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OPER-D Competence development tool

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OPER-D Competence development tool

  1. 1. Tell me, I’ll forget Show me, I’ll remember Involve me, I’ll understandOPER-D
  2. 2. Contents WHAT IS OPER-D TRAINING METHOD? OPER-D FACT SHEET WHY OPER-D TRAINING STRATEGY? OPER-D MAIN PRINCIPLE OF LEARNING PART 2 – ASSESSOR GUIDANCE BOOKLET PART 1 – WORKFORCE INVOLVEMENT
  3. 3. OPER-D IS A TRAINING METHODOLOGY BASED ON PRINCIPLE OF INVOLVEMENT “OPERATIONS PERSONNEL TRAIN WITHOUT KNOWING THEY ARE TRAINING” IT IS INCORPORATED INTO THE YEARLY OPERATIONAL ACTIVITY PLAN WHERE WORKFORCE IS REQUESTED TO FOLLOW A SELECTION AND DEFINITION OF OPERATIONAL TOPICS DIVIDED IN 4 MAIN GROUPS. THE SELECTION IS VALIDATED BY THE SELECTED ASSESSOR ROLE AND IT BASICALLY IS PART OF THE OPER-D IMPLEMENTATION. STEPS 3 & 4 1. OPERATIONS FUNDAMENTALS 2. OPERATIONAL ASSET KNOWLEDGE STEPS 5 & 6 1. ASSET OPERATIONAL REQUIREMENTS 2. KNOWLEDGE AND APPLICATION OF PROCEDURES FOLLOWING THE PRINCIPLE OF INVOLVEMENT THE WORKFORCE IS GOING TO BE TRAINED PREPARING THE OPER-D PROCESS WITHOUT PERCEIVING THEY ARE GOING THROUGH A TRAINING PROCESS. ALWAYS CONTENTS MUST BE VALIDATED BY ASSESSOR THE PROGRAM IS NORMALLY CUSTOMISED BY THE ASSET OWNER WHERE OPER-D IS BEING IMPLEMENTED WHAT IS OPER-D TRAINING METHOD?
  4. 4. WHO OPER-D requires just two main groups • Workforce (Plant Operations Personnel) • Assessors (Usually Supervising positions) 05 OPER-D Stands for Operational Discipline where the Pillars are: • Integrity • Level of Knowledge • Questioning Attitude • Formality • Forceful Watch Team Backup OPER-D focus on Level of Knowledge pillar 01 OPER-D Provides you with a booklet of Operational industry topics divided in 4 main groups which are considered the minimum necessary for Operational personnel to cover minimum level of competence 02 OPER-D methodology is a bit different to the traditional approach due the main fact it is selected and defined by the workforce from the beginning and verified by the assessor (internally) 03 OPER-D is flexible and can be applied any time, however our recommendation is to put in place an Operational Discipline program (1 year duration) where the task for Operators is to define the selected topics based on the 4 main groups of OPER-D and it can be rolled out during the whole year. Definitions are validated by Assessors 04 OPER-D OPER-D FACT SHEET
  5. 5. In the industrial Operations workplace (Gas Plants, Refineries, Power Plants, Chemical Plants, etc) few people begin a job fully trained. Even when people have prior work experience, they will still need to learn the many nuances of the new work environment that impact one’s ability to perform effectively. Furthermore, with the current high rate of change in organization and technology, nearly everyone needs to acquire new competencies or refresh the existing to meet the demands of the work environment. As a consequence, all organizations have to educate and train staff to raise their level of performance. This may be achieved by providing new and relevant knowledge and information, by providing hands on experiences, or by cultivating specific attitudes, values and motives. The purpose of training is to develop task appropriate competencies in form of specific knowledge and skills. Most importantly, when people are interacting with large complex systems like those in the process industry, the system’s structure and behaviors change continuously for a variety of reasons. Consequently, it is important that the competencies of the work force keep a breast of the changing demands of this complex work environment. For example, the production operator is the employee who uses process safety information, safe work practices, and operating procedures to operate and maintain process plant equipment. Today’s production operator must be competent in more than the technical aspects of operating and maintaining plant equipment, machinery and controls. WHY OPER-D TRAINING STRATEGY?
  6. 6. A good training program differentiates the way in which people work but should provide a standardization of approach. Good training can and should: 1. be a focus for aligning the workforce with the company strategy 2. ensure that workforce skill levels are up to national or industry standards 3. be a powerful individual motivator 4. be a good catalyst for change 5. be an arena for providing a link between the individual and the company values Our assessment of current training practices concludes that many of today’s industrial training programs fall short of these qualities of a good training program. Quite by accident, the most influential training is on-the- job training, sporadic, informal and unmeasured as it tends to be. The interactions between people, plant equipment, processes and organizational entities that occur within the everyday work environment have a stronger impact on an operations team performance than any existing training program. The work environment is the primary learning environment. Unfortunately, plant personnel typically do not perceive the work environment as the primary learning environment. As a new strategy for training, we propose that plant personnel design the work environment to be a continuous learning environment using OPER-D Method. Following a brief summary of current training practices, we present key dimensions for continuous learning in terms of culture, organization, and workspace design. Explicit design of the work environment along desirable areas of these dimensions will lead to greater job satisfaction, increased plant reliability, better operational integrity and most importantly, and improved plant profits. WHY OPER-D TRAINING STRATEGY?
  7. 7. As a new strategy for training, we propose that plant personnel design the work environment to be a continuous learning environment using OPER-D Method. Following a brief summary of current training practices, we present key dimensions for continuous learning in terms of culture, organization, and Operational Discipline. OPER-D will lead to Operational training cost optimization, greater job satisfaction, increased plant reliability, better operational discipline and most importantly, and improved plant profits Assessment of Current Practices The National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) published a study that found that traditional modes of employee training involving seminars, posters and videos often fail because they miss the integral human factors that ultimately influence behavior at the worksite. Regardless of a person’s knowledge and competency in a particular area, performance depends on motivational considerations like cost and rewards, self-esteem, confidence and conformity pressure. Heritage. Industrial manufacturing has a rich heritage. In the last 10 years training of productions operators has evolved due to changing environmental and regularity requirements. As the main catalyst for change, these requirements have introduced a significant improvement in some areas of training such as process safety management and environmental. The training has resulted in more planned, structured, and documented performance based solutions. WHY OPER-D TRAINING STRATEGY?
  8. 8. Benchmarking. More than 58% of refineries, 57% of petrochemicals, and 36% of chemicals companies do some form of benchmarking of their operator training practices.. Benchmarking is a comparative analysis of what others are doing in production operator training. It allows companies to find the best practices throughout their industry. to help them improve their own practices. Common practices. Surveys have been done by many different groups to identify the most successful operating training practices as identified by the end users. These surveys illustrate slight differences between different industrial groups within the chemical process. Some common methods that are successful across all groups include: 1. On-the -job training using procedures and training manuals with introductory classes 2. Written training manuals for each job with SOPs to enhance written information 3. Peer to peer training and qualification 4. Computer Based Training (CBT) applications and other self-directed courses Balancing Methods. Successful training practices identify an effective balance of training methods. Within the refineries training area, initial training is typically evenly balanced between classroom and field training techniques. Specific job training uses more field training (75%) relative to classroom (25%). In general, companies reviewing training practices of other organizations need to make sure there is an appropriate fit to their operations. Each type of training has its place. Each plant has different conditions that determine the best type of training for their situation. Some factors that influence the selection of type of training include: 1. Number of operators to be trained in a given time frame 2. Funds available for training 3. Availability of training media and materials 4. Availability of trained trainers 5. Work schedule 6. Availability of overtime 7. Turnarounds and vacation schedules WHY OPER-D TRAINING STRATEGY?
  9. 9. The more a response leads to satisfaction, the more likely it is to be learned and repeated Repetition aids learning,retention and recall It is easier to learn something new if it is builtupon something we already know We learn best when we are ready to learn Learners must be actively involved in the learning process. OPER-D MAIN PRINCIPLE OF LEARNING
  10. 10. Some training organizations take a more scientific view of designing training systems, they start from knowledge of how adults learn. Frank Bird and George Germain in their book on Practical Loss Control Leadership identify five basic principles of learning, they state these are obvious when read (Bird and Germain, 1992). However, they are often ignored, especially in adult learning situations. Consideration of five principles in designing a continuous learning environment will make employee training less frustrating and more productive for everyone concerned. Principle of involvement. For significant learning to occur, learners must be actively involved in the learning process. The more senses involved (hearing, seeing, tasting, smelling, feeling), the more effective the learning. The more fully the learners participate in the learning process, the more effectively they learn. OPER-D gets the learners to do the repeating, the practicing, the “learning by doing.” OPER- D uses learner involvement tools such as “hands on” training, question and answer, group discussion, audiovisual aids, case problems, role playing and application prior their assessment is carried out. Principle of association. It is easier to learn something new if it is built upon something we already know. In training or teaching, it is best to proceed from the known to the new, to start with simple steps (based on what the learner already understands or can do) and gradually build up to the new and more difficult tasks or ideas. Make full use of comparison and contrast, of relationships and association of ideas. OPER-D MAIN PRINCIPLES OF LEARNING
  11. 11. Principle of readiness. We learn best when we are ready to learn. You cannot teach someone something for which he or she does not have the necessary background or knowledge, maturity or experience. When people are ready and have sound reasons for learning, they profit from teaching and make progress. Readiness also means that the learner is emotionally ready, is motivated to learn. You help to create this readiness by letting learners know how important the training is, why they should take it, and the benefits it should bring them (such as growth, recognition, easier work, variety, challenge, safer work and increased potential). Helping to create the desire to learn helps people learn. (Canceling training because of budget cuts, bringing people in on overtime after three 12 hour night shifts, no involvement in the needs assessment is not the way to achieve this principle). Principle of repetition. Repetition aids learning, retention and recall. Conversely, long disuse tends to cause learned responses to weaken and be forgotten. Application and practice are essential. Accuracy should be stressed before speed, to avoid learning a wrong habit that must later be “unlearned.” The more often people use what they have learned, the better they can understand or perform it. Principle of reinforcement. The more a response leads to satisfaction, the more likely it is to be learned and repeated. For best results in a teaching/learning situation, accentuate the positive (praise, reward, recognition, success). Also, breaking complex tasks down into simple steps allows the successful learning of one step to help motivate learning the next one. When learning is pleasant and beneficial, people more readily retain what they have learned, and are more likely to want to learn more. Successful learning stimulates more learning. OPER-D facilitates learning climate. NOTE: OPER-D requires feedback from Assessors to satisfy learners’ needs to know that they are doing things correctly and that they are making progress. OPER-D MAIN PRINCIPLES OF LEARNING
  12. 12. PART 1 – WORKFORCE INVOLVEMENT
  13. 13. 6 STEP - OPER-D Methodology Step01 Selection of target audience Is important to have target audience identified and avoid to mix seniority levels Step02 Present and Explain Is key to explain to your selected audience the scope of OPER-D as well as the expected deliverable Step03 Operations Fundamentals Selection of applicable fundaments associated to your activity, it focus on “must to know” not in “Nice to have” Step05 Asset Operational Requirements Focus on practical Asset Equipment knowledge Step06 Knowledge and Application of Procedures Focus on Formality of our operations Step04 Operational Asset Knowledge Focus on theoretical Asset equipment knowledge OPER-D Assisting the Development of our Operational Discipline
  14. 14. STEP 1 01 Selection of target audience The only recommendation on this step is to avoid mix of seniority,categories and if you have to decide priority on target audience our advice is to be focused on Plant Operators and Control Room Operators as first step “Step” OPER-D Assisting the Development of our Operational Discipline
  15. 15. STEP 2 02 Present and Explain During OPER-D presentation the target audience needs to understand the key role they will play on this initiative as well as explain clearly thatthe deliverable is going to be the future and official Operational training program. The motivation of personnel aboutthis step is very important. One more recommendation is add OPER-D related tasks to their own personal objectives “Step” OPER-D Assisting the Development of our Operational Discipline
  16. 16. Step 3 - Introduction 03 Operations Fundamentals The OPER-D content must be provided to the selected audience,however we always recommend to give the “Fundamentals” Steps 3 and 4 to the less experienced personnel It is quite simple due the fact the first step is tick the selected topics i.e.Flow rate, Pressure, Level definitions The time consuming task is to define the selected topics, in many cases organizations already have accepted definitions for these topics “Step” OPER-D Assisting the Development of our Operational Discipline
  17. 17. Step 3 Operations Fundamentals - Example Selection 03 Operations Fundamentals Based on my Activity the fundamental that apply are: “Step” OPER-D Assisting the Development of our Operational Discipline 1. FLOW RATE 2. PRESSURE / VACUUM 3. LEVEL 4. TEMPERATURE 5. SPECIFIC GRAVITY ( API / LIQUID & GAS ) 6. DENSITY ( LIQUID / GAS ) 7. DEWPOINT ( HYDRATES ) 8. CALORIFIC VALUE 9. VISCOSITY 10. FLASH POINT 11. EXPLOSIVITY 12. VELOCITY ( ROTATION ) 13. SPEED 14. VIBRATION 15. STROKE ( PUMPING PARAMETERS ) 16. CORROSION 17. CONCENTRATION 18. OXYGEN CONTENT 19. CO/CO2 CONTENT Each of the selected topics must be defined by the individual group and validated by the assessor as per OPER-D requirement.
  18. 18. 04 Operational Asset Knowledge The OPER-D content must be provided to the selected audience,however we always recommend to give the “Fundamentals” step 3 and 4 selection to the less experienced personnel It is quite simple due the fact the first step is tick the selected topics i.e.Chemical Injection, Manifold,Separator, Fractionation definitions The time consuming task is to define the selected topics, in many cases organizations already have accepted definitions for these topics on their own Operating Manuals “Step” OPER-D Assisting the Development of our Operational Discipline Step 4 - Introduction
  19. 19. 04 Operational Asset Knowledge “Step” OPER-D Assisting the Development of our Operational Discipline Step 4 Operational Asset Knowledge - Example Selection WELLHEAD ( SURFACE / SUB-SEA ) DESCRIPTION / ROLE TYPE / DESIGN / CHEMICAL INJECTIONS VALVING CHOKE ( AUTO / MANU ) SHUTDOWN MECHANISM COMPLETION USED WIRELINE OPERATION PROTECTION / SAFETY MANIFOLD ( OIL / GAS / H2O ) DESCRIPTION / ROLE (LAY-OUT) TYPE / DESIGN / CHEMICAL INJECTIONS VALVING CONTROLS / INSTRUMENTATION PROTECTION / SAFETY SEPARATOR ( OIL / GAS / H2O ) / FWKO DESCRIPTION / ROLE TYPE / DESIGN / CHEMICAL INJECTIONS INTERNAL PARTS Each of the selected topics must be defined by the individual group and validated by the assessor as per OPER-D requirement.
  20. 20. 05 Asset Operational Requirements We recommend to assign step 5 and 6 to personnel with more seniority and experience. Basically the motivation of this recommendation is to used the experiences by senior Operators or Control room operators to help the selection of items more appropriate to develop team competence This step enters in more practical operations aspects therefore must be carefully selected and approved by assessor “Step” OPER-D Assisting the Development of our Operational Discipline Step 5 - Introduction
  21. 21. 05 Asset Operational Requirements “Step” OPER-D Assisting the Development of our Operational Discipline Step 5 Asset Operational Requirements – Example Selection WELLHEAD ( SURFACE / SUB-SEA ) IDENTIFY/LOCATE EQUIPMENT/SAFETY VALVES & PIPES KNOW P&ID's AND OPERATING MANUALS START-UP IN NORMAL CONDITIONS SHUT- DOWN IN NORMAL CONDITIONS CONTROL IN NORMAL OPERATING CONDITIONS RECORD WORKING CONDITIONS DETECT CAUSE & PROBLEM AND ADJUST SHUT- DOWN IN EMERGENCY ( BAKER / OTIS PANEL ) CARRY-OUT SPECIAL & NON ROUTINE JOBS ISOLATE AND PUT UNIT BACK ON STREAM CARRY-OUT LIGHT MAINTENANCE TAKE SAMPLES/CARRY-OUT BASIC ANALYSES CARRY-OUT LEAK TESTS (DHSV,UMV,LMV,MANIFOLDS) ENSURE CHEMICAL INJECTIONS INSPECT CLUSTER/MULTIWELL PLATFORM/MODULE MANIFOLD ( OIL / GAS / H2O ) IDENTIFY/LOCATE EQUIPMENT/SAFETY VALVES & PIPES KNOW P&ID's AND OPERATING MANUALS Each of the selected topics must be defined by the individual group and validated by the assessor as per OPER-D requirement.
  22. 22. 06 Knowledge and Application of Procedures We recommend to assign step 5 and 6 to personnel with more seniority and experience. Basically the motivation of this recommendation is to used the lesson learned by senior Operators or Control room operators is going to help to select the items more appropriate to develop their own and less experiences personnel This step enters in more practical operations aspects therefore must be carefully selected and approved by assessor “Step” OPER-D Assisting the Development of our Operational Discipline Step 6 Asset Operational Requirements – Example Selection
  23. 23. 06 Knowledge and Application of Procedures “Step” OPER-D Assisting the Development of our Operational Discipline Step 5 Knowledge and Application of Procedures – Example Selection OPERATING PROCEDURES DEFINITION ( HOW AND WHAT ) KNOWLEDGE COMPLIANCE WITH PROCEDURES INSTRUCTIONS DEFINITION ( WHERE AND WHEN ) KNOWLEDGE COMPLIANCE WORK PERMIT DEFINITION ESTABLISH HOT & COLD PERMITS DEFINE& ESTABLISH COMPLEMENTARY PERMITS DEFINE INSTALLATION CONDITION REQUIREMENTS DEFINE INSTALLATION INHIBITION REQUIREMENTS CONTROL WORK BEING PERFORMED EXTEND OR END PERMITS COMPLIANCE WITH RULES ON THE JOB SAFETY ( SAFETY AT WORK ) DEFINITION Each of the selected topics must be defined by the individual group and validated by the assessor as per OPER-D requirement.
  24. 24. PART 2 – ASSESSOR GUIDANCE BOOKLET
  25. 25. 60-Gas hazard & measurement Level 4 ■ Explain how the measuring devices are calibrated. ■ Explain the measuring principles of the site's gas detectors. ■ Give the characteristics for each of them in terms of measurement accuracy. ■ Specify for a given operating condition, what type of measurement you would choose and explain why. ■ Explain how the people certified to perform gas measurements are qualified. Level 3 ■ For each type of measurement, indicate in which units the results are presented (%, ppm). ■ List and explain which procedures on site describe the gas measurements. Level 2 ■ List the precautions that need to be taken for each gas before taking a gas measurement. ■ Explain what the LEL means (Lower Explosive Limit). ■ Indicate who is authorised to perform gas measurements. ■ Indicate where the list of authorised gas measurement devices can be found. ■ Specify the minimum concentration of oxygenin the air at which it is possible to work without additional protection measures. ■ If the O2 threshold is exceeded, specify thenecessary precautions. ■ Use the device available, interpret the measurements,give the threshold values (O2, CH4, H2S, H2) so that the permit to work can be issued. Level 1 ■ List the main hazards related to the use of Nitrogen (N2) and say whether or not nitrogen is dangerous. ■ Indicate the risks associated to an excess or lack of each of these gases in the air (CH4, H2S, N2). ■ Give the density of the following gases in relation to air: CH4 (methane) and H2S (hydrogen sulfide). ■ List the main gas measurements made on the installation. ■ Identify the situations in which a gas measurement is necessary.
  26. 26. 61-PTW, Isolations, Confined spaces Level 4 ■ Rules for managing permits to work in SIMOPS. ■ Application of JSA (Job safety analysis) Level 3 ■ Indicate who takes part in the meeting for reviewing and consolidating the permit to work. ■ For the person issuing a permit to work, list the main tasks to be accomplished for it ■ Number of hot permits authorised on the installation. ■ How is it possible to find out how many pieces of electrical equipment are isolated ona site? ■ Describe the electrical isolation process. ■ List and explain the contents of the site's procedures pertaining to isolation. ■ Explain the procedure(s) for removing an isolation (process, electrical, mechanical) Level 2 ■ What documents can be attached to the permit to work (P&ID, isometrics, drawing and documentation) and for what purpose? ■ In the case of electrical isolations, what is the name of the authorizationgiven to the person certified to perform the isolation (certification). ■ Where can the list of personnel authorized to isolate equipment be found? ■ At what point is electrical lockout acquired? Level 1 ■ Name the different types of permit to work and their conditions of use. ■ Be able to explain the permit-to- work process, the different responsibilities and the personnel involved. ■ Where are the various copies of the permit to work kept? ■ Know how to determine whether or not a permit to work is valid. Who can stop work in progress? ■ What is mandatory before work starts to make sure that everyone has understood the risks, and the procedures to be applied? ■ Who is in charge of issuing the permit to work every day? ■ For how long is a permit to work valid (hot work permits with naked flame excluded)? ■ For how long is a hot work permit with naked flame valid? ■ Name the main types of isolation (process, electrical, mechanical). ■ Can anybody who knows how to isolate equipment do so? ■ Who can remove an isolation?
  27. 27. Questioning Attitude is a critical aspect of driving Operational Discipline within your firm and ultimately achieving Operational Excellence. 5 Pillars of Operational Discipline – Questioning Attitude 01 How do you know if you are doing the right thing? What is the right thing to? Why is it the right thing to do? How do you do it the right way? Do you know what the intended outcome is? These might seem like very basic questions, but being in a position to answer them is the first step in achieving Operational Discipline 5 Pillars of Operational Discipline – Level ofKnowledge 02 In order for an organization to be Operationally Disciplined (doing the right thing, the right way, every time to achieve Operational Excellence), it takes a commitment from all employees not only to themselves, but also to one another. 5 Pillars of Operational Discipline – Forceful Watch Team Backup 03 Formality has broad-reaching implications in an organization’s journey to Operational Discipline and is applicable in countless ways for every employee. 5 Pillars of Operational Discipline – Formality 04 we define Integrity as “doing whatyou say and being dedicated to doing things the right way, whether or not someone is looking.” 5 Pillars of Operational Discipline – Integrity 05 OPERATIONAL DISCIPLINE PILLARS – WORK ALL OR NOTHING OPER-D Focus
  28. 28. Tell me, I’ll forget Show me, I’ll remember Involve me, I’ll understandOPER-D

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