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Overview of Mangrove Protection and Development in Vietnam

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Presented by Nguyễn Văn Diễn on 9 November 2020 at "National workshop: Mangrove environmental services payments"

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Overview of Mangrove Protection and Development in Vietnam

  1. 1. 1
  2. 2. OUTLINES 1 • Situation of coastal and mangrove forests in Vietnam 2 • Key coastal and mangrove forests protection and development policies 3 • Results, challenges, shortcomings and limitations 4 • Tasks, and orientation to upcoming period
  3. 3. SITUATION OF COASTAL AND MANGROVE FORESTS IN VIETNAM OVERVIEW OF COASTAL FOREST  Coastal line of 3,260 km  Covering: 600 communes of 130 districts, 28 provinces, ranging from Quảng Ninh to Kiên Giang provinces.  Population: 47 mil. people, accounting for 49.7%; Mekong river delta accounting for 12% of area; 19% of population nationwide.  Suffer from risks, damages caused by typhoons and sea level rising.  Coastal forest (accounting for 3%) plays very important role in balancing eco-system and biodiversity, especially wave, wind prevention, production protection and livelihoods improvement, protection of sea and coastal dyke construction works.
  4. 4. SITUATION OF COASTAL AND MANGROVE FORESTS IN VIETNAM STATUS OF COASTAL FOREST IN 2019 - 20,000 40,000 60,000 80,000 100,000 120,000 140,000 Đông Bắc (1 tỉnh) Đồng Bằng Sông Hồng (4 tỉnh) Bắc Trung Bộ (6 tỉnh) Nam Trung Bộ (8 tỉnh) Đông Nam Bộ (2 tỉnh) Tây Nam Bộ (7 tỉnh) Region Forested area and planned area (ha) Coastal forested area (ha) By origin By use purpose Natural Plantation SUF PF Productio n Forests outside forest planning area (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) Total (28 provinces) 709,014 454,337 15,266 239,071 8,826 177,201 132,646 45,664 Northeast (1 province) 134,392 98,489 34,828 63,661 4,247 30,223 58,413 5,607 Red river delta (4 provinces) 48,061 18,278 9,001 9,277 7,938 10,042 87 211 North central (6 provinces) 61,646 40,043 8,400 31,643 106 21,731 14,258 3,949 South central (8 provinces) 205,285 136,222 76,836 59,386 29,321 35,201 41,507 30,193 Southeast (2 provinces) 48,342 40,937 24,054 16,883 14,265 22,826 1,615 2,230 Southwest (7 provinces) 211,288 120,369 62,148 8,221 42,949 57,179 16,767 3,474 Year Area (ha) 1943 408,500 1982 252,000 2000 189,200 2019 150,107
  5. 5. SITUATION OF COASTAL AND MANGROVE FORESTS IN VIETNAM COASTAL FORESTED AREA IN 2019 DIVIED BY FOREST CATEGORIES Regions Forested area (ha) Divided by SUF PF Production forest Forests outside forest planning area (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) TOTAL 256,310 20,440 164,656 64,874 6,340 FORESTED AREA 150,107 13,291 107,052 23,736 6,028 Natural forest 54,751 9,615 40,151 2,527 2,457 Planted forest 95,356 3,676 66,901 21,209 3,571 NON- MATURE FORESTED AREA 106,203 7,149 57,604 41,138 312 Non-mature planted area 10,802 267 6,862 3,362 312 Area for zoning for rehabilitation 1,170 185 826 160 - Others 94,230 6.698 49.916 37.616 - 9% 71% 16% 4% Đặc dụng Phòng hộ Sản xuất Rừng ngoài quy hoạch cho LN
  6. 6. SITUATION OF COASTAL AND MANGROVE FORESTS IN VIETNAM MANGROVES DIVIDED BY OWNERSHIP IN 2019 Items Forested area (ha) Divided by ownership SUF MB PFMB State forest companies Hh, individua l Army force Others Commune PC (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) TOTAL 256,310 15,915 114,770 33,406 26,911 4,212 7,091 54,004 FORESTED AREA 150,107 10,700 73,703 20,421 8,306 1,705 4,921 30,351 Natural forest 54,751 8,714 24,173 2,124 1,863 176 1,832 15,869 Planted forest 95,356 1,985 49,530 18,297 6,443 1,529 3,090 14,482 NON-MATURE FORESTED AREA 106,203 5,216 41,067 12,986 18,605 2,507 2,169 23,653 Non-mature forested area 10,802 89 4,429 1,435 240 469 265 3,875 Zoning for rehabilitation 1,170 152 678 172 112 - 7 50 Others 94,230 4,975 35,960 11,379 18,252 2,038 1,898 19,728 07% 49% 14%06% 01% 03% 20% BQL Rừng ĐD BQL rừng PH DNNN, Ngoài quốc doanh HGĐ, cộng đồng Đơn vị vũ trang
  7. 7. 2007: Strategy 2006 – 2020 2012: Forest protection& developmen t plan 2011 – 2020; REDD+ initiative 2011-2020 2013: Scheme of restructuri ng the forestry sector 2016: Policies on coastal forest protection and developm ent respondin g to CC (Decree 119) 2017: Target program for sustainable forest development 2016-2020; REDD+ initiative to 2030; Forestry law KEY POLICIES ON COASTAL FORESTS 2015: Coastal forest protectio n and develop ment scheme respondi ng to CC 2014- 2020 2018, 2019: Decision 770 amending Scheme no. 120; Decree 156
  8. 8. VIETNAM FOREST DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY (2006-2020) Develop 0.18 mil. ha of protection forest for wave shielding and sea encroachment prevention Develop 0.15 mil. ha of forest for sand moving and wind prevention Focus on project of protecting, restoring and developing mangroves in coastal areas in the North, North central, central coastal, Mekong river delta and reinforce forest system for sand moving, wave shielding in the central coastal regions. Decision 18/2007/QĐ -TTg dated 05/02/2007
  9. 9. FORESTRY RESTRUCTURING SCHEME Decision 1565/QĐ-BNN- TCLN on 08/7/2013 FOREST CATEGORIES: PF: 5.842 mil. ha, of which: 0.18 mil. ha of forest for wave shielding and sea encroachment prevention, 0.15 mil. ha of forest for wind and sand moving prevention FOREST ECO-ECONOMIC REGION- BASED DEVELOPMENT: reinforce the watershed forest, coastal forest for sand moving prevention, wave shielding and erosion protection, improved mangrove eco-system in the Northeast; North central; south central coastal; Mekong river delta
  10. 10. LAW ON FORESTRY Clause 2, Article 16: FMB, army forces, communities, hhs, individuals residing legally in communes with watershed forests; protection forest for wind and sand moving shielding , wave shielding, sea encroachment prevention” are allocated protection forest and be free from forest use fees. Article 20: the competence of conversion of using protection forest functioning wind, sand moving, wave shielding, sea encroachment: NA: 500 ha and above; PM: 20-500ha; Provincial people’s council: under 20ha. Article 47. protection forest development: “3. for protection forest saving for wind, sand moving, wave shielding, sea encroachment: establish appropriate forest belt for respective region; plant tree species with strong root system with priority given to native species that can grow well under harsh conditions, good resistance and supplementary planting in areas that do not meet the forest criteria" Clause 5, Article 61. FES: “5. provision of spawning ground, food, natural breeds, water source and other environmental, forest eco-system factors for aquaculture farming" 1 2 3 4 Coastal and mangrov es
  11. 11. Protect the existing coastal forest area Restore 9,602 ha of poor forest (at Decision 770/QĐ- TTg: indicating 6,670 ha) New plantation of 46,058 ha, of which: mangroves: 29,500 ha; forest for sand moving and wind shielding of 7,508 ha; coastal production forest: 9,050 ha (revised at Decision QĐ 770/QĐ-TTg: 14,930 ha) 1 2 3 SCHEME OF COASTAL PROTECTION AND DEVELOPMENT RESPONDING TO CC (2014-2020) Promote protection functions of coastal forest responding to CC and sea level rise; disaster mitigation, sea dyke, infrastructure protection, biodiversity conservation, enhanced CO2 absorption, GHG emission reduction; contribute to socio-economic development and national security GOALS TASKS
  12. 12. KEY POLICIES ON COASTAL FOREST MANAGEMENT, PROTECTION AND DEVELOPMENT RESPONDING TO CC (Decree no. 119/2016/NĐ-CP) Dec ree 119 Cen tral bud get Economic career funding: - Contract forest for protection: 1.5 times compared to the average rate. - Zoning for rehabilitation: 4 mil. VND/ha for 5 years. - Prepare dossier of contracting forest for protection and rehabilitation: 50,000 VND/ha. Invest in coastal forest via approved projects: - Inventory, planning of coastal forest; - plantation; zoning for rehabilitation; - Build infrastructure works, procure equipment - Manage, check and validate results from coastal forest projects Pro vinc ial bud get - Forest inventory and forest resources monitoring; - Coastal forest allocation and lease; - operations of coastal protection and special use forests; - extension, research, technology application; - investment, support in addition to the central budget
  13. 13. Issue technical guidance on coastal afforesttation for 11 major mangrove plant species and technical norms of mangrove planting (decision no.1025/QĐ-BNN-TCLN and no.1026/QĐ-BNN-TCLN on 08/4/2016; no. 5365/QĐ-BNN- TCLN on 23/12/2016) 1 Technical guidance on combined agricultural, forestry and fishery production in the coastal forest area (decision no.608/QĐ-BNN-TCLN on 13/02/2018) 2 Collaborate with MoST to issue the National standards: protection forest for wave shielding and sea encroachment prevention (TCVN 12510-2:2018); protection forest for wind and sand moving shielding (TCVN 12510-1:2018); plantation – forest after the basic establishment period – group of mangrove plant species (TCVN 12509-3:2018). 3 GUIDELINES
  14. 14. RESULTS FROM IMPLEMENTATION OF THE SCHEME 120 FOREST PROTECTION • Violations: reduce averaged 30% for period 2016- 2020 compared to period 2011-2015. • Contract forest for protection: 305,834 ha/y. • Not converting mangrove and coastal forest into other use purposes FOREST DEVELOPMENT • New plantation of 16,158 ha (mangrove: 10,118 ha); • Supplement, rehabilitation of 9,162 ha (mangrove: 3,964 ha); • Scattered planting: 3.23 mil. trees/y. LIVELIHOOD IMPROVEMENT • Operate PFES; • Increase incomes, improve livelihoods of forest owners: forest allocation, aquaculture farming under forest share (MAM project in Cà Mau: 5,600 hhs; 15,600 ha; 3,200 hhs holding organic shrimp certificates); agro-forestry (medicine plants);
  15. 15. MOBILIZEE FINANCE SOURCES FOR COASTAL FOREST Period 2000-2012: Total mobilized funds for coastal forest protection and development of 1,541 bil. VND Sources Planned budget (QĐ 120/QĐ- TTg) Approved budget (2015-2020) Ratio % Project s Budget (bil.VND) Total 5,415 140 3,550 65.6 Forest protection and development (national target program) 1,951.3 38 706 36.2 Programme for responding to the CC (SP-RCC) 1,593 48 1,940 121.8 Funds for protecting, upgrading sea dykes 247 7 57 23.2 ODA, granted sources 1,397.5 15 664 47.5 Others (provincial budget, enterprise, organization, individual,…) 226.2 32 182 80.5
  16. 16. Make a drastic change in awareness and responsibility of all levels, sectors and all social actors, attracting the attention and support of international organizations. 1 Mechanism, policy and technical guidelines on coastal forest protection and development were issued timely and supporting well implementation of localities 2 Investment for coastal protection and development; items of afforestation were calculated correctly and fully according to the economic economic norms; diversify mobilization sources for forest protection and development 3 25,320 ha of forest planted and rehabilitated; protection function improved; implemented international commitments on CC and sea level rise 4 ACHIEVEMENTS
  17. 17. The situation of mangrove conversion, forest land encroachment for farming, fishing, etc. is still complicated; not drastically in dealing with encroachment, forest land acquisition Effects of natural disasters, high tide, coastal erosion, estuaries (Mekong Delta, ...); environmental pollution, waste, ... => seedlings died; pending construction; civil construction works High cost of planting mangroves; state budget for forest protection and development projects still limited; budget allocation was inadequate, not in timely manner, consequently not enough time to prepare seedlings for afforestation 1 2 3 CHALLENGES AND DIFFICULTIES Afforestation site is increasingly difficult and complicated; in many places, it is required to make alluvial grounds then planting forests after 2-3 years after that 4
  18. 18. The direction and administration of project implementation in some localities have not been drastic, lack of regular inspection and urge, so results are low. Scientific research, proposed solutions to waves break and erosion prevention are limited; not many effective models; forest pests and diseases. investment in mangrove protection and development is not attracted; with low income of people inside and near the forest. Livelihoods for people are not sustainable and have not created a driving force for coastal protection and development. 5 6 7 CHALLENGES AND DIFFICULTIES The productivity and quality of coastal forests are low, and the biodiversity of natural mangrove forests continues to be reduced (environmental pollution; waste, wastewater). 8
  19. 19. KEY TASKS OF THE UPCOMING PERIOD Draft Strategy period 2021-2030, vision to 2045 National planning for forestry period 2021-2030, vision to 2050 Prepare national target program for sustainable forestry development period 2021 - 2025 Draft the scheme of coast forest protection and development responding to the CC period 2021-2030 Draft the Decree on policy on investment in forest protection and development , processing and trading forest products Pilot CPFES; continue studying other pending services 1 2 3 4 5 6
  20. 20. ORIENTATIONS TO THE UPCOMING PERIOD Mobilize funds, new financial initiatives for coastal forest protection and development; CC response (decision no. 1055/QĐ- TTg…) Propose siviculture interventions, select seedling, measurements for coastal forest and mangrove and biodiversity (disaster warning) Mechanism on joint venture, co-management, forest environment leasing; community forest management; REDD+, etc. for coastal forest protection and development Livelihoods of the communities involving in mangrove protection (contracting for forest protection, agro-forestry, NTFPs)
  21. 21. ORIENTATIONS TO THE UPCOMING PERIOD Effective economic models linking with coastal and mangrove protection and development Strengthen capacity, management skills of authorities; technology application in management, forecast, monitor mangroves; CC adaptation Role of mangroves, coastal forest; study to provide basis for benefit sharing mechanism, PFES for mangroves Others: value chain-based development, increase forest quality; contribution of coastal forests to local economic development

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