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THE BASIC RUDIMENTS OF MUSIC. An introduction to notation
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Rudiments of music

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Rudiments of music

  1. 1. Rudiments of Music
  2. 2. Staff Music is written on a staff that has five lines and four spaces. Each line and space indicates a tone.
  3. 3. Ledger Line Ledger Line is used to extend the staff to pitches that fall above or below it.
  4. 4. Bar Line The Staff is divided into measures by bar lines. Clef Bar Line Bar Line Bar Line
  5. 5. Double bar line: Used to separate two sections of music. Bold double bar line: Used to indicate the conclusion of a movement or an entire composition. Dotted bar line: Subdivides long measures of complex meter into shorter segments for ease of reading, usually according to natural rhythmic subdivisions.
  6. 6. The letter names of the lines are E, G, B, D, F. It's easily remembered by the sentence: Every E Good G B Boy D Does F Fine
  7. 7. The letter names of the spaces from the bottom up spell FACE. F A C E
  8. 8. Clefs Clefs are written at the beginning of the staff. Two Kinds of Clefs: G Clef F Clef When these two clefs combined together these make a GRAND STAFF.
  9. 9. Note Parts of a NOTE:
  10. 10. Whole Note-Rest 4 Beats Half Note-Rest 2 Beats Quarter Note-Rest 1 Beat Eighth Note-Rest ½ Beat
  11. 11. Sixteenth Note-Rest ¼ Beat Thirty-Second Note-Rest 1/8 Beat Sixty-Fourth Note-Rest 1/32 Beat
  12. 12. Accidentals Accidentals modify the pitch of the notes that follow them on the same staff position within a measure, unless cancelled by an additional accidental. Flat-Lowers the pitch of a note by one semitone. Double Flat-Lowers the pitch of a note by two chromatic semitones.
  13. 13. Natural-Cancels a previous accidental, or modifies the pitch of a sharp or flat as defined by the prevailing key signature. Sharp-Raises the pitch of a note by one semitone. Double Sharp- Raises the pitch of a note by two chromatic semitones.
  14. 14. Key Signature Key signatures define the prevailing key of the music that follows, thus avoiding the use of accidentals for many notes. Flat key signature: Lowers by a semitone the pitch of notes on the corresponding line or space, and all octaves thereof, thus defining the prevailing major or minor key. Sharp key signature: Raises by a semitone the pitch of notes on the corresponding line or space, and all octaves thereof, thus defining the prevailing major or minor key.
  15. 15. Time Signature Indicate how the measure will be divided into beats, the top number is how many beats are in the measure and the bottom number is what kind of note gets a beat. 4/4 time - divides measure into 4 beats. 3/4 time - divides measure into 3 beats. 2/4 time - divides measure into 2 beats.
  16. 16. Dynamics Dynamics are indicators of the relative intensity or volume of a musical line. Pianississimo Extremely soft. Very infrequently does one see softer dynamics than this, which are specified with additional ps. Pianissimo Very soft. Usually the softest indication in a piece of music, though softer dynamics are often specified with additional ps. Piano Soft. Usually the most often used indication
  17. 17. Mezzo piano Literally, half as soft as piano. Mezzo forte Similarly, half as loud as forte. If no dynamic appears, mezzo-forte is assumed to be the prevailing dynamic level. Forte Loud. Used as often as piano to indicate contrast.
  18. 18. Fortissimo Very loud. Usually the loudest indication in a piece, though louder dynamics are often specified with additional fs. Fortississimo Extremely loud. Very infrequently does one see louder dynamics than this, which are specified with additional fs. Sforzando Literally "forced", denotes an abrupt, fierce accent on a single sound or chord. When written out in full, it applies to the sequence of sounds or chords under or over which it is placed
  19. 19. Crescendo A gradual increase in volume. Can be extended under many notes to indicate that the volume steadily increases during the passage. Diminuendo Also decrescendo A gradual decrease in volume. Can be extended in the same manner as crescendo. Forte-piano A section of music in which the music should initially be played loudly (forte), then immediately softly (piano).
  20. 20. The End !!
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