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Nature Of Disease

Immune system, disease presentation. Used with 10th grade Biology

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Nature Of Disease

  1. 1. Nature of disease
  2. 2. <ul><li>Nature of Disease </li></ul><ul><li>Infectious vs not </li></ul><ul><li>Koch's postulates (p. 1072)- anthrax was 1st one tied to disease </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pathogen found in host in every case of illness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pathogen isolated & grown in pure culture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>placing new cultured organism in healthy host causes disease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pathogen re-isolated from new host and is the same as original </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Exceptions: some won’t grow on artificial media-need alternate host (ex: finally could study leprosy in armadillos) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Spread of Disease <ul><li>C. Spread of Disease </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Reservoirs -(John Snow- classic epidemiological case study) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: (1) Living O’ (animals, human)-some can be just carriers and not be sick themselves-like typhoid Mary </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(2) Soil </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(3) Water </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. 2. Transmission (p. 1073) <ul><li>a. direct contact- skin, blood in a cut </li></ul><ul><li>b. object- food, a toy, shared needle </li></ul><ul><li>c. air- cough, sneeze, wind born spores </li></ul><ul><li>d. vector – mosquito, tick </li></ul>
  5. 5. Spread of disease <ul><li>3. Symptoms </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bacteria produce toxins, leading to fever, cell metabolic disruptions, heart problems, nervous system disrupted, cell destroyed. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Viruses destroy or change cell or disrupt metabolism </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>4. Patterns of disease </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a. endemic = constantly in a particular area or population </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>pandemic = worldwide </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>epidemic = a lot of cases in a short period of time </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. 5. Treatments - antibiotics vs resistance (p. 1077) <ul><li>medicines overused and resistant strains have developed </li></ul><ul><li>antibiotic only kills off the weaker ones </li></ul><ul><ul><li>those that don’t have a mutation that lets them survive </li></ul></ul><ul><li>next generation is only made from the strong ones </li></ul><ul><ul><li>those with the right gene mutation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>now all are is resistant and harder to kill </li></ul>
  7. 7. Article <ul><li>D. Lyme disease (see article) </li></ul><ul><li>E. Sara Josephine Baker and Typhoid Mary (see article) </li></ul><ul><li>F. The Black Plague- a reading (see article) </li></ul>
  8. 8. IV. Defenses against Disease (p. 1078) <ul><li>A. Lymphatic system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. 3 basic functions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a. maintain homeostasis of fluid levels </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>b. absorb fats from digestive tract </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>c. **defense against disease </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Lymph and lymph nodes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a. Lymph = fluid from intercellular spaces </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>b. lymph nodes: they filter the lymph, hold lymphocytes (WBC) until needed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Organs involved: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tonsils = filter air as enters throat and filter lymph </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Spleen = filter bacteria and destroy old RBC in blood and store extra blood </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Thymus = lymphocytes(WBC) mature here </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>bone marrow = make blood components </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Appendix = trap bacteria </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Types of White blood cells (see sheet) link </li></ul>
  10. 10. C. Innate (nonspecific) immune system(p.1084) - see sheet for details <ul><li>Skin and secretions like sweat & lysozyme (enzyme in tears) </li></ul><ul><li>Phagocytes = white blood cells </li></ul><ul><li>interferon =interferes with viral repro. and alerts other cells </li></ul><ul><li>Complement =proteins in blood to mark foreign antigen for destruction, making the cell leak </li></ul><ul><li>Histamine and heat (p.1082)-see flow chart </li></ul>
  11. 11. D. Adaptive immune system (p.1085) see sheet <ul><li>1. Antigen vs. antibody </li></ul><ul><ul><li>antigen= foreign or self protein on outside of cells that protein recognition molecule reacts to/recognizes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>antibody= produced by the body to inactivate particular antigens </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2. Adaptive vs cellular immunity (see p. 1085-6) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adaptive ( humoral ) immunity= produces antibodies and B memory cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cellular immunity= destroys already infected cells and makes T memory cells </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. E. Immune system diseases <ul><li>1. Auto immunity - diseases which attack own tissues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: Multiple sclerosis (MS)- effects myelin sheath around the nerve cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grave’s disease - effects thyroid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>rheumatic fever- antibodies attack heart </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lupus- effects multiple organs, or just the skin </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2. Immunodeficiency= SCID - no ability to make antibodies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>( Boy in Bubble ) </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. F. Vaccines and natural immunity <ul><li>1. Active immunity- long term </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 ways: (1) Natural: get actual pathogen, get sick and go thru adaptive response </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>* keep memory B cells in “library” and make antibodies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>FAST if exposed to the pathogen again-destroy before get sick </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(2) Vaccine: has weak or inactivated pathogen, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>then body will go thru adaptive response as usual </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>it is not really harmful & never get sick </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>*DO make antibodies and keep memory B cells so when exposed to real organism, can make antibodies fast as above </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. 2. Passive immunity- temporary <ul><li>a. Donor - antibodies from a recovered person or source like horse serum </li></ul><ul><li>b. Monoclonal antibodies = bacteria produced (genetically engineered) </li></ul><ul><li>c. Maternal= antibody crosses placenta and is in milk - give baby some protection until own immune system starts working </li></ul>
  15. 15. G. Scientists <ul><li>Jenner: smallpox vaccine </li></ul><ul><li>Pasteur: rabies vaccine and pasteurization </li></ul><ul><li>Salk & Sabin: polio vaccine </li></ul><ul><li>Lister: aseptic procedures for surgery </li></ul><ul><li>Tonegawa: how antibodies are made </li></ul><ul><li>Koch: methodology for linking O’ to disease </li></ul><ul><li>Snow: cholera epidemic-linked to source-1st epidemiologist </li></ul><ul><li>Fleming: penicillium mold –took 1st step to the antibiotic penicillin </li></ul><ul><li>Margulis: endosymbiotic theory </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>HIV and AIDS </li></ul><ul><li>Defined=Acquired Immune Deficiency syndrome </li></ul><ul><li>Cause: HIV destroys T-Helper cells and prevents rest of adaptive immunity from happening </li></ul><ul><li>Risk groups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a. sharing needles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b. sex with effected partners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c. contaminated blood contact (hemophiliacs; health care workers) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>d. certain nations are risky to visit (Haiti, Zambia)-more risk of contraction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Opportunistic infections- what actually kills the AIDS victim </li></ul>
  17. 17. 5. AIDS Symptoms <ul><ul><li>a. swollen glands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b. raised blotches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c. large, fast weight loss </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>d. night sweats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>e. unexplained fever/cough </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>f. frequent infections/illness, especially rarer conditions normally fought off </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Candida albacans (mouth fungus) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Kaposi’s sarcoma (a cancer) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>toxoplasmosis (brain infection) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pneumonia </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. AIDS in the world – What do you know? <ul><li>More than 25 million people have died of AIDS since 1981. </li></ul><ul><li>Africa has 12 million AIDS orphans . </li></ul><ul><li>At the end of 2007, women accounted for 50% of all adults living with HIV worldwide, and for 61% in sub-Saharan Africa. </li></ul><ul><li>Young people (under 25 years old) account for half of all new HIV infections worldwide. </li></ul>