CHAPTER 2: CLASSROOM
When first starting planning and running
activities. Management issues.
1_ Planning an activity
Basic building block of a lesson: TASK SOMETHING THAT LEARNERS DO,
INVOLVING THEIR LANGUAGE TO
ACHIEVE A SPECIFIC OUTCOME
Make sure learners have always something to do, whatever the stage of the
lesson, even while it is teacher’s time of presenting the topic.
Focus should be placed on what students do if we want them to become
enganged in the class (no matter if it is just listening to an explanation)
If coursebook material is used, the teacher may give the exercises a different
perspective, organization or variation according to his or her aims.
“The coursebook provides raw material which only comes alive in class”
2_ Activity route map
Before the lesson
• Get yourself familiar with what you are going to use as material
• 1- Preparation for the activity: - to raise motivation or interest,
- focusing on language items for the activity.
• 2- Setting up the activity: give clear instructions (sometimes a demonstration or
example is useful), make grouping, etc.
• 3- Running the activity: students do the activity while the teacher monitors to check
if the activity is being done properly to get the target, and helps.
• 4- Closing the activity: round up correctly (bearing in mind different times used by
different students or group of students – give warning time) and invite feedback from
• 5- Post activity: do any appropriate follow-on work (typically under-planned)
3_ Exploiting an activity
Analyse your own teaching material, when it comes to
4_ Pair work
• It resembles most real life
communication when there is a gap of
information, i.e. one person knows
something that another person does not.
There appears a reason for talking.
Type 1: pairwork
• The essential heart of learning grammar
seems to be that students have plenty of
opportunities to try things out
Type 2: pairwork
5_ Small group work
For instance, using a board game to get students to discuss in small grouops.
It helps focus attention and students may find it more exciting and humorous
than plain discussion. It only needs little adaptation according to the topic.