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Physics Investigatory Project on Transistor as Amplifier and Switch.

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Physics Investigatory Project on Transistor as Amplifier and Switch.

  1. 1. Part of Made in India, Design Innovation Workshop,2015 A  Fresh  New  Experience  in   Project-­‐Making  &  Learning!
  3. 3. Do  you  know  that  there  are  billions  of  transistors  used  in  the   produc6on  of  ICs  and  microprocessors?  Transistors  are  not  only   used  for  amplifica6on  in  sound  systems  but  their  ability  to  switch   between  the  two  states  (ON/OFF)  makes  them  the  nerve  cell  of   informa6on  technology.    In  this  project,  you  will  learn  about  the   characteris6cs  of  a  transistor  and  how  can  it  be  used  as  an   amplifier  and  a  switch. In  this  project,  you  will  need  a  transistor,  two  resistors,  a  preset,   two  LEDs,  a  breadboard,  a  mul6meter  and  a  few  connec6ng   wires.  Varying  input  voltage  is  provided  to  the  base-­‐emiLer   junc6on  of  the  transistor  using  a  voltage  divider  circuit  made   using  a  preset.  The  cut-­‐off,  ac6ve  and  satura6on  regions  of  the   transistor  are  iden6fied  by  comparing  the  intensity  of  the  two   LEDs,  one  on  the  input  side  (base-­‐emiLer  junc6on)  and  the  other   on  the  output  side  (collector-­‐emiLer  junc6on).  In  the  cut-­‐off  region,  both  the  LEDs  are  OFF.    In  ac6ve  region,  the   LED  connected  to  the  collector-­‐emiLer  side  glows  brighter  than   the  LED  connected  to  the  base-­‐emiLer  side  and  on  rota6ng  the   preset,  the  intensity  of  the  former  LED  increases  more  than  the   laLer.   Now,  an  input  voltage  was  set  at  the  common  terminal  of  the   preset  and  it  was  measured  using  a  mul6meter.  The  base  and  the   collector  voltages  w.r.t  the  emiLer  were  measured  and   compared.  Similarly,  the  base  current  (Ib)  and  collector  current   (Ic)  were  measured  and  compared,  using  which  the  amplifica6on   factor  (hFE  =  Ic/Ib)  was  calculated.  The  experimental  value  of  hFE   lies  between  100  and  400  and  therefore,  it  verifies  that  the   transistor  is  in  ac6ve  region  and  acts  as  an  amplifier  with  the   base-­‐emiLer  junc6on  forward  biased  and  the  base-­‐collector   junc6on  reverse  biased.   When  the  preset  was  rotated  to  its  extreme  leU,  both  the  LEDs   glow  brightly  and  the  transistor  reaches  its  satura6on  stage.  The   amplifica6on  factor  was  calculated  as  above.  The  hFE  obtained   was  less  than  100.  In  this  case,  the  transistor  acts  as  a  switch.   Again  the  base  and  the  collector  voltages  were  measured  and   compared  to  verify  the  condi6on  of  the  satura6on  state.  Both  the   base-­‐emiLer  and  base-­‐collector  junc6ons  are  forward  biased  in   the  satura6on  state.  The  value  of  the  satura6on  voltage  for  the   transistor  was  found  to  be  0.25-­‐0.6  V.
  4. 4. Have  a  look  at  what  we  provide  in  our  Project  Kit! CoolJunk   is   India's   fastest  growing  DIY  (do-­‐it-­‐yourself)   kits   company   focused   on   project-­‐based   learning   in   science,  engineering  and   technology.  Having   20,000   users   in   India,  US,   Singapore,   Middle   East   and   New   Zealand,  the  CoolJunk  kits  are  known  for  quality,  innovaUon  and  high  producUon  value.  CoolJunk  has  been   featured   in   naUonal   and   internaUonal   journals   including   Wallstreet,   Yourstory,   Hindu   Business   Line,   NextBigWhat  and  was  tagged  as  the  coolest  Indian  start-­‐up  in  IAN  Bootcamp-­‐2011.   You  may  also  refer  to  the  video:  Transistors For  more  projects  visit  our  website:  CoolJunk   All  tools  and  components   in  one  box. Step  by  step  visual   instrucUons Detailed  experiment   theory CoolJunkCoolJunkCoolJunk Follow  us  on: CoolJunk