UNIVERSITY OF TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO CORINTH CAMPUS COURSE CODE: EDFN201BCOURSE NAME: INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGNINSTRUCTOR: RHONDA HARVEY-CIELTO GROUP MEMBERS: ANNA MARIE ANDERSON  AMANDA RAHAMAN  CHRISTINA SOOKDEO  LEIGH ROBINSON  STECHER BOOCHOON 
MOTIVATIONTHEORIES AND THEIR APPLICATIONS TO TEACHING AND LEARNING
MASLOW’S HIERACRCY OF NEEDSPsychologist Abraham Maslow first introduced hisconcept of a hierarchy of needs in his 1943paper “A Theory of Human Motivation”This hierarchy suggests that people aremotivated to fulfill basic needs beforemoving on to other needs.Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is most oftendisplayed as a pyramid which serves for easyexplanation and better understanding.
Most Basic Needs For Survival Classroom Application•Student’s environment should be clean andwell maintained•Students should be getting the required sleepand food at home otherwise, they will not beable to move on to the next level within thehierarchy.
Classroom ApplicationIt is important for a child to feel secure withinthe classroom otherwise he/she would notbe able to maintain focus on what is beingtaught.This would pose a major problemacademically.
Classroom ApplicationIf a student does not feel like they belong,whether it be within a circle of friends or theirfamily they will have a hard time focusing ontheir learning.It will also be difficult for them to participate ingroup activities and ask questions when theyfeel the need to ask.
Classroom ApplicationAfter the first three needs have been satisfied,the need for self-esteem, personal worth, socialrecognition and accomplishment becomeincreasingly important.If a student has low self-confidence or low self-esteem. He/ she would not be able to developcreatively nor develop problem solving skills.
This is the highest level of Maslow’s hierarchy ofneeds. Self-actualizing people are:•self-aware•concerned with personal growth•less concerned with the opinions of others•interested fulfilling their potential.
Classroom ApplicationAs teachers, we need to guide our students through thefirst four levels to help them attain the skills within the fifthlevel.At the same time, we must realize that even secondaryschool students may not have the maturity needed toproceed through each level of Maslows hierarchy.Therefore, we must be able to guide our students throughthese levels at the appropriate times.
ARCS MOTIVATIONAL THEORY• John Keller (1983) developed a four-factor theory for promoting and sustaining motivation in the learning process.This is known as the ARCS motivational theory.• A- Attention• R- Relevance• C- Confidence• S- Satisfaction• The model contains methods or strategies that can help an instructor to stimulate or maintain each motivational element.
Attention:• A student‟s attention has to be aroused and sustained. This category also includes things that relate to curiosity and sensation seeking.• Attention can be gained in two ways:(1) Perceptual arousal – uses surprise or uncertainly to gain interest. Uses novel, surprising, incongruous, and uncertain events(2) Inquiry arousal – stimulates curiosity by posing challengingquestions or problems to be solved.Relevance:• If the content is perceived to be helpful in accomplishing one‟s goals, then they are more likely to be motivated.• To establish relevance use concrete language and examples with which the learners are familiar.
Confidence:• Students have to know that they will probably be successful before completing a given task. They have to feel somewhat confident.• Challenge students, however, the challenge cannot be too difficult to lower self esteem.Satisfaction:• If the outcomes of a learner‟s effort is consistent with their expectations and they feel relatively good about those outcomes.• They will remain motivated.
Inputs are typically: effort, loyalty, hard work, commitment, skill, ability, adaptability, flexibility, tolerance, determination, heart and soul, enthusiasm, trust in our boss and superiors, support of colleagues and subordinates, personal sacrifice, etc. Outputs are typically all financial rewards - pay, salary, expenses, perks, benefits, pension arrangements, bonus and commission - plus intangibles - recognition, reputation, praise and thanks, interest, responsibility, stimulus, travel, training, development, sense of achievement and advancement, promotion, etc.
Students have a high perception on reward therefore teachers should try and motivate students to a high level of education so as to attain greater outcomes in there future This can be done by: group work Individual work The discovery approach Expermination
EXPECTANCY THEORYThe Expectancy Theory of Motivation explains the behavioral process ofwhy individuals choose one behavioral option over another. It alsoexplains how they make decisions to achieve the end they value.Three components of Expectancy theory:1. Expectancy: Effort → Performance: the belief that ones effort will result in attainment of desired performance goals.2. Instrumentality: Performance → Outcome: the belief that a person will receive a reward if the performance expectation is met. This reward may come in the form of a class reward, promotion, recognition or sense of accomplishment.3. Valence- the value the individual places on the rewards based on their needs, goals, values and sources of motivation. Motivational Force = Expectancy x Instrumentality x ValenceWhen deciding among behavioral options, individuals select the option with the greatest motivationalforce. Expectancy and instrumentality are attitudes (cognitions) that represent an individuals perception ofthe likelihood that effort will lead to performance that will lead to the desired outcomes.
CLASSROOM APPLICATIONSIt is important for the student to feel motivated to work hard. Thestudent is provoked to put effort into his/her studying, because it willlead to high performance, which in turn will act as a conduit todesirable reward (coming first in exams)
EQUITY THEORY Equity theory attempts to explain relational satisfaction in terms of perceptions of fair/unfair distributions of resources within interpersonal relationships It was first developed in 1963 by John Stacy Adams This theory helps explain why reward and conditions alone do not determine motivation Adams called personal efforts and rewards, and other similar „give and take‟ issues at work respectively “inputs and outputs”
Inputs are typically: effort, loyalty, hard work, commitment, skill, ability, adaptability, flexibility, determination, enthusiasm, trust in our boss and superiors, support of colleagues and subordinates, personal sacrifice, etc. Outputs are typically all financial rewards - pay, salary, expenses, perks, benefits, pension arrangements, bonus and commission - plus intangibles - recognition, reputation, praise and thanks etc.
CLASSROOM APPLICATIONS Students have a high perception on reward therefore teachers should try and motivate students to a high level of education so as to attain greater outcomes in there futureThis can be done by: Group work Individual work The discovery approach
HERZBERG TWO-FACTOR THEORY.Fredrick Herzberg , an American psychologist becamefamous for his “job-enhancement” motivation and theMotivation Hygiene Theory.Herzberg proposed the Motivation Hygiene Theory alsoknown as the “Two Factor Theory” (1959) of jobsatisfaction.According to his theory, people are influenced by twosets of factors:1. Motivational Factors.2. Hygiene Factors.
CLASSROOM APPLICATIONSHerzberg proposed several key findings:1. People are made dissatisfied by a bad environment.2. Dissatisfaction and Satisfaction.3. Hygiene factors and motivation factors.4. Hygiene factors are important.5. “What have you done lately?”