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O ciclo da cana de-açúcar

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Aula sobre o Ciclo da cana de açúcar, com destaque para o Brasil Colonial, a escravidão africana e a sociedade colonial.

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O ciclo da cana de-açúcar

  1. 1. O CICLO DA CANA-DE- AÇÚCAR 8º ANO14/05/12 Prof. Cristina Soares 1
  2. 2. 14/05/12 Prof. Cristina Soares 2
  3. 3. A cana foi plantada do Maranhão até Laguna (SC), do litoral até a Linha do Tratado de Tordesilhas.  Em faixas de terras, chamadas de Capitanias Hereditárias14/05/12 Prof. Cristina Soares 3
  4. 4.  O ciclo da cana dura aproximadamente 150 anos: De 1530 a 1690.14/05/12 Prof. Cristina Soares 4
  5. 5. QUEM ESTAVA ENVOLVIDO? Rei de Portugal; Portugueses : capitão-mor ou donatário; Escravos africanos e afro- descendentes; Feitores.14/05/12 Prof. Cristina Soares 5
  6. 6. 14/05/12 Prof. Cristina Soares 6
  7. 7. POR QUE O AFRICANO ENÃO O ÍNDIO? Interesse comercial (Holanda lucrava com o comércio de escravos); Reforma Religiosa (A Igreja Católica estava perdendo fiéis – Companhia de Jesus).14/05/12 Prof. Cristina Soares 7
  8. 8. 14/05/12 Prof. Cristina Soares 8
  9. 9. POR QUE PLANTAR CANA O comércio com as Índias estava em decadência; Os impostos diminuiram; Portugal precisava uma nova fonte de renda; O açúcar da cana era muito procurado na Europa; O Brasil oferecia as condições ideais para o plantio: solo fértil (massapé), chuvas bem distribuídas e muita terra (latifúndio).14/05/12 Prof. Cristina Soares 9
  10. 10. 14/05/12 Prof. Cristina Soares 10
  11. 11. CAPITANIAS HEREDITÁRIAS Faixas de terras, divididas em lotes; Quem recebia a terra, recebia junto o título de capitão- mor; As terras passavam de pai para filho.14/05/12 Prof. Cristina Soares 11
  12. 12. PROSPERAR = FABRICAR MUITO AÇÚCAR  Somente duas capitanias prosperaram:  Pernambuco  São Vicente14/05/12 Prof. Cristina Soares 12
  13. 13. ENGENHO INSTALAÇÕES: Casa-grande, senzala, capela, casa de máquinas, plantações.MÁQUINA DE MOER CANA: real e trapiche.14/05/12 Prof. Cristina Soares 13
  14. 14. 14/05/12 Prof. Cristina Soares 14
  15. 15. 14/05/12 Prof. Cristina Soares 15
  16. 16. TRABALHO ESCRAVO14/05/12 Prof. Cristina Soares 16
  17. 17. EXIGÊNCIAS PARA O PLANTIO DA CANA Latifúndio (muita terra); Solo e clima favoráveis; Mão-de-obra barata; Dinheiro para investir; Produção voltada para o mercado externo.14/05/12 Prof. Cristina Soares 18
  18. 18. PRODUÇÃO DO AÇÚCAR A cana é cortada, depois é moída (garapa), O caldo é fervido em enormes tachos, Vira um melado, O melado é colocado em formas de barro, Espera-se para apurar, Separa-se o açúcar mascavo, do grosso e do açúcar fino, O açúcar fino é ensacado e vendido para a Holanda para refinar.
  19. 19. As formas de barro eramchamadas de “pão-de-açúcar” Isso lembra alguma coisa...
  20. 20. DECADÊNCIA DO CICLO DA CANA Causas:
  21. 21.  Descobriu-se na Europa, o açúcar feito de beterraba: a “sacarose”, A beterraba é típica também de climas frios, A Holanda consegue terras na América Central ( Antilhas – Haiti), Holanda produz açúcar nas Antilhas e ela mesmo refina (deixa de refinar o nosso açúcar e compra-lo), Paulistas (bandeirantes) descobrem ouro no sertão das Minas Gerais.
  22. 22. CHEGA AO FIM O CICLO DA CANAQuando o ouro é encontrado, começa um novo ciclo: MINERAÇÃO. O nordeste prosperou com a cana, A sede da colônia passou a ser Salvador.O escravo africano e afro-descendente passou a ser usado como escravo. No nordeste mais áreas foram desmatadas. Formou-se uma sociedade açúcareira no nordeste.
  23. 23. BIBLIOGRAFIA PROJETO ARARIBÀ, História, 7 ano, Moderna, 1ª Edição, São Paulo, 2006 www.blogdofrave.ig.com.brhttp://www.google.com.br/search?um=1&hl=pt-BR&biw= EMEF. “PROF WALDEMAR RAMOS” SÃO JOSÉ DOS CAMPOS-SP 2011 PROFESSORA CRISTINA SOARES

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