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Inclusive, immersive, imaginative and imperative

A presentation delivered to Immerse UK, January 2020 by Christine from Open Inclusion about VR and AR technologies. She covers off why and how designers can make immersive technologies that will be better for all users, including those with permanent, temporary or situational disabilities.

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Inclusive, immersive, imaginative and imperative

  1. 1. ©Open Inclusion 2020 Inclusive, immersive, imperative and imaginative Immerse UK Webinar, January 2020 Christine Hemphill, Open Inclusion www.openinclusion.com @openforaccess How inclusive design empowers your immersive experiences
  2. 2. ©Open Inclusion 2020 1. Who does inclusive design include? 2. Why does it matter? 3. How can immersive technologies include or exclude users? 4. What can you do about this? 5. Discussion A quick look at the session today Our Goal Hopefully by the end of this session you will have a better feel for how immersive technologies can be used by a broader base of users as well your role as a creator to make that possible.
  3. 3. ©Open Inclusion 2020 3 Who am I? Christine Hemphill Founder and Managing Director, Open Inclusion Inclusive researcher Human centred designer and strategist Market and economic value researcher Inclusion-led innovator Emerging technology optimist Re XR, involved as inclusive researcher in two immersive design projects and an expert contributor to the XRAccess forum Someone who loves great human-centred design & innovation and uses insight, combined with emerging technology to create great experiences that are better for all users.
  4. 4. ©Open Inclusion 2020 4 open.inclusion open.insights open.access open.minds open.ability open.value We provide: • User insight and engagement • Market research • Inclusion-led innovation • Inclusive design solutions • Workplace inclusion Open is an inclusive research, design and innovation consultancy. Designing better experiences
  5. 5. Better understanding better solutions better for all Broaden the value Innovate / embed Human-centred design Universal / adaptive ? Inclusive insight Listening / learning Our services ©Open Inclusion 2020
  6. 6. ©Open Inclusion 2020 HCD is a great theory and relatively pervasive across product and service design communities. However, it is usually practically applied with a very limited sub-set of “humans” making the engagement and insight misleading. Limited budget, awareness, inclusive engagement skills and time combine to create this gap Extreme users are needed to stretch design and identify potential experience break points. This allows potential failures to be designed out before they get embedded in products and services. Accessibility has a negative brand Accessibility is closely connected with compliance for many people, especially those building products in organisations. The practices are also predominantly focused on technical accessibility to prevent legal or reputational risk, not real inclusion to generate better, more consistent experiences and value. Standards and guidelines by their nature must always lag customer needs, preferences and contexts. They’re also quite blunt as design or QA tools as they need to be generalized to all markets, industries and journeys. Human centred design is pervasive but poorly practiced Human centred design and accessibility are both flawed. We are working to fix them
  7. 7. ©Open Inclusion 2020 A quick look at the session today 1. Who does inclusive design include? 2. Why does it matter? 3. How can immersive technologies include or exclude users? 4. What can you do about this? 5. Discussion
  8. 8. ©Open Inclusion 2020 We are human. Humans are fabulously, endlessly diverse. ©Open Inclusion 2020
  9. 9. ©Open Inclusion 2020 9 Desigual campaign Sept 18 Difference is what we all have in common Our greatest point of consistency is our difference! Some differences are visible, most are hidden, many are variable “
  10. 10. ©Open Inclusion 2020 We are not even consistent of ourselves. We vary today to tomorrow, in different environments, moods, and as we age.
  11. 11. ©Open Inclusion 2020 This diversity may seem complex, but when designing products and services it comes down to 3 areas that mix in significantly different ways We sense differently We move differently We think and feel differently Sight Neuro- diversity DexterityHearing Health, mental health, context and event-based vulnerabilities Mobility
  12. 12. ©Open Inclusion 2020 Disabled or disabling? An unmet need, personal identity or legal definition. An unmet need The word “disability” can validly be used in three ways. So it is helpful to be clear about its context in use. A mismatch between the environment and the user at that moment. This is the social model of disability and WHO definition. Needs may be permanent, temporary, fluctuating or situational. An identity How some people wish to self-identify. A community they are proud to be part of. A legally protected characteristic under the UK Equality Act 2010 and equivalent laws in most nations. A legal definition
  13. 13. ©Open Inclusion 2020 People vary. Exclusion, which creates disability is not designing for variance “Experiences disable people with impairments” Jamie Knight (+Lion)
  14. 14. ©Open Inclusion 2020 A simple truth. An inconvenient truth. An uncomfortable truth. Inclusion isn’t about “them”. It’s designing for our humanity. Inclusive designs support our variance, today, tomorrow and in the future.
  15. 15. ©Open Inclusion 2020 A quick look at the session today 1. Who does inclusive design include? 2. Why does it matter? 3. How can immersive technologies include or exclude users? 4. What can you do about this? 5. Discussion
  16. 16. ©Open Inclusion 2020 “ Kat Holmes Ex. Microsoft Inclusive Design Current Director of UX, Google As innovators you get to define who is included or excluded in the future. This covers experiences, functionality, products, services and society. For better or worse, the people who design the touchpoints of society determine who can participate and who’s left out. Often unwittingly”.
  17. 17. ©Open Inclusion 2020 “Disabled” “Impaired” We all have varying physical and cognitive abilities We identify differently to our access needs Not designing for this market will mean your product may be unsuitable for 20% all users all the time and 100% of users some of the time Permanent Access today 1 in 5 Age related needs Temporary / situational Tomorrow 1 in 3 Specific Consideration 2 in 5 Household consideration All of us
  18. 18. ©Open Inclusion 2020 The market value of those with permanent access needs is huge, and growing as society ages. Let alone the broader market that benefits 15% Of discretionary spend in the UK and growing as the population ages £274b = ©Open Inclusion 2020
  19. 19. ©Open Inclusion 2020 19 Scale of different access needs. +60% of disabled people have more than one concurrent need. Prevalence and co-morbidity increases with age. Some hearing loss Impairment type Millions (Total = 13.9m) Mobility 6.5 Stamina / fatigue 4.9 Dexterity 3.5 Mental health 3.4 Memory 2.1 Hearing 1.8 Vision 1.6 Learning 1.8 Social / behavioural 1.2 Other 2.3 Please note that due to co-morbidities (people having more than 1 need impacting them at the same time), this list adds to more than the 13.9m total people who are legally defined as disabled in the UK. Source Family Resources Survey 2017/18 Mobility Stamina /fatigue Dexterity Mental health Memory Hearing Vision Learning Social ©Open Inclusion 2020
  20. 20. ©Open Inclusion 2020 20 Inclusion is a filter that makes the identification of transformative, valuable ideas easier Unmet consumer needs Valuable innovation Emerging technologies and capability
  21. 21. ©Open Inclusion 2020 21 The value of inclusive design is both tactical and strategic (short- and long-term benefits) There are 4 major reasons that inclusive design is a strategic advantage as a business Customer Reach / Experience Cost of Development and Management Innovation Risk Management • Include 20% more users with a permanent access need • Include 100% of us as and when our needs arise • Improved usability and experience • Brand attributes • 1% of cost at design stage to understand and design needs in can equate to more than 100% of additional cost once live • Economising early on costs a lot more than you may realise • More needs and constraints awareness offers insight to deep opportunities • Solving these opportunities has given us Siri, touchscreens, typewriters, haptics … • It is a legal requirement not to exclude people without a reasonable alternative provided based on disability • Even more importantly, failing this can create major reputational costs
  22. 22. ©Open Inclusion 2020 A quick look at the session today 1. Who does inclusive design include? 2. Why does it matter? 3. How can immersive technologies include or exclude users? 4. What can you do about this? 5. Discussion
  23. 23. ©Open Inclusion 2020 23 So how do we do this when everyone is different? Sensory difference Physical difference Cognitive difference Sight Neuro- diverse DexterityHearing Health, mental health and event-based vulnerabilities Mobility
  24. 24. ©Open Inclusion 2020 24 Disclaimer! Please note these slides are an initial quick start guide only. They are by no means definitive, covering all users needs, requirements or available materials. Please keep reading and learning as there is so much more available and coming out every month right now. Vision – quick start guide The range of needs that this category includes Blind Partially sighted Colour blind Light or colour sensitivity Motion sensitivity Hardware, content and interaction challenges Projects, resources and reference materials • IMAC Project addressing needs of users with hearing and vision impairments with an accessible 360o content player. Access services include subtitles, Sign Language, audio description and audio subtitles. Assistive technology support (zoom, guiding indicator, voice control) • Microsoft’s Seeing VR for low vision users or Canetroller for blind users that leverages haptic feedback via the users’ cane in a virtual space • Enable visual content augmentation. This includes magnification, key content enhancement, colour contrast and modification to preferences • Standardise semantics for scenes and models (e.g. gITF format) • Incorporate sound and voiced alternatives for all core visual content such as audio described key content. • Leverage binaural audio for detailing key information via directional sound input. A rich, enhanced augmented experience in and of itself!
  25. 25. ©Open Inclusion 2020 Case study – SeeingVR from Microsoft for low vision users 25 User preference based (applicable with no developer support) • Magnification and bi-focus lens • Brightness lens • Increased contrast • Edge enhancement • Colour adjustment • Text augmentation • Text to speech – audio augmentation • Peripheral re-mapping • Depth measurement tool Developer supported tools (need developer support) • Object description • Guideline tool • Use of Mobile Apps that help people with low vision • Unity toolkit – 3 new game object fields SeeingVR – set of 14 tools to augment VR experiences
  26. 26. ©Open Inclusion 2020 26 Hearing – quick start guide The range of needs that this category includes D/deaf Hard of hearing Noise sensitive Tinnitus • Incorporate captioning or signed content as alternative to audio content • Captions, sub-titling or signed content placement and customisation • Modify / enhance audio content – options to reduce background noise and / or enhance key content or modify problematic sounds • Any auditory affordances need visual alternatives • Binaural audio track that is customizable and offers alternative settings Hardware, content and interaction challenges Projects, resources and reference materials • IMAC Project addressing needs of users with hearing and vision impairments with an accessible 360o content player. Access services include subtitles, Sign Language, audio description and audio subtitles. Assistive technology support (zoom, guiding indicator, voice control) • The W3C immersive captions community group which covers best practices for access, activation, display and placement of captions
  27. 27. ©Open Inclusion 2020 Case study – ImAc Player 27 The player includes • A portal for language selection, personalisation, search and filter, content catalogue and content selection • A user interface that provides responsive design, is adapted specifically to VR environments, allows voice control and visual feedback to commands • Menu opened and managed by voice control or looking down to limit menu overlays breaking experience • Access services that include support for, • Subtitles (attached to speakers and locations of action, or always centered with guiding mechanisms available) • Sign Language (covering different languages, appear only as required and with options for placement) • Audio Description (3D audio based, 3 placement modes supported, independent audio settings), and • Audio Subtitles (when content is in a foreign language) ImAc Project and Player – an EU funded programme
  28. 28. ©Open Inclusion 2020 28 Mobility / dexterity – quick start guide The range of needs that this category includes Wheelchair/mobility aid users Slow ambulation Limited stamina, flexibility or balance Functional nerve or muscular limitation Limb loss Chronic pain Arm, hand or finger loss or limitation regarding flexion, function, coordination or strength. Tremor Hand size variance • Setting up for use. What motion or dexterity is required to setup and finish an experience? How can this be designed for greater ease for all? • Reduction of physical discomfort while wearing the device and engaging with the content • A need for easier interfaces with alternative input mechanism so assistive or adaptive devices (voice, switch, eye-tracking, keyboard etc.) can be used in place of the standard player • Ability for users to adapt physical interaction elements such as touch target size, accuracy or speed, for those with limited dexterity or movement Hardware, content and interaction challenges Projects, resources and reference materials • Roland Dubois’ Motrocity in the Immersive Web presentation Nov 19 • W3C Github on User Needs and Requirements • 3DRudder,(feet) Ultraleap (mid-air haptic) alternative inputs
  29. 29. ©Open Inclusion 2020 Case study – 3DRudder in conjunction with Xbox Adaptive controller 29 xx • xx xxx The controller is, • A peripheral alternate input device • Can be used as a foot keyboard, joystick, mouse or VR motion controller sticks • Can be connected to PC or VR games (available on Steam VR and the Oculus Store) • Enables seated position low effort, controlled action • Provides foot spin and buttons that are customisable • Can be used in conjunction with other adaptive controllers such as the Xbox adaptive 3DRudder – a foot motion VR gaming controller A recent accident has left me without the use of my left hand.Thanks to peripherals like the 3dRudder, I am excited to be able to continue playing my favorite games
  30. 30. ©Open Inclusion 2020 30 Memory or learning - quick start guide The range of needs that this category includes Memory: Acute, chronic, fluctuating or progressive memory challenges which can be precipitated by situational, illness, injury or disease factors. Learning: Specific learning difficulty such as reading, numbers or spacial challenges. Generalised processing or decisioning challenges. • Reduce setup (hardware and content) complexity a massive challenge to many users, particularly acute for those who learn differently or have memory challenges • Provide staged learning and additional cues or layered information that allow for alternate learning styles and memory • Allow users to turn off non-critical information to concentrate focus on key elements of the experience • Ensure there is an easy to find and quick to trigger “safe space” if the user becomes overwhelmed at any point • Allow for alternate speeds of information absorption and interaction Hardware, content and interaction challenges Projects, resources and reference materials • W3C Guide, Making content usable for people with cognitive disabilities • Simulators of various conditions such as A Walk Through Dementia help designers consider differing needs by leveraging immersive technologies
  31. 31. ©Open Inclusion 2020 31 Communication and social – quick start guide The range of needs that this category includes Communication: Speech, articulation including stutter/clutter/lisp, aphasia, sign language, lip reading, accents and non-native language usage. Social: interaction challenges such as Autism, Tourette's or ADD/ADHD. • Allow all and any voice inputs both for setup and in-content experience to have an alternate input option • Ensure any support services such as call centres have an online or text chat alternative • For all multi-player interactive experiences design in quiet spaces just as you would for physical environment • Provide user set time limits for those who may otherwise lose track of time in an immersive environment Hardware, content and interaction challenges Projects, resources and reference materials • Using immersive technologies to simulate neurodiverse experiences in the real world such as BBC Project Cape and The National Autistic Society TMI Experience
  32. 32. ©Open Inclusion 2020 Besides challenges, immersive technologies are also providing some fabulous solutions for people with various health conditions, disabilities and other access needs IrisVision for Low Vision Pain RelieVR for pain relief VR for managing social anxiety Neurological and physical rehab
  33. 33. ©Open Inclusion 2020 A quick look at the session today 1. Who does inclusive design include? 2. Why does it matter? 3. How can immersive technologies include or exclude users? 4. What can you do about this? 5. Discussion
  34. 34. ©Open Inclusion 2020 Inclusive insight provides rich design inputs You will learn so much more when you ask people with specific access needs
  35. 35. ©Open Inclusion 2020 To create great inclusive experiences you need 3 things – whether you are developing immersive experiences or for any other interface or environment Listen Ongoing insight Design Improve experiences Embed Integrate capability
  36. 36. ©Open Inclusion 2020 These 3 steps ideally form an ongoing cycle of improvement reinforcing each other
  37. 37. ©Open Inclusion 2020 Demographics Ages: 18 - 85 Ethnicity Socio-economic Sexual identity Physical Mobility Manual dexterity Balance Speech impediment Limb loss / loss of function Sensory Blind Partially sighted Colour blind Deaf/deaf Hard of hearing DeafBlind Neurodiversity Mental health Dyslexia/dyspraxia Learning difficulties Cognitively diverse Autism spectrum Language difficulties Other Just older No smell/taste Under 4'11” Over 6’ 3” Major health challenges Complex conditions Chronic pain The Open Research Panel (500 people), an unfair advantage that you may wish to benefit from
  38. 38. ©Open Inclusion 2020 39 In practice: what one day of testing with a diverse user group can identify Impairment Experience Low vision Blind Hard of Hearing D/deaf Dexterity Mobility / balance Attention / learning / dys. Autism spectrum TOTAL Physical set up 2 3 1 1 3 2 2 1 15 Content set up 2 3 2 2 2 0 2 1 14 Core visual content 2 3 0 0 0 2 1 2 10 Core auditory content 0 0 2 3 0 0 1 1 7 Visual prompts 2 3 0 0 0 0 2 1 8 Auditory prompts 0 0 2 3 0 0 1 1 7 Hand Controls (Vive & Oculus) 1 2 0 0 3 2 2 2 12 Head movement 0 0 0 0 1 2 1 1 5 Body movement (6DOF) 2 2 0 0 0 3 2 1 10 Sensory overload 1 1 1 1 0 1 2 2 9 TOTAL 12 17 8 10 9 12 16 13 Rated 0 – no difficulty 1 – some friction / difficulty 2 – significant difficulty 3 – barrier
  39. 39. ©Open Inclusion 2020 Humans are fabulously, endlessly diverse. No two peoples’ senses, physicality, cognition, skills and preferences are the same. Design needs to understand and reflect these human differences. Then we’ll solve more problems, create better products and optimize value. It’s not the efforts made, time or money invested, or the guidelines and standards complied with, but the impact on target users that actually counts. Let’s make experiences that are great for us all. Designing fabulous XR experiences for the real world
  40. 40. ©Open Inclusion 2020 A quick look at the session today 1. Who does inclusive design include? 2. Why does it matter? 3. How can immersive technologies include or exclude users? 4. What can you do about this? 5. Discussion
  41. 41. ©Open Inclusion 2020 Further resources for your reference XRAccess is a global community established last year that is dedicated to making immersive experiences accessible to people with all abilities. There are 6 working groups Game accessibility guidelines from an industry that has been considering XR for longer than most others and is has a great team of experts working on accessibility. Reach out to the group AbleGamers if you are interested in this industry segment. RNIB in the UK is very actively involved in the IMAC project mentioned earlier and immersive inclusion for people who are blind or have low vision. (Sonali Rai is the best point of contact there) Some places you may find more information and resources to help you W3C Workshop “Inclusive Design for Immersive Web Standards” Proceedings from November 2019 in Seattle W3C Github covering User Needs and Requirements in immersive technologies Why VR/AR Developers Should Prioritize Accessibility in UX/UI Design article by Ben Formaker-Olivas on Medium Open Inclusion come and ask us about getting valuable, inclusive user insight and design guidance for your next (or current) immersive project. We understand XR and can help you co-design or test your designs with people with personal access requirements that will test and stretch your solutions, making them better for all.
  42. 42. ©Open Inclusion 2020 openinclusion.com@openforaccess better for all Thank you for your time! christine@openinclusion.com

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