................................................................................28 6 Agriculture Extension WID................................................................................................30 6.1 Background................................................................................................................31 6.2 Implementation...........................................................................................................31 6.2.1 Home vegetable gardens.....................................................................................32 6.2.2 Small nursery - Tree growing...............................................................................32 6.2.3 Site Planning.......................................................................................................33 6.2.4 Site construction & orchard establishment...........................................................33 6.3 Pilot program..............................................................................................................34 6.4 Recommendations.....................................................................................................35 7 HIV/AIDS Awareness........................................................................................................36 7.1 Background................................................................................................................36 7.2 Implementation ..........................................................................................................36 7.3 Recommendations.....................................................................................................37 8 Community Forestry.........................................................................................................38 8.1 Background................................................................................................................38 8.2 Implementation...........................................................................................................38 Prepared by Lund & Associates page 3 of 43
  4. 4. RURAL DEVELOPMENT in KAMPOT PROVINCE, CAMBODIA REPORT on the PROGRAM OF WORKS 2000 - 2001 8.3 Recommendations.....................................................................................................39 9 File references..................................................................................................................40 1 Introduction • This report provides a summary of the program of works undertaken by Lund & Associates on behalf of APHEDA, Union Aid Abroad in 2000 –2001. • The program of works being the Rural Development component of the AusAID supported APHEDA program ADULT EDUCATION AND TRAINING FOR POOR RURAL AND URBAN COMMUNITIES1999-2001 • The report is designed to give a general outline of the program of works, implementation and results • The report is cross-referenced with many documents originating from the program of works in order to provide additional detail where needed. These documents can be accessed by hyperlink (CD copy) or by reference to the file path provided. • All other documents originating from the program of works have also been filed on the CD copy and can be accessed by desktop navigation. This is intended to provide: o Complete detail of the program of works o Easy access to data and documents of value to future projects and reports. 2 Program in General 2.1 Terms of Reference • Taken from job description provided by APHEDA Union Aid Abroad. 2.1.1 Education and Training • Develop and undertake appropriate training of trainers (ToT) program in Permaculture design techniques for selected farmer representatives and Agricultural Department staff. • To advise and assist the ToT group to develop and implement appropriate Permaculture training for farmers within existing fish farming and integrated Pest Management farmer training programs. • Assist to develop appropriate programs of field follow-up for farmers in the program 2.1.2 Project Co-ordination • Develop the capacity building program of the Kampot provincial fish station at Chhouk, through advices and support to areas such as management, long term planning and training needs. • Monitor APHEDA’s program of co-operation with the Kampot Department of Agriculture • Liaise with government and other authorities concerning the project area outlined including issues of sustainability for the fish station Prepared by Lund & Associates page 4 of 43
  5. 5. RURAL DEVELOPMENT in KAMPOT PROVINCE, CAMBODIA REPORT on the PROGRAM OF WORKS 2000 - 2001 • Liaise with relevant NGO’s NGO Coordination Committees, IO’s and donor bodies in related agricultural areas including identification of additional funding sources. • Administrative and Reporting functions 2.2 Implementation • The program was implemented by o Brian Lund, Principal Consultant, Lund & Associates engaged as Agricultural Advisor to APHEDA • Program assistance was provided by o Tep Sary, Project Officer, APHEDA based in Kampot o Staff of the APHEDA Office in Phnom Penh 2.3 Summary of achievements • Developed a program of integrated agriculture and domestic aquaculture projects for the 2000-2001 season. Endorsed and implemented by program Partners1 • Clarified role of Chhouk Fish Station (CFS) as a provider of fish seed to the local domestic market and as potential training centre. Providing managerial direction and support with a view to improving production capacity and quality, developing a wholesale/retail network and achieving financial self-sustainability. • Strengthened domestic aquaculture extension program (268 participants), through support of extension team, promotion of group extension techniques, revision of past program, introduction of Farmer Fish Stations (FFS) as a target group, • Supported continued development of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Farmer Field Schools as a vehicle for farmer training, information sharing and community development. (180 participants). • Developed a new integrated agriculture program to operate from WID Centres. The program to target young women attending the Centres. (Potential participation 320 pa). Included training of trainers, establishment of demonstrations and on-site resources, pilot implementation. • Improved the mechanism for co-operation with partners. o Program and budget development, project management experience and technical skills transfer. o Introduction of Salary Support agreements2 and job descriptions for staff from Partner organisations. o Reporting and financial procedures • Provided assistance in advancing Community Forestry Program. An initiative of APHEDA and KamDAFF. Prepared by Lund & Associates page 5 of 43
  6. 6. RURAL DEVELOPMENT in KAMPOT PROVINCE, CAMBODIA REPORT on the PROGRAM OF WORKS 2000 - 2001 3 Aquaculture Extension Prepared by Lund & Associates page 6 of 43
  7. 7. RURAL DEVELOPMENT in KAMPOT PROVINCE, CAMBODIA REPORT on the PROGRAM OF WORKS 2000 - 2001 3.1 Aims • The program included 3 components in 2001 • To train 200 farmers to Pond Rear fingerlings to harvest, (~60 day old to market size). This was accomplished through a 4-day training program that was complimented by the supply of 200 fingerlings free to trainee farmers plus follow-up farm visits throughout the first season. The component also included follow-up support and evaluation of 155 farmers that received this training in 2000 • To provide additional support to 100 poorer families which do not have ponds. This component included training in pond digging technique as well as in-kind support through a food-for-rice program. The rice being recompense for income generation foregone whilst the families dig ponds3 . These families would be amongst the 200 trained to rear fingerlings to harvest. • To train 10 farmers to rear fry to fingerlings (15 days to ~60 days old). These farmers would then purchase fry from CFS at a wholesale price, rear them and retail to the wider community4 . 3.2 Implementation • An aquaculture extension project was developed for the 2000-2001 season. It was designed over several days of consultation with the extension staff. This was presented in the form of an agreement and endorsed by the KamDAFF. Program components on file5 • The team included6 o Sor Sorin Extension Team Leader o King Sophanny Extension Officer o Pheum Phalla Extension Officer o Sim Vanhieng Liaison Officer • The extension staff was primarily responsible for implementing the program as described whilst the Liaison Officer was responsible for encouraging cohesion within the overall program, particularly between extension and production components 7 . • Coordination of the program was maintained through regular communications and meetings8 . In addition staff where required to provide monthly reports9 3.3 Program implementation 3.3.1 Pond Digging 2001 • 101 farmers were selected for the pond-digging program10 . With the intention of including these farmers in the rearing pond training, (fingerling to harvest) once their ponds were complete. Prepared by Lund & Associates page 7 of 43
  8. 8. RURAL DEVELOPMENT in KAMPOT PROVINCE, CAMBODIA REPORT on the PROGRAM OF WORKS 2000 - 2001 Pond digging – participants in 2001. Category Number Women 69 Men 31 - Widowed families - 11 - Handicapped families - 10 - Dang Tung WID Centre - 1 Total trainees 101 Distribution of farmers selected for pond digging • WFP agreed to provide rice to 27 of the participating farmers living in WFP target villages and IFAD/GTZ agreed to provide rice to the remaining 74 farmers. This was a commitment of between 300 to 400 kg of rice per farmer calculated in lieu of income earning potential forgone whilst digging. • The DAFF team and WFP staff undertook an initial site assessment of the selected sites (ensuring appropriateness) and then collective agreements where signed including Commune and District Chief representation. • Farmers where trained in Feb in pond digging technique. Pond digging and monitoring commenced. However, a particularly wet period in March11 caused localized flooding that prevented farmers from completing their ponds. A collective decision involving the extension team and farmer representatives was made to postpone the program and resume next season. In hindsight, the wet period was followed by an extended dry period that would have allowed the farmers to complete their ponds. • Further negotiation with WFP in Aug resulted in their preparedness to resume their initial in-kind commitment but for all the 101 farmers as long as the ponds where completed in the current calendar year. At the time of this report there was some concern that the farmers would not be able to achieve this and that the support would be forfeit. Prepared by Lund & Associates page 8 of 43
  9. 9. RURAL DEVELOPMENT in KAMPOT PROVINCE, CAMBODIA REPORT on the PROGRAM OF WORKS 2000 - 2001 Value to the community Average pond size 120 m2 Total pond area 12,120 m2 Average rice allocation 300kg Total rice allocation 30,300 kg Average value @ 1,000reil/kg 300,000 reil $USD 76 Total value @101 farmers 30,300,000 reil $USD 7, 769 3.3.2 Pond rearing (fingerlings to harvest) 2001 • The selection of farmers for the Pond Rearing program and identification of 13 group leaders was made in April12 . (This involved some re-selection as a consequence of the pond digging farmers postponing their projects). Pond Rearing – participants in 2001 Category Number Women 85 Men 95 Total trainees 160 Distribution of Pond Rearing participants 2001 • Of the group selected, all farmers had established ponds and the average pond size was 218m2 . They where then trained in May as per the program schedule. • These farmers also received an allocation of fodder legume seed. Fodder legumes have considerable potential in the district as a means of improving soil fertility, quality of grazing, fish feed options and soil conservation. Farmers where given a brief outline of the benefits and management before 100g allocations of seed where distributed via the Group Leaders. This they where encouraged to spread around their ponds. The seed, training of the extension team and extension posters was provided by the IFAD/GTZ program13 . Prepared by Lund & Associates page 9 of 43
  10. 10. RURAL DEVELOPMENT in KAMPOT PROVINCE, CAMBODIA REPORT on the PROGRAM OF WORKS 2000 - 2001 • Distribution of fingerlings to these farmers was scheduled for the end of August 2001. The farmers received a free allocation of 200, 30-day old fingerlings with the option of purchasing additional fingerlings if they wanted to maximize their production. Potential Value to the Community No of participants 160 Average pond size 218 m2 Total pond area 34,880 m2 Average yield (2000) 37kg/100m2 Total yield 12,900 kg Average sale price 3,800 reil/kg Gross value of yield 49,041,000 reil $USD 12,575 3.3.3 Pond rearing (fingerlings to harvest) 2000 • 155 Farmers trained in the previous calendar year14 continued to receive follow-up support in 2001. Pond Rearing – participants in 2000 Participant category Number - Women 95 - Men 80 Total participants (2000 only) 155 Distribution of Pond rearing participants up to & incl. 2000 • Once their harvest was completed a sample of the farmers completed a qualitative survey to assess perceived outcomes. The survey was based on a sample of 25/152 that included 10 women and 15 men15 . The feedback was positive: o Farmers where happy with the outcomes, they intended to continue. Prepared by Lund & Associates page 10 of 43
  11. 11. RURAL DEVELOPMENT in KAMPOT PROVINCE, CAMBODIA REPORT on the PROGRAM OF WORKS 2000 - 2001 o They where prepared to assist friends and neighbours interested in adopting the same technology. o The survey also showed a very high level of involvement of the children within the family. • Quantitative analysis of this component was based on a survey conducted July 2001. The survey was based on a second sample of 30/152 that included 13 women and 17 men16 . o Participants in 2000 collectively harvested approximately 12tonne of fish. o The average yield was 77kg /210m2 (37kg /100 m2 ) in 6 to 8 months. o The family consumed the majority of these fish produced whilst some was supplied to neighbours and some were sold in the village market to provide income for other purchases and to buy fingerlings for the next season. o Assuming a direct cost of approximately $USD4, 000 to implement the program, the net financial worth of the component to the community was 11,400 - 4,000 = $USD 7, 400 Quantitative survey. Sample size 30/152 (incl ♀ 13, ♂17) Average pond size 210 m2 Total pond area 32,190 m2 Average kg consumed 62 Total kg consumed 9,370 Average kg sold 15.6 Total kg sold 2,370 Average kg Consumption + sale 77.2 Total kg Consumption + sales 11,740 Average price reil/kg 3,790 Average income from sale 59,100 reil $USD 15.20 Total income from sales 8,981,190 reil $USD 2, 300 Average value Consumption + sale 292,830 reil $USD 75.10 Gross value Consumption + sales 44,510,220 reil $USD 11, 412.90 3.3.4 Farmer Fish Stations 2001 • The intention of this component was to establish a network of satellite ‘Farmer Fish Stations (FFS) to which CFS will wholesale 9 to 15 day stock. The FFS will retail to the wider community when the stock matures to approximately 60 days. • At this early stage the program has focused on farmers in the vicinity of CFS because: o These farmers live in the area that is central to the catchment area for the program o Back-up support is readily available from CFS o The area is less prone to seasonal flooding than others in the catchment area. • This component is particularly important because: o It provides some farmers with an additional income earning activity Prepared by Lund & Associates page 11 of 43
  12. 12. RURAL DEVELOPMENT in KAMPOT PROVINCE, CAMBODIA REPORT on the PROGRAM OF WORKS 2000 - 2001 o It has the potential to greatly enhance local technology exchange as these farmers become a focal point for expertise and assistance within the community network o It provides DAFF with an additional vehicle for community training and information exchange. o It allows CFS to increase production capacities from an estimated 100,000 to 300,000 units per year to 1,000,000 to 2,000,000 units per year. • The selection of farmers for the Farmer Fish Stations was reduced from 10 to 717 . This was because the extension team was unable to locate enough farmers from previous programs that fulfilled the selection criteria18 . Farmer Fish Stations – Participants 2001 . Participant category Number Women 2 Men 5 Total participants 7 Distribution of Farmer Fish Stations 2001 • The farmers received training in April and then where assisted in setting up their ponds. They received close technical support and start-up equipment including hapas, oxygen, plastic bags and seine nets.19 A collective wholesale supply contract was signed (including village level authorities)20 , and the farmers took delivery of the first batch of fry in August. Delivery involved two stages o Farmers attended CFS to collect carp and barb.21 o APHEDA purchased Tilapia from SCALE and delivered them directly to the farmers.22 • Gross margin estimates where calculated as follows for FFSs. Prepared by Lund & Associates page 12 of 43
  13. 13. RURAL DEVELOPMENT in KAMPOT PROVINCE, CAMBODIA REPORT on the PROGRAM OF WORKS 2000 - 2001 Estimate of financial benefit for a FFS participant Pond size 150m2 Cost of 15 day fry 15 riel Stocking rate 100fry/m2 Survival rate 60% Sale price 60day fingerlings 60riel Preparation and feed costs 38,000 riel Number of fry purchased 15,000 fry Cost of purchase 225,000 riel Prep & feed costs 38,000 riel Number of fingerlings reared 9,000 fingerlings Sale price 540,000 riel Profit (Sale price minus costs) . 277,000 riel ($USD 71 in 45 days) • Value added at program / community level Estimate of value added to program . Number of fish wholesaled 143,000 Value at wholesale (15 reil ea) 2,145,000 ($USD 550) Number of fish retailed (60% survival) 85,800 Value at retail (60 reil ea) 5,148,000 ($USD 1,320) Value added 3,003,000 ($USD 770) • The value to the community can also be extrapolated to market potential Estimated worth of fish retailed by FFSs . Number of fingerlings (60d) retailed by FFSs @ 60% survival 85,800 fingerlings Survival rate ref: SCALE (1997) 35% Number of fish surviving to market 30,030 fish Final weight of fish. 0.6kg ref: SCALE (1997) 18,018 kg Potential value of fish @ 4000reil/kg 720,720, 000reil $USD 18,480 Prepared by Lund & Associates page 13 of 43
  14. 14. RURAL DEVELOPMENT in KAMPOT PROVINCE, CAMBODIA REPORT on the PROGRAM OF WORKS 2000 - 2001 3.3.5 Overall program to 2001 • Program participants up to and including 2001 including all aquaculture extension program components Prepared by Lund & Associates page 14 of 43
  15. 15. RURAL DEVELOPMENT in KAMPOT PROVINCE, CAMBODIA REPORT on the PROGRAM OF WORKS 2000 - 2001 Aquaculture Extn Prgm participants 1999-2001 . Participant category Number Pond digging 101 - Women - 69 - Men - 39 Pond rearing 461 - Women ~50% - Men ~50% Farmer Fish Station 7 - Women - 2 - Men - 5 Total participants 569 Distribution of Extension Program participants to 2001 3.4 Recommendations 3.4.1 General • Over the years that KamDAFF has been partnering APHEDA it is clear that KamDAFF has gained the experience and the staff to manage this program without line management from APHEDA. Future programs should be negotiated on the basis of fee-for-service whereby APHEDA makes funds available according to the number of participants trained. • Identifying one extension officer to be responsible for each of the Pond Digging, Pond Rearing and FFS programs would benefit the program. The extension Officers could still function as a team but lines of responsibility and the opportunity for personal development would be enhanced. • The program underutilizes the extension team. Future programs should negotiate to a minimum of 150 farmers per officer. This figure to be increased by 50 farmers per Prepared by Lund & Associates page 15 of 43
  16. 16. RURAL DEVELOPMENT in KAMPOT PROVINCE, CAMBODIA REPORT on the PROGRAM OF WORKS 2000 - 2001 officer each year as more appropriate extension techniques become established, particularly group extension. 3.4.2 Pond digging program • The promissory arrangement negotiated with WFP at the time of this report must be monitored/facilitated by APHEDA if farmers are to receive a satisfactory outcome. • Whilst this component is yet to provide substantive outcomes, it has the potential to be a very important component of the overall program because of the opportunity it offers poorer members of the community that would otherwise be unable to take up domestic fish farming. • Continued cooperation with other organisations able to provide rice for ‘food for work’ arrangements should be pursued. • A Memorandum of Understanding between the respective organisations should underpin negotiations. Where negotiations are conducted on a less formal basis APHEDA’s program may be compromised. It is worth noting that APHEDA was fortunate that IFAD/GTZ was prepared to provide assistance when WFP initially opted to withdraw in-kind support for over 70 farmers deemed ineligible under WFP revision of target villages. It would not have been possible to continue with the program at the time without this promise of support. • The end of January/February should conclude pond digging each year where possible, given the timing of the main rice harvest. This is well before the wet season begins but it ensures that unseasonably early rains do not compromise future programs. • Pond digging could be extended to include community ponds / Fish refuge projects 3.4.3 Pond Rearing • The program has an initial dropout rate of approximately 10% before training is complete. Future farmer selections should include an additional 10% in numbers to compensate. This will have no significant impact on project costs but will improve community benefit. • Given that the allocation of free fish seed has been revised to 200 units in 2001, an evaluation should follow that considers the propensity of participants to purchase additional seed, the impact on participation and the impact on overall yields. • The program should include a schedule of monitoring and evaluation of farmers that extends beyond the first year to determine whether or not the program is encouraging sustained change. To avoid excessive cost this could be achieved by using a reducing sample size each year after completion. • All components should include a short session on the use of fodder legumes, moringa, sesbania and leucina. This session should be complimented by distribution of some seed and/or seedlings. WID Centre nurseries could be commissioned to propagate these tree seedlings. 3.4.4 Community ponds / Fish refuge • Whilst the program has the potential to assist poor rural communities, the poorest (landless) people are excluded. • To overcome this disparity, a further component could be added to the program whereby community ponds are developed as fish refuges. The refuges then providing seeding stock for natural fisheries each wet season.23 Prepared by Lund & Associates page 16 of 43
  17. 17. RURAL DEVELOPMENT in KAMPOT PROVINCE, CAMBODIA REPORT on the PROGRAM OF WORKS 2000 - 2001 • Notably, where the program focuses on native fish stocks it would also contribute to National Biodiversity Conservation Objectives 3.4.5 Farmer Fish Stations • Once fingerling sale from the FFSs is complete (assume the end of Sept, this component will require evaluation, particularly given it’s potential importance to the overall program and it’s application as a model for other project areas. • Cooperation with this group should become the responsibility of CFS staff in second and subsequent years given the wholesaler/retailer relationship that is to be encouraged. • The Chhouk District should continue as a focus for FFS development given the comparative advantages of proximity to CFS, accessibility, water supply and lessened flood risk. It could develop into an aquaculture ‘precinct’ able to provide fish seed to a very large catchment. • Future programs should include resources and training for predator insect traps. (See CFS). Prepared by Lund & Associates page 17 of 43
  18. 18. RURAL DEVELOPMENT in KAMPOT PROVINCE, CAMBODIA REPORT on the PROGRAM OF WORKS 2000 - 2001 4 Aquaculture Production Prepared by Lund & Associates page 18 of 43
  19. 19. RURAL DEVELOPMENT in KAMPOT PROVINCE, CAMBODIA REPORT on the PROGRAM OF WORKS 2000 - 2001 4.1 Implementation 4.1.1 Production targets 2001 • The CFS production program was developed in consultation with CFS staff, with reference to the Year 2000 Status Report24 and the outcomes of the CFS Workshop 200025 This was presented in the form of a contract and endorsed by the Partners Contract components on file26 • The program included two main components o To produce 192,000 units (30 & 45 days old), to support new farmer programs being run by KamDAFF in partnership with APHEDA and with IFAD/GTZ o To produce 173,000 units (15 days old), to wholesale to Farmer Fish Stations Production targets 2001 June July Aug Totals Tilapia - 25,950 28,800 54,750 C'mn carp 30,000 34,600 10,800 75,400 Puntius - 25,950 10,800 36,750 S'lvr carp 60,000 69,200 21,600 150,800 I'dn carp 30,000 17,300 - 47,300 Subtotals 120,000 @ 30 days old 173,000 @ 15 days old 72,000 @ 45 days old 365,000 Client GTZ/IFSP @ 25reil ea FFSs @ 15 reil ea KamDAFF free to Rearing Prgm. Comments To GTZ/IFSP Three batches Over 1 month Deliver to KamDAFF Extn team Distribute by KamDAFF Extn team Revenue $ UD 769.23 $USD 665.38 $1434.61 • The team included27 o Khem Van Deth Manager Chhouk Fish Station o Nouch Neang Assistant o Non Pros Assistant • The CFS staff was responsible for operating the station and ensuring production targets where achieved .28 Coordination of the program was maintained through regular communications and attendance at Extension team meetings.29 In addition Deth was required to provide monthly reports.30 • Initial preparations for production preceded as required, however, a lack of effective rainfall and high temperatures made it difficult to bring brood stock into season. This impacted on the production outcomes. Prepared by Lund & Associates page 19 of 43
  20. 20. RURAL DEVELOPMENT in KAMPOT PROVINCE, CAMBODIA REPORT on the PROGRAM OF WORKS 2000 - 2001 • It was not possible to encourage spawning of Indian carp or Tilapia. The suggestion was that this was due to the continued high temperatures but issues of inappropriate inducing hormone for Indian carp and immaturity of the tilapia brood stock may also have contributed. • The other species where successful and fry was transferred to nursery ponds to be advanced to 30-days. • Whilst the fry where in the ponds the Station experienced an unusually high infestation of predatory insects especially diving beetle and diving beetle larvae31 . Only 30,000 units survived to be delivered to IFAD/GTZ. These fish where good quality. • The station had continuing difficulty in producing Tilapia. And the decision was made to purchase 15-day fry from SCALE to ensure target numbers. These where reared and distributed via the Station. • Subsequent batches of all other species proved successful. • Distribution of stock to participants in the Pond Rearing Program was scheduled for the first week of September. 4.2 Achievements • CFS commenced a transition from retailing 45 to 60 day old fish seed to that of wholesaling 9 to 15 day old fish seed. This process has included education of the client groups including farmers and departmental staff as to the size limitations and management considerations associated with handling the larger numbers of smaller fish seed. Production outcomes 2001 June July Aug Totals Tilapia - 18,000 SCALE 30,000 SCALE 480,000 C'mn carp 30,000 34,600 10,800 75,400 Puntius - 25,950 6,000 SCALE 10,800 42,750 S'lvr carp 10,000 39,200 21,600 70,800 I'dn carp - 17,300 - 17,300 Subtotals . 40,000 @ 30 days old 141,050 @ 15 days old 73,200 @ 30 days old 365,000 Client IFAD/GTZ @ 25reil ea FFSs @ 15 reil ea KamDAFF @ no charge Revenue Expense $192.30 $542.50 Cost $110 SCALE Cost $90 SCALE $534.80 Prepared by Lund & Associates page 20 of 43
  21. 21. RURAL DEVELOPMENT in KAMPOT PROVINCE, CAMBODIA REPORT on the PROGRAM OF WORKS 2000 - 2001 Potential value of fish produced at CFS Description Value Fry (15d) to FFSs - Equivalent number of fingerlings 85,800 fingerlings Fingerlings (30-45d) to Pond rearing (IFAD/GTZ + APHEDA) 113,200 fingerlings Total number of fingerlings 199,000 fingerlings Survival rate ref: SCALE (1997) 35% Number of fish surviving to market 69,650fish Final weight of fish. 0.6kg ref: SCALE (1997) 41,790 kg Potential value of fish crop @ 4000reil/kg $USD 42,860 Cost to operate Fish Station $USD 5,700 Return to community $USD 37,160 • Introduced predatory insect traps using an appropriate technology that is being adopted by neighbouring concerns and extension program. • Began informal trial of lemongrass fence as an appropriate technology for predatory fish management32 . • Introduced a range of forage legumes via the IFAD/GTZ program33 . • Established a range of fruit trees, bamboos, legumes shrubs and other utility trees as a resource to the station and as a future training aid. • Direct seeded a leucina planting. As a shrub legume leucina has potential as a food resource for fish production. Seed from the planting should also be made available to the farming community.34 4.3 Future direction 4.3.1 Market development • A major influence on the future sustainability of CFS will be the continued development of a local market. Notwithstanding inherent assumptions and the influence of other internal and external market factors the following table indicates that it will take about 8 years to develop a market substantial enough to support CFS where CFS relies on fish production as the sole income source. Prepared by Lund & Associates page 21 of 43
  22. 22. RURAL DEVELOPMENT in KAMPOT PROVINCE, CAMBODIA REPORT on the PROGRAM OF WORKS 2000 - 2001 Estimate of time to develop sustainable market for CFS . Description Item Approximate cost to operate CFS pa $6,000 Number of fry to meet cost @15reil ea 1,500,000 Most of these fry to be wholesaled to FFSs Equivalent number of fingerlings @ 60% survival 900,000 Number of farmer purchases @ 3 fingerlings / m3 in 150m2 pond 2,000 Assume CFS supplies 75% of local market Number of farmers needed in market 2,600 Number of farmers trained as at 2001 APHEDA - 461 IFSP & IFAD/GTZ - 470 931 Number to continue pond rearing @ 60% 560 Number of new farmers each season APHEDA - 200 IFAD/GTZ - 200 400 Number of new farmers each year to continue pond rearing @ 60% 240 Number of years to achieve market demand of 2,600 farmers 8.5 • Notably, at such time as CFS does achieve a production level of 1,500,000 fry pa applying the potential market estimate as in the table above, extrapolates to a gross return to the community in the order of $USD200, 000 pa. 4.3.2 Management & operations • In order to meet this level of production some additional procedural and capital improvements will be needed for CFS to be able to meet this level of demand. • Procedural improvements o Introduction of clear line management within KamDAFF with responsibility for strategic planning, staff management, marketing policy, production targets and financial management o Introduction of regular stock monitoring schedule o Introduction of Brood Stock improvement program o Introduce FFS support service to retain market share • Capital improvements include o Construction of one additional hatching tank. As per the specifications of the tank built in 2001 Prepared by Lund & Associates page 22 of 43
  23. 23. RURAL DEVELOPMENT in KAMPOT PROVINCE, CAMBODIA REPORT on the PROGRAM OF WORKS 2000 - 2001 o Tiling or latex lining of existing concrete hatching tanks in order to improve hygiene and handling at hatching. o Installation of floating hapa system over the main reservoir. o Development of an on-site fodder resource (to reduce input costs) o Development of an on-site bamboo resource (to reduce input costs) o Acquisition of manually operated water pumps (to reduce input costs) 4.3.3 Development of training facility • Alternately, to increase worth to the community, widen income streams and reduce reliance on fish seed as the sole income source, CFS should be developed as a training facility. This would involve: o Assistance in identification and profiling of market o Construction of a training shelter and equipment storage o Assistance with curriculum development o Identification of boarding arrangements in Chhouk village o Provision of some training equipment and/or relocation of equipment previously supplied to KamDAFF 4.4 Recommendations 4.4.1 Revise support • APHEDA to move to indirect support of CFS and to encourage KamDAFF to take responsibility for strategic planning, line management and financial sustainability. This process should include o Clear definition of the terms under which APHEDA will handover including a business plan to be ratified by DAFF and APHEDA o A commitment to purchase quality goods and services from CFS. o An Official handing over Ceremony. • KamDAFF should be encouraged to develop CFS as a training facility. To this end, APHEDA’s support should be o Assistance in the development of training curriculum and resources. o A commitment to purchase training services from CFS. 4.4.2 APHEDA as a client • As it is likely that APHEDA will be CFS’s main client in the 1 to 3 year time frame it will be appropriate to ensure revenue from goods and services provided to APHEDA is equivalent to running costs. o In the first year the total value of product and services purchased by APHEDA should be equivalent to $5,000, the approximate running cost of CFS. This should be revised downwards in the second and subsequent years as CFS begins to develop market. Prepared by Lund & Associates page 23 of 43
  24. 24. RURAL DEVELOPMENT in KAMPOT PROVINCE, CAMBODIA REPORT on the PROGRAM OF WORKS 2000 - 2001 o Where APHEDA makes an annual purchase of fish seed from CFS. The value of the purchase to be calculated on a per unit basis but also considering the quality of stock and timeliness of supply o Where APHEDA makes an annual purchase of training services from CFS. The value of the service to be calculated on a per participant basis. 4.4.3 Target groups for training • Target groups for training requested by APHEDA should include o Women and men from other provinces with a view to establishing farm scale hatcheries in their home villages (this would also depend on micro-credit support being available on their return). o Women and men from remote parts of the Kampot province including Banteay Meas and Anchor Chey provinces with a view to establishing farm scale hatcheries in their home villages (this would also depend on micro- credit support being available on their return). o Participants from the FFSs program with interest in developing farm scale hatcheries o Recent graduates with the potential to become part of the CFS team • As a client of CFS, APHEDA should request Snake Skin Gourami as part of the annual order. This would provide incentive to investigate the production of this native species. As other native species come into husbandry, these should also be ordered. • Support of the Wholesale/retail network between CFS and FFSs remains important to the development of local fish seed supply. The current arrangement should be evaluated Sept with a view to further refinement in ensuing seasons. Prepared by Lund & Associates page 24 of 43
  25. 25. RURAL DEVELOPMENT in KAMPOT PROVINCE, CAMBODIA REPORT on the PROGRAM OF WORKS 2000 - 2001 5 Agriculture Extension IPM Prepared by Lund & Associates page 25 of 43
  26. 26. RURAL DEVELOPMENT in KAMPOT PROVINCE, CAMBODIA REPORT on the PROGRAM OF WORKS 2000 - 2001 5.1 Aims • An Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Farmer Field School program was developed for the 2001 season. It was designed by Lim Sou, Senior Agronomist and negotiated with APHEDA following a pilot program including 2 field schools in 2000. This was presented in the form of an agreement and endorsed by KamDAFF. Program components on file.35 • The program included o 2 Farmer field Schools trained in IPM on rice crops36 o 3 Farmer Field Schools trained in IPM on vegetable crops37 • The team included38 o Lim Sou Senior Agronomist, Team Leader o Miss Chea Sinat Trainer o Meng Seng Rithy Trainer o Hearn Ngon Trainer o Mrs. Nut Narvy Trainer • Lim Sou was responsible for implementing the program39 . It was not necessary for APHEDA to provide line management support. In addition Lim Sou was required to provide monthly reports40 5.2 Implementation • The program proceeded with Lim Sou identifying target groups within the community and verifying their appropriateness with APHEDA. Overlap with the Aquaculture Extension Program was encouraged where practical, however this was not always possible as the selection criteria for the two programs differed. • Each school involved short theory sessions that where followed by the establishment of small-scale rice or vegetable crops (usually about 1 hectare) on land made available by one of the participants. • The farmers come together on a weekly basis to establish and monitor the crop’s progress, initiate trial plots, and decide on management options. • There are five main aspects to the field schools o Trialing of improved fertilizer application techniques whereby fertilizer is applied at select stages during crop growth rather than as one application at crop establishment. o Questioning the appropriateness/timeliness of pest management using ‘leaf or stem cutting’ experiments. The leaf area of sample plants is cut back and the effect of their yield is measured. This demonstrates how crops can absorb considerable damage from pest insects without significant impact on yields o Comparison of IPM options with conventional pesticide application. IPM options include hand picking, rouging, and some pesticide application where deemed appropriate (eg. pesticide remains a good option for aphids on legume crops). Conventional pesticide application was as per company recommendations Prepared by Lund & Associates page 26 of 43
  27. 27. RURAL DEVELOPMENT in KAMPOT PROVINCE, CAMBODIA REPORT on the PROGRAM OF WORKS 2000 - 2001 o Learning about pest insects and beneficial insects and their ecology using practical techniques including regular field collections, population sampling and insect zoos. o Development of group problem solving / decision making skills. This is inherent in the manner in which the schools are conducted. IPM Farmer Field Schools . FFSs in 2000 2 Participants 60 FFSs in 2001 5 Participants 150 Total 7 Total 210 Distribution of IPM participants • The fertilizer trials consistently showed increases in yield although the cereal crop was typically more responsive than the legume crop. Improved fertilizer application . Dry - rice Yield Traditional fertilizer application 1.775kg/ha Staged fertilizer application 2,850kg/ha Increase in yield 60% String bean Yield Traditional fertilizer application 5.931kg/ha Improved fertilizer application 6.134kg/ha Increase in yield 3% • The IPM trials showed a consistent increase in yield. Previous farmer field schools have achieved increases averaging 12.5% (wet rice field schools conducted in 2000) but the high yields seen this season (whilst apparently masking the differences in the treatments), translated into substantial increases in gross margins. Prepared by Lund & Associates page 27 of 43
  28. 28. RURAL DEVELOPMENT in KAMPOT PROVINCE, CAMBODIA REPORT on the PROGRAM OF WORKS 2000 - 2001 Gross margin estimations using IPM practices Dry rice Value Crop yield 2.5t/ha Value of crop @ 350reil/kg 875,000 reil Increased yield using IPM practices 6.0% Increased crop value 927,500 reil Change in gross margin $USD 13.50/ha/crop String bean Value Crop yield 6.3t/ha Value of crop @ 1,000reil/kg (at time of report crop unsold) 6,300,000 reil Increased yield using IPM practices 1.5% Increased crop value 6,394,500 reil Change in gross margin $USD 24.20/ha/crop • At the same time the IPM options resulted in a reduction in input costs of up to 10%. This was largely accredited to the reduction in pesticide usage. • The pesticide options were typically seen to be ineffective because of rapid re- infestation by pest insects between spray applications. This is a common phenomenon in small-scale intensive systems. The other advantages of reduced reliance on pesticides were also stressed during the schools. • The other advantages of reduced pesticide usage where also stressed during the course of the field schools including reduction in initial cash outlay, environment, health and safety. • The program has proven to be an excellent model for the future direction of co- operation between APHEDA and partners such as KamDAFF. o In this instance the operatives are working independently of line management support from APHEDA. o Project goals, objectives, target groups, resourcing are negotiated between KamDAFF and APHEDA. o APHEDA’s direct involvement was limited to formal presentations to participants to mark the end of each farmer field school and reporting. 5.3 Recommendations • Continue to support this program with a view to using experienced trainers to assist in new areas. • The program currently inputs quality vegetable or rice seed in order to run each field school and the participants divide the seed collected at harvest. This provides an excellent opportunity to introduce new and improved vegetable and rice varieties. This should become one of the objectives of each school. • The collective problem solving skills that develop over the course of each school are recognised as an important output. Farmer groups are able to apply this skill to other problems that confront their communities. FAO has recognised this and developed a ‘ life-skills’ training component that is run at the end of each farmer field school. A Prepared by Lund & Associates page 28 of 43
  29. 29. RURAL DEVELOPMENT in KAMPOT PROVINCE, CAMBODIA REPORT on the PROGRAM OF WORKS 2000 - 2001 similar component should be included in future field schools. FAO experience and training could be engaged to facilitate. Prepared by Lund & Associates page 29 of 43
  30. 30. RURAL DEVELOPMENT in KAMPOT PROVINCE, CAMBODIA REPORT on the PROGRAM OF WORKS 2000 - 2001 6 Agriculture Extension WID Prepared by Lund & Associates page 30 of 43
  31. 31. RURAL DEVELOPMENT in KAMPOT PROVINCE, CAMBODIA REPORT on the PROGRAM OF WORKS 2000 - 2001 6.1 Background • In order to introduce an Integrated Agriculture (Permaculture) component to the rural development program an assessment was made of potential partnership with KamDAFF and/or DWVA, WID Centres. It was decided that the preferred option would be to build the capacity of the WID Centres and staff with the aid of KamDAFF expertise. The WID Centres would then be able to provide training targeted at young women of the rural community. Justification. o The WID Centres are distributed across the current program catchment area and have staff on hand most of the time. They are also in regular communication with the Provincial Centre and have experience working with APHEDA o Each of the WID Centres includes a land area that could be used for demonstration of appropriate practices. This was regarded as particularly pertinent as the surrounding rural communities lacked suitable demonstration of appropriate practices o Plantings established at the centres could be used as a source of quality propagation material for future training and distribution within the community. Especially selected fruit trees o The WID staff work primarily with women, they being the primary target group for training as women and children are typically responsible for home gardens and orchards. o The WID Centres had shown a strong interest in Integrated Agriculture. Some had undertaken some activities including attempts at tree growing and fish rearing41 (fish seed supplied to Dang Tung through CFS in 2000). • CFS was also included in this program in recognition of it’s potential as a training centre in the future. 6.2 Implementation • Course participants where nominated by DWVA42 from each of the target WID centres. A brief TNA indicated that most WID staff had limited experience but that KamDAFF staff was well placed to provide training assistance. • The program included three (3) components. o Training WID Centre staff as trainers in home vegetable garden techniques, tree propagation techniques and in farm planning o A small tree nursery, orchard and home vegetable garden to be established at each of the centres o Initiate student training • The program was designed in conjunction with WID staff, APHEDA staff and after consultation with a range of similar programs operating in Cambodia. This was presented in the form of an agreement and endorsed by the Partner. Program components on file.43 • The Program was implemented by APHEDA staff based in Kampot o Brian Lund Technical Advisor, APHEDA o Tep Sary Translator, APHEDA o Ms Roos Wilberts Agricultural Advisor, locally based Volunteer Prepared by Lund & Associates page 31 of 43
  32. 32. RURAL DEVELOPMENT in KAMPOT PROVINCE, CAMBODIA REPORT on the PROGRAM OF WORKS 2000 - 2001 o Lim Sou Senior Agronomist, KamDAFF 6.2.1 Home vegetable gardens • The home vegetable garden training was based around a “sheet compost” system for the dry season that allows maximum use of the home garden when alternated with a conventional bare earth garden that are typically built in the wet season. The sheet compost system also provides best utilization of green waste/compost resources and is very water efficient. • The training was divided into three main components. Note that much of the theory is applicable to sheet compost and bear earth garden systems. o The first stage considered nutrient cycling and garden construction. At this stage the trainees constructed a garden at the Kampot Provincial Centre. o A week later the compost layer had begun to cool and planting commenced. The second stage focused on crop combinations and rotations. The group then planted the garden. o The final stage was conducted 1-month later and primarily involved use of natural pesticides. 44 • During the course of the training, gardens were established in each of the other centres. In each instance the centres experienced some difficulty that compromised the gardens and prevented any substantial harvest. o Construction of the gardens did not commence until February. Green waste was not readily available and had to be bought. Also the hot conditions where not conducive to early plant growth. Construction should commence in Nov/Dec o Vegetable seed sourced in Cambodia is typically of poor quality. Consequently Quality AA seed was used from Australia however this failed to perform adequately. Several months after the initial sowing a second batch of seed was brought from Thailand. This performed much better but was compromised by the lateness of planting. o The Kampot provincial Centre harbored an exceptionally large rat population. They repeatedly ate seed and seedlings despite control efforts. o There was difficulty in siting the garden at Chumkiri because the centre was still under construction and property boundaries where not well defined. • The problems encountered with the gardens provided opportunity for a collective review. In each instance the problems where seen as solvable and that the gardens would succeed in the following season. • At the end of the dry season conversion to bare earth gardens commenced Seed originating from Thailand was used. 6.2.2 Small nursery - Tree growing • The tree-growing component was designed to provide grounding in each of the main propagation techniques. The intent was to ensure that each centre was able to pass on some skills to the students and that they would also be able to produce some trees for their own purposes. • It included some basic theory on plant physiology, nutrient cycling and nursery management. However the bulk of the training was practically orientated and included: Prepared by Lund & Associates page 32 of 43
  33. 33. RURAL DEVELOPMENT in KAMPOT PROVINCE, CAMBODIA REPORT on the PROGRAM OF WORKS 2000 - 2001 o Media preparation, using local technology o Seed handling, including harvest, cleaning, labeling and storage o Growing trees from seed45 , including small and large seeded species. o Cuttings, air layering and grafting46 . Especially locally regarded fruit tree species such as bamboo47 , Mangoes and Jack-fruit • The training was followed by assistance in the establishment of a small nursery in each of the WID Centres in which the WID staff where encouraged to produce their own trees48 . 6.2.3 Site Planning • A one-day planning session was held at each WID centre (and at CFS) to develop a site plans that considered site conditions, infrastructure and future developments and incorporated:49 o Vegetable gardens o Trees including fruit tree, timber trees, medicinal trees, ornamental trees etc. o Fish ponds 6.2.4 Site construction & orchard establishment • Once the plans where agreed funds where made available for construction activities.50 Construction activities Dang Tung WID Centre Ponds 2 2 ponds 12m x 10m x 2m Fencing 250m Used timber and bamboo construction. Advised tree planting on alignment so that the stems will serve as posts in the future. Landfill Funds provided to use spoil from pond digging as landfill on orchard site Chumkiri WID Centre Ponds 2 ponds 1 pond 12m x 10m, 1 pond 10m x 8m Fencing 300m At time of report, construction arranged with District Chief. Situation to monitored Landfill Funds provided to use spoil from pond digging as landfill on orchard site Kampot Province. Channel 35m Refurbished channels ideal for fish rearing and mosquito control. Land fill 300m3 Landfill used to establish vegetable garden and nursery. Kampot District Pond 35x15 Large pond already on site but requires refurbish next dry season. Fencing 400m Approximately 400m of fencing already in- Prepared by Lund & Associates page 33 of 43
  34. 34. RURAL DEVELOPMENT in KAMPOT PROVINCE, CAMBODIA REPORT on the PROGRAM OF WORKS 2000 - 2001 situ but some repair needed Land fill 1000m3 Area of landfill to be scheduled for next dry season • Trees where purchased for each of the centres with emphasis on selections that provided both demonstration and a source on propagation material for future training programs.51 Centre . Approx no. . Dang Tung WID Centre 140 Chumkiri WID Centre 300 Kampot Prov. WID Centre 160 Kampot Dist. WID Centre 110 Chhouk Fish Station 130 Total 840 6.3 Pilot program • A 6-month program was designed52 for each centre involving both tree growing and vegetable gardening. The intention being to involve students attending the centres for other courses. They would gain experience that they could take back to their families. • The program is being implemented by WID Staff53 o Sea Savorn Dang Tung Centre o Mao Phum Chumkiri Centre o Long Chandara Kampot Prov. o Khim Dara Kampot Dist. • At the time of this report some centres had started to implement the pilot program, having reconstructed vegetable gardens for the wet season54 and prepared for new tree crops. Centre . Average attendance / pa . Kampot Provincial Centre 160 students Kampot District Centre 60 students Dang Tung District Centre 50 students Chumkiri District Centre 50 students Chhouk Fish Station To be calculated Total 320 students Prepared by Lund & Associates page 34 of 43
  35. 35. RURAL DEVELOPMENT in KAMPOT PROVINCE, CAMBODIA REPORT on the PROGRAM OF WORKS 2000 - 2001 Location of WID Centres + CFS 6.4 Recommendations • 35m of channel were refurbished at the Kampot Provincial Centre as a demonstration of the potential for fish rearing and mosquito control. There is an opportunity to refurbish a further 1,000m+ however it is difficult to justify because extension of the technique is limited to a relatively small part of the surrounding landscape. • The Kampot District WID Centre was a late inclusion in the program. As a consequence, any earthworks must be delayed until the ensuing dry season. • At the time of this report the tree-planting component was still in process. Some follow-up will be needed to ensure the trees are being appropriately managed. Once all trees are planted an inventory should be carried out at each site and a comprehensive photograph record made for future reference. • Where the WID Centres receive continuing support for tree growing, an annual production schedule should be prepared indicating tree types, numbers and intended application. • Where the WID Centres receive continuing support for vegetable growing an annual production schedule should be prepared indicating vegetable types, volumes and intended applications • A major concern regarding training in home gardens is the low rate of adoption. This problem is widely reported. As a means of overcoming this, many programs are turning to child nutrition as the main focus with home gardens being a part of the solution. It has proven particularly effective where young mother are the target group. The WID Centres could be assisted to adopt this strategy. Mao Phum (Dang Tung WID) has appropriate training and she may be able to assist in the development of this approach. • As each centre now has fishponds with potential as training facilities and/or fish seed production, WID staff should be included in Aquaculture training in ensuing seasons. Prepared by Lund & Associates page 35 of 43
  36. 36. RURAL DEVELOPMENT in KAMPOT PROVINCE, CAMBODIA REPORT on the PROGRAM OF WORKS 2000 - 2001 7 HIV/AIDS Awareness 7.1 Background • A HIV/AIDS awareness component was incorporated into all training programs. The intention being to ensure as many people in the rural community as is possible are aware of HIV/AIDS, o Its nature o Its prevention o Its implications o Living with AIDS 7.2 Implementation • A program was designed in conjunction with the IPM and Aquaculture programs for the 2001 season. It was designed by Sim Vanhieng and negotiated with APHEDA. Prepared by Lund & Associates page 36 of 43
  37. 37. RURAL DEVELOPMENT in KAMPOT PROVINCE, CAMBODIA REPORT on the PROGRAM OF WORKS 2000 - 2001 This was presented in the form of a contract and endorsed by KamDAFF. Program components on file.55 • The program included o 150 participants in IPM Farmer field Schools o 160 participants in Pond Rearing programs56 • The training was conducted by Sim Vanhieng57 Pre-training and post-training questionnaires indicating that the training increased awareness from 10% to 80%58 7.3 Recommendations • The program is proving both effective and low cost. The policy of including this HIV/AIDS component should be continued. • As a model, addition of short-course components such as HIV/AIDS Awareness (or the vegetable gardens and trees) into mainstream training programs, may have similar application in areas such as o Child nutrition o Small business management o Seed banks o Micro-credit o Life skills training Prepared by Lund & Associates page 37 of 43
  38. 38. RURAL DEVELOPMENT in KAMPOT PROVINCE, CAMBODIA REPORT on the PROGRAM OF WORKS 2000 - 2001 8 Community Forestry 8.1 Background • In the early 1990’s APHEDA supported KamDAFF in the establishment of several forestry plantations. The plantations were primarily Acacia and Eucalypt. • At two of the plantations have failed as a result of pilfering, encroachment and grass fires59 . The remaining plantations are nearing harvest. • KamDAFF now has an interest in generating revenue from these plantations but is also recognises the potential of developing community forestry as an option for local rural communities 8.2 Implementation • A scoping exercise was agreed in order to assess the potential for community forestry at the plantation that remains at Thmor Roung. • A terms of reference was drawn up and KamDAFF nominated a staff member to undertake the works: o Chouen Sara, Forestry Officer60 Prepared by Lund & Associates page 38 of 43
  39. 39. RURAL DEVELOPMENT in KAMPOT PROVINCE, CAMBODIA REPORT on the PROGRAM OF WORKS 2000 - 2001 • Chouen Sara was responsible for undertaking the scoping exercise.61 Project co- ordination was maintained at meetings with APHEDA in Kampot and via progress reports62 . At the time of this report the first progress report had been received. 8.3 Recommendations • APHEDA’s support of forestry in Kampot should be reviewed pending the outcome of the scoping report and forest management options imposed by MAFF. • In the event that MAFF opts to harvest the Thmor Roung plantation in order to generate revenue, initial estimates indicate that revenue will be in the order of $USD200, 000. APHEDA should recommend that $50,000 be used to replant the plantation and to maintain a community forestry program.63 • There seems to be uncertainty about forestry management imperatives and Community Forestry objectives within KamDAFF. KamDAFF should be asked to clarify the position regarding current and future management of all existing plantations. • At present, KamDAFF provides no updated information regarding plantations although this information is gathered for the benefit of MAFF. Updated information should be requested including maps, inventories and preferred management options for each plantation. Prepared by Lund & Associates page 39 of 43
  40. 40. RURAL DEVELOPMENT in KAMPOT PROVINCE, CAMBODIA REPORT on the PROGRAM OF WORKS 2000 - 2001 9 File references • These references are hyper linked to the respective document on file. Note that other documents are also contained within the files and these can be accessed by conventional navigation Prepared by Lund & Associates page 40 of 43
  41. 41. 1 General Agreement- KamDAFF General AdminContractsPartner AgreementsAgrm't KamDAFF English.DOC General agreement– DWVA General AdminContractsPartner AgreementsAgrm't KamWID English.DOC 2 Salary Support Agreement General AdminContractsSalary SupportSupport Funds KamDAFF English.doc 3 Pond Digging Contract AquacultureExtensionPond diggingPond contract APHEDA English.doc 4 Farmer Fish Station Contract AquacultureFarmer Fish StationsContractsContract supply Eng.doc 5 Aquaculture Extension Program Components AquacultureExtensionReportsExtn Program 2001 Summary.doc AquacultureAdministrationFinanceBudget monitored (current).xls AquacultureExtensionSchedulesActivity schedule 2001.mpp 6 Extension Team photographs AquacultureExtensionPhotographsStaff.doc 7 Extension Team Job descriptions General AdminContractsJob descriptionsExtension Officer English.doc General AdminContractsJob descriptionsLiaison Officer English.doc 8 Aquaculture team Meetings AquacultureExtensionMeetingsMeeting 011200.doc 9 Extension and Liaison Monthly Reports AquacultureExtensionReportsAq Extn rpt 050401.doc AquacultureLiaisonReportsLiaisn rpt 020401.doc 10 Pond digging participants AquacultureExtensionPond diggingList - Pond Digging 2001.xls 11 Rainfall data AquacultureAdministrationRelated dataRainfall Kampot.xls 12 Pond Rearing participants 2001 AquacultureExtensionReportsList - Pond Rearing 2001.xls 13 Fodder legumes AquacultureCFSPhotographsFodder legumes.doc 14 Pond Rearing participants 2000 AquacultureExtensionReportsList - Pond Rearing 2000.xls 15 Pond Rearing participants 2000 – Qualitative survey AquacultureExtensionReportsSurveyQualitative Survey.xls 16 Rearing pond participants 2000 – Quantitative survey AquacultureExtensionReportsSurveyQuantitative Survey.xls 17 Farmer Fish Station - participants 2001 AquacultureFarmer Fish StationsmapsMap FFS.doc 18 Farmer Fish Station - selection criteria AquacultureFarmer Fish StationsSelection criteria.doc 19 Farmer Fish Stations – pond layout AquacultureFarmer Fish StationsPhotographsPond layouts.doc 20 Farmer Fish Stations – Contract AquacultureFarmer Fish StationsContractsContract supply Eng.doc 21 Farmer Fish Station – collection of fry AquacultureFarmer Fish StationsPhotographsFry collection.doc 22 Farmer Fish Station – delivery of fry AquacultureFarmer Fish StationsPhotographsFry delivery.doc 23 Community pond/fish refuge system AquacultureExtensionNew ideasCommun ponds'Fish refuge.doc 24 CFS – Year 2000 Status Report AquacultureCFSReportsHalf Year Report.doc 25 CFS - Workshop outcomes 2000 AquacultureCFSWorkshop 2000Workshop outcomes.doc 26 CFS - Program Components
  42. 42. AquacultureCFSReportsProdn Program Summary 2001.doc AquacultureAdministrationFinanceBudget monitored (current).xls AquacultureCFSSchedulesProdn schedule 2001.mpp 27 CFS team photographs AquacultureCFSPhotographsStaff.doc 28 Aquaculture Extension Team Job descriptions General AdminContractsJob descriptionsCFS Manager English.doc 29 Aquaculture team Meetings AquacultureExtensionMeetingsMeeting 011200.doc 30 CFS - Monthly Reports AquacultureCFSReportsCFS rpt 300401.doc 31 CFS - Insect predators AquacultureCFSPhotographsPredatory insects.doc 32 CFS – Lemon grass fence AquacultureCFSPhotographslemon grass fence.doc 33 CFS – Fodder legumes AquacultureCFSPhotographsFodder legumes.doc 34 CFS – Direct seeding leucina AquacultureCFSPhotographsDirect seeding leucina.doc 35 Agriculture Extension Program Components – IPM AgricultureIPMreportsIPM Program 2001 Summary .doc AgricultureIntegrate AgfinancesIPM&Permaculture budget 2001.xls AgricultureIPMschedulingIPM schedule.mpp 36 Agriculture Extension – Farmer field School – rice AgricultureIPMphotographsDry rice harvest.doc 37 Agriculture Extension – Farmer Field School – Vegetables AgricultureIPMphotographsLong bean school.doc 38 Agriculture Extension - IPM Team AgricultureIPMphotographsStaff.doc 39 IPM – Job description General AdminContractsJob descriptionsIPM Manager English.doc 40 IPM Monthly Reports AgricultureIPMreportsIPM rpt 150501.doc 41 Pond Rearing – Dang Tung Centre AgricultureIntegrate AgphotographsFish harvest.doc 42 Integrated Ag – ToT participants AgricultureIntegrate AgphotographsWID vegetable staff.doc 43 Agriculture Extension Program Components – WID AgricultureIntegrate AgfinancesIPM&Permaculture budget 2001.xls AgricultureIntegrate AgschedulingWID schedule.mpp 44 Vegetable gardens - training AgricultureIntegrate AgphotographsVegetable training stage 1.doc AgricultureIntegrateAgphotographsVegetable training stage 3.doc 45 Tree growing – growing trees from seed AgricultureIntegrate AgphotographsTree training stage 1.doc 46 Tree growing – cuttings, grafting air-layering AgricultureIntegrate AgphotographsTree training stage 2.doc 47 Tree growing – bamboo cuttings AgricultureIntegrate AgphotographsBamboo cuttings.doc 48 Tree nurseries – WID Centres AgricultureIntegrate AgphotographsTree nurseries.doc 49 Planning – Kampot District WID Centre AgricultureIntegrate Agphotographsplanning Kmpt Dist WID.doc 50 WID Centres AgricultureIntegrate AgphotographsCentre - Chumkiri .doc AgricultureIntegrate AgphotographsCentre - Dang Tung.doc AgricultureIntegrate AgphotographsCentre - Kampot District .doc AgricultureIntegrate AgphotographsCentre - Kampot prov..doc
  43. 43. 51 Fruit trees – allocations AgricultureIntegrate AgFruit treesFruit tree allocation.xls AgricultureIntegrate AgphotographsDT trees.doc 52 Vegetable & Trees program components General AdminContractsPartner AgreementsAgrm't KamWID Stage 2 English.DOC AgricultureIntegrate Agfinanceshome garden budget 2001.xls 53 Vegetable & Tree growing – job descriptions General AdminContractsJob descriptionsGarden Trainer English.doc 54 Vegetable Garden Stage 2 – Dang Tung AgricultureIntegrate AgphotographsVegetable garden - Dang Tung.doc 55 HIV/AIDS Program components AgricultureIntegrate AgfinancesIPM&Permaculture budget 2001.xls Other components reflected in IPM and aquaculture programs 56 HIV/AIDS Awareness – field school AIDSphotographsHIVAIDS Awareness.doc 57 HIV/AIDS Awareness - Job description General AdminContractsJob descriptionsLiaison Officer English.doc 58 HIV/AIDS report AIDSreportsProgram rpt.doc 59 Community Forestry – inspections ForestryPhotosTR inspection.doc ForestryPhotosCashew plantation.doc 60 Community Forestry – Job description General AdminContractsJob descriptionsCF Officer English.doc 61 Community Forestry – schedule ForestrySchedule.doc 62 Community Forestry – Progress reports ForestryreportsPart 1 scoping.doc 63 Community Forestry ForestryCF budget.xls Brian Lund Principal Consultant Lund & Associates ablund@powerup.com.au 012732107@mobitel.com.kh

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