A carbon price of about 5–12 US$ tCO2e−1 is necessary to offset aquaculture profits. •Currently, this price can only be met on compliance (not voluntary) carbon markets. •Mangrove carbon accounting is subject to much methodological uncertainty. •The profitability of milkfish aquaculture is highly variable at 89–4029 US$ ha−1 yr−1. •Ultimately, the economic viability of blue carbon will be case-specific. (https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S2212041614000242 – Philippine)
Global Lesson Learnt PFES for Mangroves
Phạm Thu Thủy
GLOBAL LESSON LEARNT
PFES FOR MANGROVES
• Pay for which service?
• Who pay and the
• Pay to whom?
• The payment collection
Pay for which FES?
11% Bảo vệ nguồn nước
Rừng ngập mặn
Bảo tồn đa dạng sinh
Hấp thụ carbon
Vẻ đẹp cảnh quan
NO NATIONAL POLICY/ SCHEME IMPLEMENTED SO FAR
Pay for which service?
Landscape beauty carbon sequestration aquaculture
Who pay and the payment rate?
ES of mangroves Pricing (USD/ha) Bán được trong thực tế
Provision of food 5.75- 560.55
Water supply 212 - 6716
Supply of raw materials 12- 39,233
Waste and garbage treatment 72 – 11,000
Air conditioning 2.20 – 414.411
Erosion protection 38.5- 1340.60
Regulate extreme weather phenomena 16- 3116
Ensure soil sediment and circulating
Water flow regulation 540 - 660
Bio-diversity conservation 2.43- 200
Ensure conditions for migratory species 995- 4887
Landscape beauty 20- 37,927
12 US/tCO2 is needed
to offset the benefits
The mangroves and marine algae restored by green aquaculture farming-
can increase carbon sequestration and reduce emissions
Pay to whom?
The poors and the
Fees (e.g.: ship
parking fees, fees
charged per kg of
End buyer/ market
Trust Fund, Village
HOW TO PAY?
• Cash vs. non-cash (e.g. school fees, clean water supply
• Payment frequency?- periodically and in advance:
promote broad participation but impacting negatively
on the effectiveness and efficiency? One-time fixed
payments or splitting into installments? Flexible or
predetermined rate of payment?
• Payment criteria: Inputs (e.g. patrolling? Number of
trees planted) vs. outputs (e.g. carbon stock measured
and verified, forest area rehabilitated after typhoon)
• Effective use of the payments:
The first mangrove carbon project:
Mikoko Pajoma (Kenya)
• Combined services
• Policy should focusing on both creating finance and non-
• The importance is not only the payment rate but ensuring
the factors that influence/ decide the willingness to pay
• Participation of the local community, supervising and
monitoring of the 3rd party independently
• Sustainability, long-term and stability of mangrove services
are heavily influenced by climate and natural change and
are not under PES management scope -- fiducially risk
• Service providers and service buyers can be one and the