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Part of the What You Need to Know to Be Certified strand of sessions from the Journalism Education Association, this session focuses on photojournalism. The session has key concepts, examples and teaching strategies to help journalism teachers and/or those working toward Certification as a CJE or MJE.

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  1. 1. JEA standards• 1A.10. Value of photojournalism to tell stories in compelling ways• CJE test format: multiple choice, short answer, demonstration exercises
  2. 2. overview• photo storytelling• basic terms and techniques• rules of composition• lighting basics• file formats• photo organization and storage• types of lenses• photojournalism law and ethics• software• resources
  3. 3. visual storytellingGood photos tell stories by providing unique perspectives,capturing important moments and showing things peoplehaven’t seen before. Photo types:• action• reaction• mug shot• environmental portrait• cutout background (COB)• photo illustration
  4. 4. telling the whole story• angles: bird’s eye view (high), normal eye view, worm’s eye view (low)• distances: close-up, medium range, wide angle photos by Taylor Howse, Jamie Nakagawa, Kara Stone
  5. 5. coaching student photogs• arrive early• know your subject• bring extra batteries, cards• get close• stay out of the action• take notes photo by Lisa Aerts• move around• get the safe shots first
  6. 6. action photo by Justin Pugh
  7. 7. reaction photo used with permission from Jostens
  8. 8. important concepts• aperture• depth of field• shutter speed• sensitivity to light (ISO)• exposure• equivalent exposures
  9. 9. aperture (f-stops)• the part of the lens that controls the amount of light reaching the film, like the pupil of the eye• each f-stop lets in twice as much light as each higher f-stop and half as much light as each lower f-stop. For example, f/ 5.6 lets in twice as much light as f/4 and half as much light as f/8.• the less the light available, the lower the number f-stop (wider aperture) necessary graphic used with permission from Bradley Wilson
  10. 10. depth of field• the area in front of and behind the focal point that stays in focus• lower numbered f/stops have a shallow depth of field (only the main focal point is in focus, blurred out background)• higher numbered f/stops have higher depth of field
  11. 11. depth of field photo by Andrew Dowda low aperture, such as f/2.8, gives this photoa shallow depth of field
  12. 12. shutter speed• how long the lens of the camera stays open• each shutter speed lets in half as much light as the next slower shutter speed and twice as much light as the next faster shutter speed• need to balance with the amount of light available graphic used with permission from Bradley Wilson
  13. 13. shutter speed photos by Liz Grovera fast shutter speed will stop the action
  14. 14. sensitivity to light• International Standards Organization• the measure of the film’s or images sensors’ sensitivity to light• the higher the number, the more sensitive the film or the image sensors are to light• the higher the number, the more grainy (film) or noise (digital) graphic used with permission of Bradley Wilson
  15. 15. sensitivity to lightusing a higher ISOhelps in low-lightsituations but cancause photos tohave too muchgrain (film) or noise(digital) photo by Renzo Giusti, from Flickr with Creative Commons licensing
  16. 16. exposurecamera exposure modes (most digital cameras) • P or Program or Auto: camera sets both aperture and shutter speed • AV or Aperture Priority: user sets aperture, camera sets shutter speed • TV or Shutter Priority: user sets shutter speed, camera sets aperture • M or Manual: user sets both shutter speed and aperture
  17. 17. exposureunderexposing subject by using backlighting anddropping the f/stops down two levels creates asilhouetteeven on automatic settings like program mode,you can achieve this by shooting directly into lightwithout using flash
  18. 18. photo by Hailey Heikkenen
  19. 19. photo by Hannah Feagansbasic rule: In bright sunlight, at f/16 usea shutter speed closest to the ISO. Thisphoto was shot using ISO 400 at f/16 withshutter speed 500 (closest to 400).
  20. 20. equivalent exposures• two different exposures that allow the same amount of light to reach the film or image sensors, using a different aperture and shutter speed combination• depending on what effect you want, for every f/stop you drop down, go up a shutter speed graphic used with permission of Bradley Wilson
  21. 21. composition• rule of thirds• fill the frame• leading lines• framing• creative angles• repetition• center of visual interest
  22. 22. rule of thirdspoints of interest should be at the intersection of the tic-tac-toe lines graphic used with permission of Jostens
  23. 23. fill the frameget in closeso that the center ofinterest is obvious photo by Elyssa Seals
  24. 24. leading lines and leading looksuse the naturallines in the settingto add visualinterest; leadinglooks are based onthe eyes ordirection of thesubject with photo by Kelsey Kehreesimplied ratherthan actual lines
  25. 25. framinguse an object toact as a pictureframe for thesubject photo used with permission from Jostens
  26. 26. creative angles up, down,behind the subject photos by Jake Leech, Elyssa Seals
  27. 27. repetitioncapturerepeatingobjects or apattern photo by Brycen Guerrero
  28. 28. center of visual interestclear focal point; obvious subject photo by Margaret Tinker
  29. 29. lighting basics• key: the main light on your subject• fill: the light that balances the key light; usually set on the opposite side of the key light, twice as far from the subject• back: lighting that lights the background behind the subject• hair: lighting the hair of the subject• harsh: a bright direct light that casts distinct shadows• soft: a softer, indirect light that casts muted shadows• diffused: a light that has been dispersed by cloth, material, or frosted glass for example• natural: sunlight• artificial: lamp light
  30. 30. ideal lighting conditions• outdoor sports: natural light if possible• indoor sports: strobe flash if possible• portraits: key, fill, back and hair light if possible. If no article light kit available, use window as key and reflective surface as fill.• indoor activities: key and fill light
  31. 31. file formatsthe four most common file formats used are: • TIF - Tagged Image File Format, uncompressed and compressed formats • PNG - Portable Network Graphics, standardized compression • JPG - Joint Photographic Experts Group, compressed format • GIF - Graphics Interchange Format, compressed format dating back to CompuServe in the 1980s
  32. 32. file formatscompression comes in two forms: lossless and lossy • lossless compression loses none of the image information during compression and decompression. • lossy compression as its name says removes some of the original photographic detail. Lossy compression can reduce the size of image files to a far greater extent than lossless compression
  33. 33. RAW file format• digital equivalent of negative in film• contains raw pixel information directly from camera’s sensors• developed in several steps into a final JPEG or TIFF, each of which may contain several irreversible image adjustments• RAW offers more control over how final JPEG or TIFF is generated• also takes up a lot of space on memory card or computer
  34. 34. organization• encourage students to know and sort their own photos• keep your photos, just separate the good from the not-so-good• if you change a format or alter the photo in Photoshop, be sure to make a copy of the original
  35. 35. example of yearbook photo organization academicsPROJECT
  36. 36. example of yearbook photo organizationsports
  37. 37. example of newspaperPROJECT
  38. 38. types of lenses• fisheye (15mm): extreme wide angle lens• wide-angle lenses (20-35mm): good for moving close to subject but still getting a lot in the frame; distortion along the edges• normal (50mm): routine shooting• short telephoto (85-135mm): good for portraits, candids and some sporting events• long telephoto (200-400mm): when subject is distant; good for sporting events and wildlife photos
  39. 39. legal/ethical issues• invasion of privacy• copyright infringement• digital manipulation• ethical dilemmas• photo vs. photo illustration
  40. 40. invasion of privacy• public disclosure of private and embarrassing facts• intrusion upon seclusion • trespass • secret surveillance • misrepresentation• false light• misappropriation
  41. 41. copyright infringementgenerally, copyright can apply generally, copyright doesto the following: NOT protect:• photos • facts/ideas• illustrations • most federal government records• cartoons • works in public domain• music (e.g., copyright expired)• logos • odds & ends (titles,• most things on the Internet slogans, short phrases, familiar symbols, etc.)
  42. 42. basic fair use rules• If you did not create it and/or you don’t own the copyright to it, you must get permission to use it• Except for the FAIR USE RULE • using a limited amount of a copyrighted work for news, criticism, educational or informational purposes without consent may be permissible as a “fair use” • not every use by a student media organization is a fair use
  43. 43. common fair use examples graphics created by the Student Press law Center, Media Law Presentations
  44. 44. common fair use examples graphics created by the Student Press law Center, Media Law Presentations
  45. 45. photo software• Image Capture: great for quickly uploading and organizing photos• iPhoto: easy uploading and editing• Adobe Photoshop: advanced editing• Picasa: free Google product• Picnik: backgrounds, effects and more• special plug-ins: iCorrect Professional by Pictographics, Lightroom by Adobe, etc
  46. 46. where to look• photo editing: material/photography-manual/camera-basics/ (copyright Bradley Wilson)• curriculum: photojournalism/ (copyright Bradley Wilson) (Visual Journalism)• photo ethics: photoethics.html
  47. 47. text resources• Photojournalism: A Professional’s Approach by Kenneth Cobre• Get the Picture by Jostens• JEA Photojournalism Curriculum
  48. 48. getting answers• commission chair Mark Newton:• JEA web site > Certification• study guide online at certification• follow us on Twitter @jeaCertified or like our Facebook fan page