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open source software, open access and open transfer

  1. 1. Excluding images, screenshots and logos SOURCE SOFTWARE OPEN ACCESS TRANSFER Caroline B Ncube University of Cape Town http://kekovacs.blogspot.com/2011/05/opening- doors.html WSS4 CB Ncube 2012 1
  2. 2. Agenda 09.00 - 9.15 Group introductions 09.15 - 10.15 Open Source Software 10.15 - 10.30 tea break 10.30 – 11.30 Open Access 11.30 – 11.45 comfort break 11:45 – 12.30 Open Transfer WSS4 CB Ncube 2012 2
  3. 3. http://www.flintstudio.com/blog/how-open-source-software-can-easily-improve-your-business/#.ULX2UIe86_x Open Source WSS4 CB Ncube 2012 3
  4. 4. Traditional IP protection of software • s 25(2) of Patents Act 57 of 1978 excludes patents for software as such • Protected by Copyright Act 98 of 1978 – s 2(1)(i): Sui generis category of work • Owner has exclusive rights to reproduce, publish, adapt • License required to perform these restricted acts – Regulated by s 22 of Copyright Act WSS4 CB Ncube 2012 4 Text: J Speres
  5. 5. End User License Agreements (EULAs) • Often very restrictive – Limit the number of computers for use http://atom.smasher.org – User merely licenses – no transfer of ownership – Incorporate and go further than copyright law • E.g. outlaw reverse engineering, prevent resale – No access to source code • Software so licensed termed closed source software (CSS) Text: J Speres WSS4 CB Ncube 2012 5
  6. 6. What is OSS? http://www.gnu.org/graphi cs/anfsflogo.html http://opensource.org/logo-usage-guidelines  Source code = statements written in a programming language that allows the programmer to communicate with the computer using a reserved number of instructions  open source software (OSS) = software made freely available for anyone to redistribute and modify, including the source code  Free software & open source software  “Free as in free speech, not as in free beer” - Stallman Text: J Speres WSS4 CB Ncube 2012 6
  7. 7. WSS4 CB Ncube 2012 7
  8. 8. A program is free software if the program's users have the four essential freedoms: • The freedom to run the program, for any purpose (freedom 0). • The freedom to study how the program works, and change it so it does your computing as you wish (freedom 1). Access to the source code is a precondition for this. • The freedom to redistribute copies so you can help your neighbor (freedom 2). • The freedom to distribute copies of your modified versions to others (freedom 3). By doing this you can give the whole community a chance to benefit from your changes. Access to the source code is a precondition for this. WSS4 CB Ncube 2012 8
  9. 9. Benefits of OSS  Product reliability – Given enough eyeballs, all bugs are shallow – Eric Raymond – More eyes, more ideas  Tweakable  No licensing costs means cheaper if not free software – NB for the developing world – E.g. Stellenbosch University Ubuntu project Text: J Speres WSS4 CB Ncube 2012 9
  10. 10. WSS4 CB Ncube 2012 10
  11. 11. Benefits continued...  Can be designed to work on obsolete hardware – Also NB for developing world  Knowledge base expanded  More secure and far less vulnerable to viruses - threats detected and patched quickly by many eyeballs Text: J Speres WSS4 CB Ncube 2012 11
  12. 12. OSS success stories  Apache web server – Over 50 % market share  Linux operating system – challenges Microsoft in the network server market and has rapidly growing share of the desktop market (See Ubuntu)  Many local corporates turning to Linux – Nandos and Lewis use it on servers and in store  Sendmail mail transfer agent - 75% of email routed  Google Chrome browser – largest market share  Android http://www.ubuntu.com/download http://felix.apache.org/site/inde WSS4 CB Ncube 2012 12 Text: J Speres x.html
  13. 13. OSS licenses  User given right to freely copy, modify and redistribute the software subject to specific license conditions  Source code must be open (made available)  All copyrights retained by licensor. OSS is not in the public domain.  GPL is the most widely used OSS license http://www.gnu.org/graphics/3dbabygnutux.html 13 WSS4 CB Ncube 2012 Text: J Speres
  14. 14. OSS licenses continued...  Prevents the licensor and licensee from redistributing under CSS licenses  Terms vary: GPL, Apache, BSD, Mozilla etc  Copyleft (viral)  Derivatives  Raises compatibility issues e.g. see http://www.gnu.org/licenses/license- list.html#GPLCompatibleLicenses  Approval of OSS licenses e.g. by Open Source Initiative (OSI) and the Free Software Foundation (FSF) WSS4 CB Ncube 2012 14
  15. 15. WSS4 CB Ncube 2012 15
  16. 16. A brief comparison criteria Apache GPL3.0 Copyleft No Yes Copyfree No No OSI Approved Yes Yes Trademarks Yes No Patent license Yes Yes WSS4 CB Ncube 2012 16
  17. 17. Merging OSS licenses WSS4 CB Ncube 2012 17
  18. 18. WSS4 CB Ncube 2012 18
  19. 19. OSS Commercialisation • Retain ownership of copyright – Can assign – Can license under different, CSS licence • Dual licensing (e.g. MySQL) – Copyleft licenses required – Strong market position • Dual product – add-ons, extension etc – Weaker market position – require OSS penetration • Professional services – Support, customisation etc – Many users, not simple to use See http://spacebug.com/how_to_make_money_from_open_source-html/ WSS4 CB Ncube 2012 19 Text: J Speres
  20. 20. International Overview WSS4 CB Ncube 2012 20
  21. 21. Discussion • Bryce Pilz PubPol 688/SI 519 - Intellectual Property and Information Law Exercise Class 08: Public License Problems http://open.umich.edu/education/fordschool/pubpol688/fall2008/materials WSS4 CB Ncube 2012 21
  22. 22. Open Access WSS4 CB Ncube 2012 22
  23. 23. Open-access (OA) literature is digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. What makes it possible is the internet and the consent of the author or copyright-holder. Peter Suber WSS4 CB Ncube 2012 23
  24. 24. Why OA? • Openness – Provides access – Enables development – Enables participation – Enables innovation – Benefits the private sector – Increases researchers’ visibility – Is essential for education Text Laura Czerniewicz WSS4 CB Ncube 2012 24
  25. 25. © Inter Press Service (IPS) Photos http://ipsphotos.photoshelter.com/image/I0000dU7Pua6aqjM WSS4 CB Ncube 2012 25
  26. 26. OA & publicly funded research The government's decision means that by 1 April 2013, all papers from government-funded research must be published in an open access journal; if not, the journal must make the paper open access after 6 months. WSS4 CB Ncube 2012 26
  27. 27. WSS4 CB Ncube 2012 27
  28. 28. WSS4 CB Ncube 2012 28
  29. 29. How? OA journals http://www.etftrends.com/2012/01/gold-etfs-size-up-200-day-average-as-dollar- weakens/#.ULX95oe86_w and OA archives or repositories. http://amazingcreativepics.blogspot.com/2010/08/blog-post.html WSS4 CB Ncube 2012 29
  30. 30. OA Journals • peer reviewed and then make the approved contents freely available to the world. • Their expenses consist of peer review, manuscript preparation, and server space. • Various funding models: author pays, institutional support, professional body support, advertising, priced add-ons, or auxiliary services etc • In certain cases fees waived Text: P Suber WSS4 CB Ncube 2012 30
  31. 31. WSS4 CB Ncube 2012 31
  32. 32. OA Archives or repositories • OA archives or repositories do not perform peer review, but simply make their contents freely available to the world. They may contain unrefereed preprints, refereed postprints, or both. WSS4 CB Ncube 2012 32 Text: P Suber
  33. 33. WSS4 CB Ncube 2012 33
  34. 34. • Authors may archive their preprints without anyone else’s permission, and a majority of journals already permit authors to archive their postprints. WSS4 CB Ncube 2012 34
  35. 35. RoMEO Colour Archiving policy Can archive pre-print and post-print or Green publisher's version/PDF Can archive post-print (ie final draft Blue post-refereeing) or publisher's version/PDF Can archive pre-print (ie pre- Yellow refereeing) White Archiving not formally supported More on colours and restrictions or View all publishers WSS4 CB Ncube 2012 35
  36. 36. • When archives comply with the metadata harvesting protocol of the Open Archives Initiative, then they are interoperable and users can find their contents without knowing which archives exist, where they are located, or what they contain. • There is now open-source software for building and maintaining OAI-compliant archives and worldwide momentum for using it. The costs of an archive are negligible: some server space and a fraction of the time of a technician. http://voicesofglass.com/2012/02/25/square-peg-in-a-round-hole/ Text: P Suber WSS4 CB Ncube 2012 36
  37. 37. WSS4 CB Ncube 2012 37
  38. 38. Copyright • Open-access (OA) literature is digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. What makes it possible is the internet and the consent of the author or copyright-holder. Peter Suber • The consent of the author or copyright holder may be given through the use of creative commons licenses - Simplifies, speeds up and frees the process • See Journal self-archiving policies at http://www.sherpa.ac.uk/romeo/index.php?fIDnum=|&mode=advanced&la=en WSS4 CB Ncube 2012 38
  39. 39. Creative commons licenses WSS4 CB Ncube 2012 39
  40. 40. Discussion • Increasing Access to Publicly Funded Research • http://www.arl.org/bm~doc/research.pdf WSS4 CB Ncube 2012 40
  41. 41. http://www.lulu.com/shop/andres-guadamuz/technology-transfer-open-licensing-and- developing-countries/ebook/product-20303984.html Open Transfer WSS4 CB Ncube 2012 41
  42. 42. This Article is brought to you for free and open access by Northwestern University School of Law Scholarly Commons. It has been accepted for inclusion in Northwestern Journal of Technology and Intellectual Property by an authorized administrator of Northwestern University School of Law Scholarly Commons. WSS4 CB Ncube 2012 42
  43. 43. Open Transfer: the problem • Madey v. Duke 307 F.3d 1351 (Fed. Cir. 2002). • Prof Madey was a tenured research professor in the physics department at Duke University • sole owner of two patents in use at Duke’s free electron laser lab. • M had a dispute with Duke U and lost post as director of the lab, and then resigned. Text Feldman & Nelson WSS4 CB Ncube 2012 43
  44. 44. http://ipkitten.blogspot.com/2006/08/patents-and-experimental-use.html • The lab continued to use the lab equipment • Madey sued for infringement. • At court a quo Duke claimed that any activity in the lab was covered by the common law experimental use exception. • On appeal to the Federal Circuit held that the experimental use exception does not apply when an entity is engaged in commercial activity that furthers its legitimate business objectives Text Feldman & Nelson WSS4 CB Ncube 2012 44
  45. 45. • For a university this includes educating and enlightening students and faculty, as well as increasing the status of the university, luring lucrative research grants, and attracting faculty and students. • Therefore exception not applicable (in the US)! • NB in many jurisdictions (e.g. South Africa) this exception probably does not exist in the first place Text Feldman & Nelson WSS4 CB Ncube 2012 45
  46. 46. • So university researchers (in US and other jurisdictions) in theory would be forced to navigate the maze of patent licensing or face infringement suits. • Solution : include Open Transfer clauses in technology transfer agreements Text Feldman & Nelson WSS4 CB Ncube 2012 46
  47. 47. “Universities should consider reserving rights in all fields of use, even if the invention is licensed exclusively to a commercial entity, for themselves and other non-profit and governmental organizations: to practice inventions and to use associated information and data for research and educational purposes, including research sponsored by commercial entities; and to transfer tangible research materials (e.g., biological materials and chemical compounds) and intangible materials (e.g., computer software, databases and know-how) to others in the non-profit and governmental sectors” • In the Public Interest: Nine Points to Consider in Licensing University Technology (White Paper 2007) http://otl.stanford.edu/documents/whitepaper-10.pdf WSS4 CB Ncube 2012 47
  48. 48. Example “Institution retains the right, on behalf of itself and all other non-profit academic research institutions, to practice the Licensed Patent and use Technology for any non-profit purpose, including sponsored research and collaborations. Licensee agrees that, notwithstanding any other provision of this Agreement, it has no right to enforce the Licensed Patent against any such institution. Institution and any such other institution have the right to publish any information included in the Technology or a Licensed Patent.” In the Public Interest: Nine Points to Consider in Licensing University Technology (White Paper 2007) http://otl.stanford.edu/documents/whitepaper-10.pdf WSS4 CB Ncube 2012 48
  49. 49. Discussion • How is open transfer impacted by IP commercialisation legislation? • Consider s11 of South Africa’s Intellectual Property Rights from Publicly Financed Research and Development Act of 2008 WSS4 CB Ncube 2012 49
  50. 50. WSS4 CB Ncube 2012 50
  51. 51. Attribution • Jeremy Speres ‘Open Source Software Licences’ (presentation) • Jeremy Speres ‘Open Source Licensing Scheme’ • Peter Suber ‘A Very Brief Introduction to Open Access” http://www.earlham.edu/~peters/fos/brief.htm • Laura Czerniewicz ‘Demystifying Open Access’ (presentation) 22/10/2012 • All screenshots, images and logos used purely for illustrative purposes This work is licenced under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.5 South Africa License. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5/za/ WSS4 CB Ncube 2012 51
  52. 52. Caroline B Ncube Excluding images, screenshots University of Cape Town and logos caroline.ncube@uct.ac.za WSS4 CB Ncube 2012 52

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