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AFF First Jump CourseAFF First Jump Course
Introductions
2
Your name
What do you do during the week?
Have you skydived before?
Why do you want to get certified?
Course Objectives:
3
Equipment
AltitudeAwareness
Freefall Body Position
Pull Priorities
Canopy Control
Landing
Land...
United States Parachute
Association (USPA)
Official organization recognized by the FAA to
oversee skydiving activities in...
Equipment Overview
5
Harness/Container, including leg straps and chest strap
Reserve parachute and closing pin
Main par...
Equipment Overview
Main Deployment handle/pilot chute (activation)
Main closing pin
Deployment bag (begin deployment ph...
Personal Equipment
7
 Helmet
 Altimeter – reads in thousands of feet
 Jumpsuit
 Goggles
 Radio (one way)
 Shoes (no ...
Altitude Awareness
Skydivers fall 1000 ft every 5.5 seconds!
Check your altimeter:
After every maneuver
When encounter...
Equipment Checks
 All equipment will be checked 3 times
1. Before putting the equipment on
2. Before boarding aircraft
3....
Freefall Position
Belly-to-Earth or Arch position:
1. Most stable position to learn
Leaf versus badminton birdie
1. Best...
Freefall Position: “Arch”
Pelvis forward
Legs shoulder width apart
Legs 45o
at the knees with
toes pointed towards the
...
Hand Signals
Pelvis Forward/Arch
Extend Legs until you see a
thumbs up
Circle of Awareness (Heading,
Altitude, Reserve sid...
Other Signals
Shaking on exit – ARCH!
Instructor is slapping your wrist (either side) – check
altitude
Instructor is ta...
Main Deployment/Pull Sequence
14
Wave off
 “Arch! Reach!Throw!”
As the right hand reaches for deployment handle the lef...
Pull Priorities
15
In the following order:
1. Pull
2. Pull at appropriate altitude
3. Pull with stability at appropriate a...
Loss of Instructors
If you lose one instructor: keep going with the dive flow
If neither instructor is in physical conta...
Controlling the Parachute
Half–brake setting requires you to “release your brakes”
Toggles up = full speed
Pulling one ...
Effect of Wind Speed on Ground Speed
Assume your canopy has a forward speed of 28 mph.
What is your ground speed when you ...
Effect of Wind Speed on Ground Speed
Assume your canopy has a forward speed of 28 mph.
What is your ground speed when you ...
Left Hand Landing Pattern
20
600’
Base
leg
Downwind leg
1000’
Remain upwind before
entering pattern
(Holding Area)
Flare a...
DZ orientation from 13,000 ft
05/28/15 15:3021
Time toTime to
practice!practice! 22
Downwindleg
Finalleg
600’
Base leg
300’
Holding Area
1000’
Time toTime to
practice!practice! 23
Downwind leg
Final leg
600’
Baseleg
300’
HoldingArea
1000’
Final Approach <200’
Fly straight, only small corrections
Canopy seems to fly slowly…until near the ground on final
appr...
Parachute Landing Fall (PLF)
 Before landing
1. Look ahead, 45o
to the horizon.
2. Feet and knees together (slightly bent...
Landing Priorities
26
1. Land withWing Level
2. Land in a clear and open area
3. Flare to at least half brakes
4. Always b...
Landing Obstacles
AVOID THEM!
“Only fly over things that you would want to land on”
1000’ and below
Gently steer away, ...
DZ from 13,000 ft – identify landing hazards
28
You did not avoid the obstacle
29
You did not avoid the obstacle
 Trees: protect your face while flaring, aim for the
strongest part (generally the trunk)
...
Off Field Landings
 “Half way down, half way back”
 Decide if you can make it back by 2,500 ft.2,500 ft.
 Find clear ar...
High Winds
32
Once safely landed, pull in one toggle hand over hand
Stand up and run towards back of canopy
If you are ...
Normal Canopy
Safe Canopy Criteria:
 Square (symmetric)
 Stable
 Straight lines
 Slider completely down
 Steerable
33
Steerability/Controllability
Check
1. Unstow Toggles/Release Your Brakes.
2. Look Left, Turn Left. Look Right, Turn Right....
Equipment Problems
35
If the parachute fails criteria you must make the decision to
initiate emergency procedures by:
De...
Emergency Procedures
36
1. Look RED
2. Grab RED
3. Look SILVERSILVER
4. Grab SILVERSILVER
5. Peel, Pull RED (down), clear
...
Problem: Pilot Chute Hesitation
37
Pilot chute stays within the burble created by your body
traveling in free fall
Check...
Canopy is Not There
Missing or Stuck Deployment Handle:
Slide hand across the bottom of the pack from one side to other ...
Canopy is Not There
39
• If you can see the bag, an
inflated pilot chute, and/or
lines, but no canopy, execute
Emergency P...
Canopy is Not There
Two tries, Two seconds to
deploy main parachute
If you cannot locate the
deployment handle, execute
...
Canopy is Not Square
Wait two seconds to see
if it is a normal
deployment
If not initiate emergency
procedures
41
Canopy is Not Square
Asymmetric
Canopy may begin to turn
on its own
Initiate emergency
procedures
42
Canopy is Not Controllable
43
More than two broken lines:
Initiate emergency procedures
Hole as large as your head:
In...
Problem: Line Twists
Very common
Pull risers apart and bicycle
kick to correct
If not corrected by 2,5002,500
ft.ft. in...
Problem: End Cell Closure
Common – especially for
smaller people under large
canopies
While releasing brakes, hold
toggl...
Problem: Stuck Slider
Smoothly pump toggles
(after releasing brakes).
Repeat as necessary until
the slider works its way...
Problem: Good canopy, but turning
Try releasing the brakes
If canopy is not controllable
by 2500’, execute
Emergency Pro...
Both Parachutes Deployed
Bi-plane
1. Do not cut away
2. Gently steer front canopy with rear risers
3. Do not flare and per...
Canopy Collision
Avoid!
Look before you turn
If approaching a head-on collision:
Both jumpers turn RIGHT
If below 100...
Aircraft Procedures
1. Approach, enter, and move about the aircraft, engine
running or not, only when accompanied by your ...
Aircraft Emergencies
Listen to your instructor
If you see anything that you think is odd (pilot chute or
canopy is out),...
Dive Flow
52
Set up in the door
Check in – get O.K. from instructor
Check Prop, up, down, arch
COA (Heading,Altimeter,...
Relative Wind
You should exit the aircraft in your arch position, hips
pointing into the “relative wind.”
Expect to feel...
Exit Cadence/Exit Count
No matter which aircraft you are exiting, the exit cadence is
important for both you and your ins...
How to pass the Cat A skydive
1. Be stable during at least the second half of the jump
2. Be aware – respond to hand signa...
Important Altitudes
6,000 ft = Lock on
5,500 ft = wave off, arch, reach, pull
2,500 ft = Decision altitude for emergenc...
Questions? Time to take the
test.
57
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First Jump Course

A First Jump Course presentation for AFF training.

Some things to keep in mind: we do not teach how to alter a landing pattern by modifying the base leg until the Category C jump, we use 2500' for a decision altitude for malfunctions and alternate landing area, we teach emergency procedures using the one hand/one handle method, and we differ slightly from the SIM with our treatment of two canopies out.

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First Jump Course

  1. 1. AFF First Jump CourseAFF First Jump Course
  2. 2. Introductions 2 Your name What do you do during the week? Have you skydived before? Why do you want to get certified?
  3. 3. Course Objectives: 3 Equipment AltitudeAwareness Freefall Body Position Pull Priorities Canopy Control Landing Landing Hazards Equipment Problems Emergency Procedures Dive Flow Written Exam
  4. 4. United States Parachute Association (USPA) Official organization recognized by the FAA to oversee skydiving activities in the U.S. according to FAR 105. USPA develops: Standardized Instruction Safety Standards Licensing and Ratings Membership: provides 3rd party liability insurance and monthly magazine 4
  5. 5. Equipment Overview 5 Harness/Container, including leg straps and chest strap Reserve parachute and closing pin Main parachute and closing pin Deployment handle 3 ring release Cutaway handle (RED) Reserve ripcord handle (SILVERSILVER) RSL – Reserve Static Line AAD – Automatic Activation Device
  6. 6. Equipment Overview Main Deployment handle/pilot chute (activation) Main closing pin Deployment bag (begin deployment phase) Lines Slider (begin inflation phase) Main Canopy Risers Toggles/Brakes
  7. 7. Personal Equipment 7  Helmet  Altimeter – reads in thousands of feet  Jumpsuit  Goggles  Radio (one way)  Shoes (no boots with hooks or sandals)
  8. 8. Altitude Awareness Skydivers fall 1000 ft every 5.5 seconds! Check your altimeter: After every maneuver When encountering difficulty When uncertain of altitude Every 3 – 5 seconds If you don’t know your altitude – PULL!PULL! 8
  9. 9. Equipment Checks  All equipment will be checked 3 times 1. Before putting the equipment on 2. Before boarding aircraft 3. Before exiting the aircraft Ask if you do not receive them!
  10. 10. Freefall Position Belly-to-Earth or Arch position: 1. Most stable position to learn Leaf versus badminton birdie 1. Best (but not the only) position for deployment
  11. 11. Freefall Position: “Arch” Pelvis forward Legs shoulder width apart Legs 45o at the knees with toes pointed towards the sky Arms 90o /90o with relaxed, floppy hands Chin up Relaxed 11
  12. 12. Hand Signals Pelvis Forward/Arch Extend Legs until you see a thumbs up Circle of Awareness (Heading, Altitude, Reserve side, Main side) Toe Taps/Bring knees together 12 Practice Touch Check Arm Position Relax – show floppy hands in response Pull – Arch, Reach, Throw, immediately! ***finger can be pointing in any direction
  13. 13. Other Signals Shaking on exit – ARCH! Instructor is slapping your wrist (either side) – check altitude Instructor is tapping your chin – get your chin up Thumbs up – you are doing well
  14. 14. Main Deployment/Pull Sequence 14 Wave off  “Arch! Reach!Throw!” As the right hand reaches for deployment handle the left hand stretches in front of your head to maintain balance. Deploy the pilot chute and return to neutral position “Check Right! Check Left!” Time to practice!Time to practice!
  15. 15. Pull Priorities 15 In the following order: 1. Pull 2. Pull at appropriate altitude 3. Pull with stability at appropriate altitude Most importantlyMost importantly: PULL!!!
  16. 16. Loss of Instructors If you lose one instructor: keep going with the dive flow If neither instructor is in physical contact with you: PULL!
  17. 17. Controlling the Parachute Half–brake setting requires you to “release your brakes” Toggles up = full speed Pulling one toggle will cause the canopy to turn Look first Parachute continues to turn while the toggle is held down Speed of the turn is directly proportional to how far down the toggle is pulled Pull both toggles = flare Time to Practice!
  18. 18. Effect of Wind Speed on Ground Speed Assume your canopy has a forward speed of 28 mph. What is your ground speed when you are traveling with a 9 mph wind? 18 mph9 mph Ground speed? 9 mph + 28 mph = 37 mph = Ground speed +
  19. 19. Effect of Wind Speed on Ground Speed Assume your canopy has a forward speed of 28 mph. What is your ground speed when you are traveling against a 9 mph wind? 18 mph9 mph Ground speed? 28 mph – 9 mph = 19 mph = Ground speed +
  20. 20. Left Hand Landing Pattern 20 600’ Base leg Downwind leg 1000’ Remain upwind before entering pattern (Holding Area) Flare at 15 ft. (wind sock height) 300’ Final leg Straight In Approach
  21. 21. DZ orientation from 13,000 ft 05/28/15 15:3021
  22. 22. Time toTime to practice!practice! 22 Downwindleg Finalleg 600’ Base leg 300’ Holding Area 1000’
  23. 23. Time toTime to practice!practice! 23 Downwind leg Final leg 600’ Baseleg 300’ HoldingArea 1000’
  24. 24. Final Approach <200’ Fly straight, only small corrections Canopy seems to fly slowly…until near the ground on final approach Look at 45˚ angle Put feet and knees together, prepare for PLF 3 second canopy flare at ~15 ft. Flare converts forward speed into lift Letting the toggles up after a flare causes a steep dive. If flaring too high, hold the toggles where they are and finish flare at appropriate height
  25. 25. Parachute Landing Fall (PLF)  Before landing 1. Look ahead, 45o to the horizon. 2. Feet and knees together (slightly bent) 3. Flare the canopy, both hands together in the front of your body  Upon ground contact 1. Feet First 2. Lay onto the side of one calf 3. Roll onto your thigh 4. Roll onto your hip (side of butt) 5. Roll diagonally across your back to the opposite shoulder (throw legs overhead if necessary) 25
  26. 26. Landing Priorities 26 1. Land withWing Level 2. Land in a clear and open area 3. Flare to at least half brakes 4. Always be prepared for a PLF ONLY SMALL CORRECTIONS WHEN <200’ONLY SMALL CORRECTIONS WHEN <200’  Landing into the wind is NEVER a priority
  27. 27. Landing Obstacles AVOID THEM! “Only fly over things that you would want to land on” 1000’ and below Gently steer away, give slight corrections 27
  28. 28. DZ from 13,000 ft – identify landing hazards 28
  29. 29. You did not avoid the obstacle 29
  30. 30. You did not avoid the obstacle  Trees: protect your face while flaring, aim for the strongest part (generally the trunk)  Water: loosen chest strap, land close to something if possible  Power lines: drop anything metal, do not touch more than one wire at a time  Buildings:  Landing into the side: Protect your face while flaring  Landing on top: Disconnect RSL.After landing, may need to cutaway
  31. 31. Off Field Landings  “Half way down, half way back”  Decide if you can make it back by 2,500 ft.2,500 ft.  Find clear area to land  Look for and avoid obstacles – small correctionssmall corrections below 200 feet!below 200 feet!  Transpose landing pattern to new spot, if possible  Prepare to PLF  Wait for assistance or further instructions  Respect property and be polite to property owners 31
  32. 32. High Winds 32 Once safely landed, pull in one toggle hand over hand Stand up and run towards back of canopy If you are still being dragged, disconnect RSL and pull REDRED
  33. 33. Normal Canopy Safe Canopy Criteria:  Square (symmetric)  Stable  Straight lines  Slider completely down  Steerable 33
  34. 34. Steerability/Controllability Check 1. Unstow Toggles/Release Your Brakes. 2. Look Left, Turn Left. Look Right, Turn Right. 3. Practice Flare. Head for the airport and your holding area.Head for the airport and your holding area. Time to practice!Time to practice!
  35. 35. Equipment Problems 35 If the parachute fails criteria you must make the decision to initiate emergency procedures by: Decision Altitude = 2,500 ft.2,500 ft. IS IT THERE? IS IT SQUARE? IS IT STEERABLE? There is a parachute out. Parachute is inflated, rectangular, and regular in shape. You can turn left and right and flare.
  36. 36. Emergency Procedures 36 1. Look RED 2. Grab RED 3. Look SILVERSILVER 4. Grab SILVERSILVER 5. Peel, Pull RED (down), clear 6. Peel, Pull SILVERSILVER (down), clear 7. Arch IF BELOW 1,000 ft.WITHOUTA LANDABLE PARACHUTE, IMMEDIATELY PULL SILVERSILVER
  37. 37. Problem: Pilot Chute Hesitation 37 Pilot chute stays within the burble created by your body traveling in free fall Check over each shoulder to change airflow, allowing pilot chute to clear burble and initiate activation
  38. 38. Canopy is Not There Missing or Stuck Deployment Handle: Slide hand across the bottom of the pack from one side to other and feel for the handle Two attempts, Two seconds, then execute Emergency Procedures 38
  39. 39. Canopy is Not There 39 • If you can see the bag, an inflated pilot chute, and/or lines, but no canopy, execute Emergency Procedures
  40. 40. Canopy is Not There Two tries, Two seconds to deploy main parachute If you cannot locate the deployment handle, execute Emergency Procedures If deployment results in a malfunction initiate emergency procedures 40
  41. 41. Canopy is Not Square Wait two seconds to see if it is a normal deployment If not initiate emergency procedures 41
  42. 42. Canopy is Not Square Asymmetric Canopy may begin to turn on its own Initiate emergency procedures 42
  43. 43. Canopy is Not Controllable 43 More than two broken lines: Initiate emergency procedures Hole as large as your head: Initiate emergency procedures Broken steering line (lost toggle): Initiate emergency procedures Broken riser: Initiate emergency procedures
  44. 44. Problem: Line Twists Very common Pull risers apart and bicycle kick to correct If not corrected by 2,5002,500 ft.ft. initiate Emergency Procedures 44
  45. 45. Problem: End Cell Closure Common – especially for smaller people under large canopies While releasing brakes, hold toggles at waist a few seconds then return toggles to full up position. May require several attempts to inflate end cells If canopy is not controllable by 2500’, execute Emergency Procedures 45
  46. 46. Problem: Stuck Slider Smoothly pump toggles (after releasing brakes). Repeat as necessary until the slider works its way down If canopy is not controllable by 2500’, execute Emergency Procedures 46
  47. 47. Problem: Good canopy, but turning Try releasing the brakes If canopy is not controllable by 2500’, execute Emergency Procedures
  48. 48. Both Parachutes Deployed Bi-plane 1. Do not cut away 2. Gently steer front canopy with rear risers 3. Do not flare and perform a PLF Side-by-Side  If two canopies are not entangled: Cut away the main  If main canopy is not clear of the reserve: 1. Gently steer the larger canopy using the rear risers 2. Perform a PLF Downplane  Cut away the main canopy immediately 48
  49. 49. Canopy Collision Avoid! Look before you turn If approaching a head-on collision: Both jumpers turn RIGHT If below 1000ft and canopies are entangled: Both jumpers should deploy their reserves 49 “Keep your head on a swivel”
  50. 50. Aircraft Procedures 1. Approach, enter, and move about the aircraft, engine running or not, only when accompanied by your instructor. 2. To avoid contact with the propeller, always approach fixed- wing aircraft from the rear. 3. Be mindful of the size of the parachute equipment and location of handles when moving about the aircraft. 4. The pilot and the jumper are jointly responsible that seat belts are worn during taxi, takeoff, and landing (if landing with aircraft).
  51. 51. Aircraft Emergencies Listen to your instructor If you see anything that you think is odd (pilot chute or canopy is out), tell your instructor loudly and immediately.
  52. 52. Dive Flow 52 Set up in the door Check in – get O.K. from instructor Check Prop, up, down, arch COA (Heading,Altimeter, Reserve side, Main side) 3 practice touches (Arch, Reach,Touch) COA (HARM) “Short” circles (Heading,Altitude,Arch, Legs, Relax) 6,000 ft. = Lock on 5,500 ft. = wave off, arch, reach, throw, check, check
  53. 53. Relative Wind You should exit the aircraft in your arch position, hips pointing into the “relative wind.” Expect to feel like you are standing up for a bit You will transition to belly to earth orientation within a few seconds.
  54. 54. Exit Cadence/Exit Count No matter which aircraft you are exiting, the exit cadence is important for both you and your instructors. Your exit cadence establishes the tone of the entire skydive.
  55. 55. How to pass the Cat A skydive 1. Be stable during at least the second half of the jump 2. Be aware – respond to hand signals 3. Have at least an assisted pull
  56. 56. Important Altitudes 6,000 ft = Lock on 5,500 ft = wave off, arch, reach, pull 2,500 ft = Decision altitude for emergency procedures and finding an alternate landing area 1,000 ft = Do not cut away 1,000, 600, 300 ft – landing pattern 05/28/15 15:30 56
  57. 57. Questions? Time to take the test. 57

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    May. 8, 2021

A First Jump Course presentation for AFF training. Some things to keep in mind: we do not teach how to alter a landing pattern by modifying the base leg until the Category C jump, we use 2500' for a decision altitude for malfunctions and alternate landing area, we teach emergency procedures using the one hand/one handle method, and we differ slightly from the SIM with our treatment of two canopies out.

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