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Carter Sherman Annotated Bib. Bipolar Disorder

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Carter Sherman Annotated Bib. Bipolar Disorder

  1. 1. Carter Sherman Dr. Zebrack SW 686 12 April 2016 An Annotated Biblography to understand the Bio-Psycho-Social aspects of Bipolar Disorder for the University of Michigan’s Heinz C. Prechter Bipolar Resarch Project
  2. 2. Sherman 1 Purpose: The purpose of this literature review is to analyze available research to better understand how Bipolar Disorder (BD) affects people emotionally, socially, and physically, as well as determine differences in BD in regards to gender, age, and race. “The mission of the Heinz C. Prechter Bipolar Research Fund is to provide a repository of longitudinal clinical, genetic, and biological data to investigators worldwide for collaborative research on the causes, prevention, and treatment of bipolar disorder” (www.prechterfund.org/about/mission/) Emotional Findings: Aside from experiencing symptoms of BD, those with the disorder are also at higher risk for other mental illness; this comorbidity appears to contribute to lower quality of life among BD patients.  BD is often associated with co-occurring mental illness  Despite an increased risk of dual mental illness, some people with BD never seek treatment  Bipolar patients experience lower functioning and well-being even in the stable phase of the disorder o Lower quality of life o Higher rates of suicide Social Findings: Current and past behaviors and experiences of BD patients may provide insight to patients who are at higher risk for suicide.  Mortality rates among individuals with BD are elevated compared to the general population  Certain past events may identify those at high risk of suicide attempt in BD
  3. 3. Sherman 2 o Interpersonal problems with romantic partner o Occupational problems o Early age onset  There is no evidence of nationality influencing the rates of BD Physical Findings: BD patients may experience comorbid physical health problems which includes problems with sleep.  Severe Mental Illness leads to increased risk of chronic health problems  Sleep disturbances can result from BD Gender Findings: Men and women experience and present BD symptoms differently. It is unclear if men or women with BD are at higher risk for substance abuse. It is also unclear if men or women with BD are hospitalized more. Considering patients would enter the hospital in a manic or depressed phase, it is possible that men are more likely to be hospitalized for mania while women are more susceptible to hospitalization during depressiveness.  Men and women with BD experience and present different internal and external symptoms o Men experience more manic symptoms o Women experience more depressive symptoms  The rates of BD are consistent among genders  There is discrepancy in literature regarding gender differences in hospitalization rates due to complications in determining hospitalization for manic or depressive symptoms  Women with BD are at increased for substance abuse disorder compared to women without BD
  4. 4. Sherman 3  There is discrepancy in the literature around gender differences and the rates of substance abuse Race Findings: Considering BD patients of different race and ethnicity present symptoms differently with less internalizing and externalizing factors, there is a history of misdiagnosis. As understanding of BD increases, it is likely to see an increase in the rates of diagnosis in minority groups.  There is a history of misdiagnosis of schizophrenia among black and Hispanic groups  African Americans and Hispanics experience and present BD differently than whites o Less internalizing and externalizing disorders  Depression, anxiety, substance abuse, impulse control disorder Youth Findings: It is unclear as to whether or not youth of mothers with BD experience and present symptoms of BD. It is determined that child abuse is a leading factor in early onset of BD.  There is a discrepancy in the literature regarding whether or not children of bipolar women tend to show symptoms of BD in youth  Child abuse influences early onset of BD  Diagnoses of BD in youth has been rising in recent years
  5. 5. Sherman 4 Key Findings Evidence Sources Bio-Psycho-Social Aspects of Bipolar Disorder Emotional Findings Bipolar Disorder (BD) is often associated with co- occurring mental illness “82.8% [of people with bipolar disorder] had experienced an additional mental disorder in their lifetime.” Have, M., Vollebergh, W., Bijl, R., & Nolen, W. (2002). Bipolar disorder in the general population in The Netherlands (prevalence, consequences and care utilisation): ResultsfromThe Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study (NEMESIS). Journal of Affective Disorders, 68(2), 203-213. doi:10.1016/S0165-0327(00)00310-4 Despite an increased risk of dual mental illness, some people with BD never seek treatment “25.5% had never sought help for their emotional problems, not even primary, informal or alternative care.” Have, M., Vollebergh, W., Bijl, R., & Nolen, W. (2002). Bipolar disorder in the general population in The Netherlands (prevalence, consequences and care utilisation): ResultsfromThe Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study (NEMESIS). Journal of Affective Disorders, 68(2), 203-213. doi:10.1016/S0165-0327(00)00310-4 Bipolar patients experience lower functioning and well-being even in the stable phase of the disorder “The group of [euthymic] bipolar patients obtained statistically significantlylower scores on all the [Quality of Life] subscales when compared with the control population.” Sierra, P., Livianos, L., & Rojo, L. (2005). Quality of life for patientswith bipolar disorder: Relationship with clinical and demographic variables. Bipolar Disorders, 7(2), 159-165. doi:10.1111/j.1399-5618.2005.00186.x “Compared to other mental disorders, people with bipolar disorder were more often incapacitated and were more likely to have attempted suicide and reported a poorer quality of life” Have, M., Vollebergh, W., Bijl, R., & Nolen, W. (2002). Bipolar disorder in the general population in The Netherlands (prevalence, consequences and care utilisation): ResultsfromThe Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study (NEMESIS). Journal of Affective Disorders, 68(2), 203-213. doi:10.1016/S0165-0327(00)00310-4 Social Findings Mortality rates among individuals with BD are elevated compared to the general population “Life-expectancy was 13.6 years shorter for bipolar men compared to men in the general population. Corresponding numbers for bipolar women was 12.1 years.” Laursen, T. (2011). Life expectancy among persons with schizophrenia or bipolar affective disorder. Schizophrenia Research, 131(1), 101- 104. doi:10.1016/j.schres.2011.06.008 Certain past events may identify those at high risk of suicide attempt in BD “Multiple logistic regression showed that [bipolar] subjects with a history of suicide attempts were more likely to have interpersonal problems with spouse or romantic partner, occupational problems mainly maladjustment and frequently changing job, and an earlier age (≤22 years) of onset” Tsai, S., Lee, J., & Chen, C. (1999). Characteristics and psychosocial problems of patientswith bipolar disorder at high risk for suicide attempt. Journal of Affective Disorders, 52(1-3),145-152. doi:10.1016/s0165-0327(98)00066-4 There is no evidence of “The lifetime rates of bipolar disorder are consistent across countries: United States, Canada, Puerto Rico, Weissman, M., Bland, R., Canino, G., Faravelli, C., Greenwald, S., Hwu, H., .
  6. 6. Sherman 5 nationality influencing the rates of BD France, West Germany, Italy, Lebanon, Taiwan, Korea, and New Zealand.” . . Yeh, E. (1996). Cross-National Epidemiology of Major Depression and Bipolar Disorder. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 276(4), 293. doi:10.1001/jama.1996.0354004003703 0 Physical Findings Severe Mental Illness leads to increased risk of chronic health problems “Of persons with serious mental illness enrolled in Medicaid… 74 percent of the study sample (N=109) had been given a diagnosis of at least one chronic health problem, and 50 percent (N=73) had been given a diagnosis of two or more chronic health problems.” Jones, D., Macias, C., Barreira, P., Fisher, W., Hargreaves, W., & Harding, C. (2004). Prevalence, Severity,and Co-occurrence of Chronic Physical Health Problems of Persons With Serious Mental Illness. Psychiatric Services, 55(11), 1250-1257. doi:10.1176/appi.ps.55.11.1250 “Mortality from cardiovascular causesand pulmonary embolism, and morbidity from obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus may be increased in BD compared to the general population. Reduced exercise and poor diet, frequent depressive episodes, comorbidity with substance misuse and poor quality general medical care contribute to the additional risk of these medical problems in people with BD.” Morriss, R. (2005). Metabolism, lifestyle and bipolar affective disorder. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 19(6), 94-101. doi:10.1177/0269881105058678 Sleep disturbances can result from BD “Seventy percent of the euthymic patients with bipolar disorder exhibited a clinically significant sleep disturbance. Compared with the other groups, the bipolar disorder group exhibited impaired sleep efficiency, higher levels of anxiety and fear about poor sleep, lower daytime activity levels, and a tendency to misperceive sleep. The bipolar disorder group held a level of dysfunctional beliefs about sleep that was comparable to that in the insomnia group and significantly higher than that in the good sleeper group.” Harvey, A., Schmidt, D., Scarna, A., Semler, C., & Goodwin, G. (2005). Sleep-Related Functioningin Euthymic PatientsWith Bipolar Disorder, PatientsWith Insomnia, and Subjects Without Sleep Problems. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 162(1), 50-57. Retrieved from http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/doi/pd f/10.1176/appi.ajp.162.1.50 Gender Findings Men and women with BD experience and present different internal and external symptoms “More men than women reported mania at the onset of bipolar I disorder. Men also had higher rates of comorbid alcohol abuse/dependence, cannabis abuse/dependence, pathological gambling and conduct disorder. Men were more likely to report ‘behavioral problems’ and ‘being unable to hold a conversation’ during mania.” Kawa, I., Carter, J., Joyce, P., Doughty, C., Frampton, C., Wells, J., . . . Olds, R. (2005). Gender differences in bipolar disorder: Age of onset, course, comorbidity, and symptom presentation. Bipolar Disorders, 7(2), 119-125. doi:10.1111/j.1399- 5618.2004.00180.x “Women reported higher rates of comorbid eating disorders, and weight change, appetite change and middle insomnia during depression.” Kawa, I., Carter, J., Joyce, P., Doughty, C., Frampton, C., Wells, J., . . . Olds, R. (2005). Gender differences in bipolar disorder: Age of onset, course, comorbidity, and symptom
  7. 7. Sherman 6 presentation. Bipolar Disorders, 7(2), 119-125. doi:10.1111/j.1399- 5618.2004.00180.x “Compared to men with bipolar disorder, women have more pervasive depressive symptoms and experience more major depressive episodes. They are also at higher risk for obesity and certain other medical and psychiatric comorbidities. Mood changes across the menstrual cycle are common, although the severity, timing, and type of changes are variable. Bipolar disorder is frequently associated with menstrual abnormalities and ovarian dysfunction, including polycystic ovarian syndrome. Although some cases of menstrual disturbance precede the treatment of bipolar disorder, it is possible that valproate and/or antipsychotic treatment may play a contributory role in young women.” Suppes, T. (2006). Gender Differences in Bipolar Disorder. CNS Spectrums, 11(5), 2-4. doi:10.1017/S1092852900025670 The rates of BD are consistent among genders “Most gender comparisons showed no evidence of differences.” Kawa, I., Carter, J., Joyce, P., Doughty, C., Frampton, C., Wells, J., . . . Olds, R. (2005). Gender differences in bipolar disorder: Age of onset, course, comorbidity, and symptom presentation. Bipolar Disorders, 7(2), 119-125. doi:10.1111/j.1399- 5618.2004.00180.x “No significant gender differences were found in the rate of bipolar I or bipolar II diagnoses. Also, no significant gender differences emerged in age at onset or number of depressive or manic episodes” Hendrick, V., Altshuler, L., Gitlin, M., Delrahim, S., & Hammen, C. (2000). Gender and Bipolar Illness. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 61(5), 393-396. doi:10.4088/jcp.v61n0514 There is discrepancy in literature regarding gender differences in hospitalization rates due to complications in determining hospitalization for manic or depressive symptoms “No significant gender differences were found in… number of hospitalizations for depression” Hendrick, V., Altshuler, L., Gitlin, M., Delrahim, S., & Hammen, C. (2000). Gender and Bipolar Illness. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 61(5), 393-396. doi:10.4088/jcp.v61n0514 “Women had been hospitalized significantly more often than men for mania.” Hendrick, V., Altshuler, L., Gitlin, M., Delrahim, S., & Hammen, C. (2000). Gender and Bipolar Illness. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 61(5), 393-396. doi:10.4088/jcp.v61n0514 “Bipolar disorder related hospitalization was more prevalent among female adolescents and adults” Blader, J., & Carlson, G. (2007). Increased Ratesof Bipolar Disorder Diagnoses Among U.S. Child, Adolescent, and Adult Inpatients, 1996–2004. Biological Psychiatry,
  8. 8. Sherman 7 62(2), 107-114. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2006.11.006 Women with BD are at increased for substance abuse disorder compared to women without BD “Women with bipolar disorder had 4 times the rate of alcohol use disorders and 7 times the rate of other substance use disorders than reported in women from community-derived samples.” Hendrick, V., Altshuler, L., Gitlin, M., Delrahim, S., & Hammen, C. (2000). Gender and Bipolar Illness. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 61(5), 393-396. doi:10.4088/jcp.v61n0514 There is discrepancy in the literature around gender differences and the rates of substance abuse “The risk of having alcoholism was greater for women with bipolar disorder than for men with bipolar disorder” Frye, M., Altshuler, L., Mcelroy, S., Suppes, T., Keck, P., Denicoff, K., . . . Post, R. (2003). Gender Differencesin Prevalence, Risk, and Clinical Correlates of Alcoholism Comorbidity in Bipolar Disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 160(5), 883-889. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.160.5.883 “Bipolar men were significantly more likely than bipolar women to have a comorbid substance use disorder” Hendrick, V., Altshuler, L., Gitlin, M., Delrahim, S., & Hammen, C. (2000). Gender and Bipolar Illness. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 61(5), 393-396. doi:10.4088/jcp.v61n0514 Race Findings There is a history of misdiagnosis of schizophrenia among African American and Hispanic groups “Ethnicity remained significantly associated with misdiagnosis of bipolar patients as schizophrenic even after all other significant variables were partialled out of the equation. It appears from these data that black and Hispanic bipolar patients may be at a higher risk than whites for misdiagnosis as schizophrenic” Misdiagnosis of schizophrenia in bipolar patients: A multiethnic comparison. (1983). American Journal of Psychiatry, 140(12), 1571-1574. doi:10.1176/ajp.140.12.1571 “Black individuals, especially men, had lower rates of BD diagnoses in early survey years, but more recently their rate of BD related hospitalizations has exceeded other NHDS race groups.” Blader, J., & Carlson, G. (2007). Increased Ratesof Bipolar Disorder Diagnoses Among U.S. Child, Adolescent, and Adult Inpatients, 1996–2004. Biological Psychiatry, 62(2), 107-114. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2006.11.006 African Americans and Hispanics experience and present BD differently than whites: less internalizing and externalizing disorders “[Non-Hispanic Black and Hispanic] groups had lower risk for common internalizing disorders: depression, generalized anxiety disorder, and social phobia. In addition, Hispanics had lower risk for dysthymia, oppositional-defiant disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder; non-Hispanic Blacks had lower risk for panic disorder, substance use disorders and early- onset impulse control disorders.” Breslau, J., Aguilar-Gaxiola, S., Kendler, K., Su, M., Williams, D., & Kessler, R. (2006). Specifyingrace- ethnic differences in risk for psychiatric disorder in a USA national sample. Psychological Medicine, 36(01), 57-68. doi:10.1017/s0033291705006161
  9. 9. Sherman 8 “African–Caribbean and African groups were significantly less likely to have experienced a depressive episode before onset of first mania, at 13.5% and 6.1%, respectively, compared with 28.1% in the white European group. African–Caribbean and African groups also experienced more severe psychotic symptoms at first mania, but there were no differences in mood incongruent or first rank symptoms between ethnic groups.” Kennedy, N., Boydell, J., Os, J., & Murray, R. (2004). Ethnic differences in first clinical presentation of bipolar disorder: Resultsfrom an epidemiological study. Journal of Affective Disorders, 83(2-3), 161-168. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2004.06.006 Youth Findings There is a discrepancy in the literature regarding whether or not children of bipolar women tend to show symptoms of BD in youth “[Relating to] behavior problems, social competence, internalizing and externalizing behaviors, academic performance, and school behavior… children of bipolar women did not differ from children of psychiatrically normal women.” Anderson, C., & Hammen, C. (1993). Psychosocial outcomes of children of unipolar depressed, bipolar, medically ill, and normal women: A longitudinal study. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 61(3), 448-454. doi:10.1037/0022-006X.61.3.448 “Children of bipolar mothers experienced significant rates of disorder… it appeared that most children who had diagnoses had onsets in preadolescence and continued a chronic or intermittent course of disorder. Thus, risk to offspring of ill mothers is not transitory and indicates a pernicious course that commonly includes affective disorders alone or in combination with behavior and anxiety disorders.” Hammen, C., Burge, D., Burney, E., & Adrian, C. (1990). Longitudinal Study of Diagnoses in Children of Women With Unipolar and Bipolar Affective Disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry Archives of General Psychiatry, 47(12), 1112-1117. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.1990.018102400 32006 Child abuse influences early onset of BD “Those who endorsed a history of child or adolescent physical or sexual abuse… had a history of an earlier onset of bipolar illness, an increased number of Axis I, II, and III comorbid disorders, including drug and alcohol abuse, faster cycling frequencies, a higher rate of suicide attempts, and more psychosocial stressors occurring before the first and most recent affective episode.” Leverich, G., Mcelroy, S., Suppes, T., Keck, P., Denicoff, K., Nolen, W., . . . Post, R. (2002). Early physical and sexual abuse associated with an adverse course of bipolar illness. Biological Psychiatry, 51(4), 288-297. doi:10.1016/S0006-3223(01)01239-2 “Histories of severe childhood abuse were identified in about half of the [bipolar] sample and were associated with early age at illness onset” Garno, J., Goldberg, J., Ramirez, P., & Ritzler, B. (2005). Impact of childhood abuse on the clinical course of bipolar disorder. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 186(2), 121-125. doi:10.1192/bjp.186.2.121 Diagnoses of BD in youth has been rising in recent years “Population-adjusted rates of hospital discharges of children with a primary diagnosis of BD increased linearly over survey years. The rate in 1996 was 1.3 per 10,000 U.S. children and climbed to 7.3 per 10,000 U.S. children in 2004. Bipolar disorder related discharges also increased fourfold among adolescents.” Blader, J., & Carlson, G. (2007). Increased Ratesof Bipolar Disorder Diagnoses Among U.S. Child, Adolescent, and Adult Inpatients, 1996–2004. Biological Psychiatry, 62(2), 107-114. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2006.11.006
  10. 10. Sherman 9 Works Cited Anderson,C.,&Hammen,C. (1993). Psychosocial outcomesof childrenof unipolardepressed,bipolar, medicallyill,andnormal women:A longitudinal study.Journal of ConsultingandClinical Psychology,61(3),448-454. doi:10.1037/0022-006X.61.3.448 Blader,J.,& Carlson,G. (2007). IncreasedRatesof BipolarDisorderDiagnosesAmongU.S.Child, Adolescent,andAdultInpatients,1996–2004. Biological Psychiatry,62(2),107-114. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2006.11.006 Breslau,J.,Aguilar-Gaxiola,S.,Kendler,K.,Su,M.,Williams,D.,&Kessler,R.(2006). Specifyingrace- ethnicdifferencesinriskforpsychiatricdisorderinaUSA national sample.Psychological Medicine,36(01),57-68. doi:10.1017/s0033291705006161 Frye,M., Altshuler,L.,Mcelroy,S.,Suppes,T.,Keck,P.,Denicoff,K.,... Post,R. (2003). Gender DifferencesinPrevalence,Risk,andClinical Correlatesof AlcoholismComorbidityinBipolar Disorder.AmericanJournal of Psychiatry,160(5),883-889. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.160.5.883 Garno, J.,Goldberg,J.,Ramirez,P.,& Ritzler,B.(2005). Impact of childhoodabuse onthe clinical course of bipolardisorder.The BritishJournalof Psychiatry,186(2),121-125. doi:10.1192/bjp.186.2.121 Hammen,C.,Burge,D., Burney,E.,& Adrian,C. (1990). Longitudinal Studyof DiagnosesinChildrenof WomenWithUnipolarand BipolarAffective Disorder.ArchGenPsychiatryArchivesof General Psychiatry,47(12), 1112-1117. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.1990.01810240032006 Harvey,A.,Schmidt,D.,Scarna, A.,Semler,C.,&Goodwin,G. (2005). Sleep-RelatedFunctioningin EuthymicPatientsWithBipolarDisorder,PatientsWithInsomnia,andSubjectsWithoutSleep Problems.The AmericanJournal of Psychiatry,162(1),50-57. Retrievedfrom http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/doi/pdf/10.1176/appi.ajp.162.1.50 Have,M., Vollebergh,W.,Bijl,R.,&Nolen,W.(2002). Bipolardisorderinthe general populationinThe Netherlands(prevalence,consequencesandcare utilisation):ResultsfromThe Netherlands Mental HealthSurveyandIncidence Study(NEMESIS).Journal of Affective Disorders,68(2),203- 213. doi:10.1016/S0165-0327(00)00310-4 Hendrick,V.,Altshuler,L.,Gitlin,M.,Delrahim, S.,&Hammen,C.(2000). Genderand BipolarIllness.The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry,61(5),393-396. doi:10.4088/jcp.v61n0514 Jones,D.,Macias, C.,Barreira,P., Fisher,W.,Hargreaves,W.,& Harding,C.(2004). Prevalence,Severity, and Co-occurrence of ChronicPhysical HealthProblemsof Persons WithSeriousMental Illness. PsychiatricServices,55(11),1250-1257. doi:10.1176/appi.ps.55.11.1250 Kawa,I., Carter,J.,Joyce,P.,Doughty,C.,Frampton,C.,Wells,J.,.. . Olds,R.(2005). Genderdifferences inbipolardisorder:Age of onset,course,comorbidity,andsymptompresentation.Bipolar Disorders,7(2),119-125. doi:10.1111/j.1399-5618.2004.00180.x
  11. 11. Sherman 10 Kennedy,N.,Boydell,J.,Os,J.,& Murray, R. (2004). Ethnic differencesinfirstclinical presentationof bipolardisorder:Resultsfroman epidemiological study.Journal of Affective Disorders,83(2-3), 161-168. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2004.06.006 Laursen,T. (2011). Life expectancyamongpersonswithschizophreniaorbipolaraffective disorder. SchizophreniaResearch,131(1),101-104. doi:10.1016/j.schres.2011.06.008 Leverich,G.,Mcelroy,S.,Suppes,T.,Keck,P.,Denicoff,K.,Nolen,W.,.. . Post,R. (2002). Early physical and sexual abuse associatedwithanadverse course of bipolarillness.BiologicalPsychiatry, 51(4), 288-297. doi:10.1016/S0006-3223(01)01239-2 Misdiagnosisof schizophreniainbipolarpatients:A multiethniccomparison.(1983).AmericanJournal of Psychiatry,140(12), 1571-1574. doi:10.1176/ajp.140.12.1571 Morriss,R. (2005). Metabolism,lifestyleandbipolaraffectivedisorder.Journal of Psychopharmacology, 19(6), 94-101. doi:10.1177/0269881105058678 Sierra,P.,Livianos,L.,& Rojo,L. (2005). Qualityof life forpatientswithbipolardisorder:Relationship withclinical anddemographicvariables.BipolarDisorders,7(2),159-165. doi:10.1111/j.1399- 5618.2005.00186.x Suppes,T.(2006). GenderDifferencesinBipolarDisorder.CNSSpectrums,11(5),2-4. doi:10.1017/S1092852900025670 Tsai,S., Lee,J.,& Chen,C.(1999). Characteristicsandpsychosocial problemsof patientswithbipolar disorderathighrisk forsuicide attempt.Journal of AffectiveDisorders,52(1-3),145-152. doi:10.1016/s0165-0327(98)00066-4 Weissman,M.,Bland,R.,Canino,G., Faravelli,C.,Greenwald,S.,Hwu,H.,. . . Yeh,E. (1996). Cross- National Epidemiologyof MajorDepressionandBipolarDisorder.The Journal of the American Medical Association,276(4),293. doi:10.1001/jama.1996.03540040037030

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