Toyota Kata - from "Lean Implementation" to a "lasting Lean Transformatio…
This is an introductory presentation about Toyota Kata and its approach to deliberately developing skills for consistently and sustainably achieving challenging target conditions, in the contrast of usual lean implementation projects.
Lean Kata Workshop is derived from Toyota Kata Workshop developed by MIKE ROTHER, the author of Toyota Kata and the University of Michigan 精益套路的培训课程是从美国密西根大学的“丰田套路”改造而来的。这门课的主脑人物是Mike Rother，《丰田套路》的作者
The improvement kata is a way of achieving things that you don’t know how you are going to achieve.It is a systematic, scientific way of working toward challenging objectives, based on a four-part routine.
In management by means, managers are concerned with how people are working toward objectivesThere are only 3 things we can and need to know with certainty:只有3件事情我们可以确切地知道Where we are 我们在哪里Where we want to be 我们想要到那里去By what means we should navigate the unclear territory between here and there. 可以通过什么方法来指引我们通过不确定的灰色区域
If you take a waste walk through your organization, you can find plenty of problems, wastes, opportunities
Use videoWith this approach we: May not achieve meaningful improvement that moves the organization forward (random improvements here and there !) Don’t learn much!这样做，我们:只能解决一些点上的问题，这里一点，那里一点，很难引导公司向前大步迈进很难学习到新的知识
The idea is that ImprovementKata is way that our organization practices the pattern of methods, practices and coaching.
The five questions provide a routine and mental pattern for approaching any process or situation, and help people learn the improvement kata.The questions are another mini kata for practicing, and can be used every day. Keep these questions in mind each time you visit a process.
The routine of the improvement kata isnʼt inherently difficult, but it can be difficult to practice, because weʼre not used to it and default to the familiar.As in sports and music, practicing a skill should be done under periodic observation and guidance of an experienced coach.Without coaching we lose our way and donʼt practice the right pattern, or practice ineffectively. Without coaching, a change in the learner's mindset is unlikely to occur.So there is a need for a coaching kata to complement the improvement kata. Thatʼs what coaching cycles are.Coaching cycles can be used at any stage of the improvement kata, although the “target condition” will differ from stage to stage
One of the coach’s tasks is to determine whether or not the learner is operating within the corridor of thinking and acting prescribed by the improvement kata.The coach does this by asking questions and by observing the learner in action. The coach is comparing the learner’s pattern of thinking and action with the pattern of the improvement kata.If the learner is outside the improvement kata corridor, the coach either provides an input or allows a small failure to occur and then provides input.
Many of companies have not sustained PDCA’s. There is where Lean Kata lies to teach employees how to sustain PDCA practices.
Toyota Kata - from "Lean Implementation" to a "lasting Lean Transformatio…
Toyota Kata 精益套路from “Lean Implementation” to “a lasting Lean Transformation” Dario Spinola 戴睿
About this MaterialPresentation prepared by:Dario Spinola (戴睿)Marcus Chao (赵克强)Zhang Dong (张冬)Ken Liu (刘健)Adapted from Toyota Kata material (University of Michigan) and Slidesharefrom Mike Rother (TK Handbook).Thanks to BILL CONSTANTINO and MIKE ROTHER for continuedencouraging, coaching and support.
Content1. Introduction – background of what we’ve learned so far with Lean2. Deliberate practices for learning new skills3. Improvement and Coaching Kata Kata is about practice new skill to develop new behavior pattern4. How to deploy Improvement Kata5. Q & A 3
What We All Have Learned So Far TPM Kanban Manufacturing Cells SMED 5SStandard Work for Visual Systems Leaders Kamishibai Poka Yoke Operational Standardized Work Management Heijunka VSM Our Lean Solution Tool Kit Box 4
Let’s See Some Visible Examples Of What We Know And What To Countermeasure In Some Apparent Problems (Wastes) 5
How Can We Address This?PROBLEM:Transferring ofparts fromprocess A toprocess B. 6
How Can We Address This?PROBLEM: POSSIBLE COUNTER-Transferring of MEASURE:parts fromprocess A to Flow: arrangeprocess B. layout to put process A and B together. 7
How Can We Address This?PROBLEM:Operatorswaiting towork. 8
How Can We Address This?PROBLEM: POSSIBLE COUNTER-Operators MEASURES:waiting towork. •Supermarket kanban; •Assembly cells 9
How Can We Address This?PROBLEM:Space used istoo high. 10
How Can We Address This?PROBLEM: POSSIBLE COUNTER-Space used is MEASURE:too high. •U-cell layout arrangement Cell Area 47,4 m2 11
How Can We Address This?PROBLEM:Oil leakage,dirty,equipmentflaws. 12
How Can We Address This?PROBLEM: POSSIBLE COUNTER-Oil leakage, MEASURES:dirty,equipment •5Sflaws. •TPM 13
How Can We Address This? Production PlanningPROBLEM: SupplierHigh WIP andnot meetingcustomers’ I Injection Assembly Ineeds. Several Part Numbers 14
How Can We Address This? Production PlanningPROBLEM: Supplier POSSIBLE COUNTER-High WIP and MEASURES:not meetingcustomers’ I Injection Assembly I •Pull Systemneeds. through kanban Several Part Numbers supermarket and Heijunka Production Planning Injection Assembly 15
How We Usually See Those ProblemsWe quickly (usually unconsciously) use our past experience (knowledge) to address solutions for visible problems. … but in most of those cases the “achievements” are done as periodic improvement and usually designed by small group of people. … and we commonly see failing on the programs, back to old way. Reference for reading: Why Lean Programs Fail (by Jeffrey Liker and Mike Rother) 16
Two Key Questions1. How can we get the people to deeply learn and develop those countermeasures?2. How can we develop the people to sustain what’s achieved and truly keep improving it through continuous and small improvements? 17
Back to the Two Key Questions1. How can we get the people to deeply learn and develop those countermeasures?2. How can we develop the people to sustain what’s achieved and truly keep improving it through continuous and small improvements? Here’s the main context where we are more interested to apply deliberately new behavior. The learning for question 1 will come naturally as effect. 19
“KATA”“套路”方 The suffix kata means way of doing. 套路 就是做事的方式 It refers to a pattern of behavior, which can be practiced to become second nature. 它是一种行为模式，可以通过练习而成为本 能。 Next slide contains a video of a conversation between Mike Rother and Marcus Chao, and Mike explains the definition of kata. 20
BEHAVIOR = UNCOUNSCIOUS HABITS Quick ExperimentUsual way = unconscious, quick, feel normal and comfortableOther way = deliberate, slow, feel strange 21
Kata Develops New MindsetWith kata a new set of behavior (pattern) can besteadily developed and ultimately a new mindsetis reached. As the new pattern of practice is incorporated into individuals, groups and, ultimately, covering the entire organization, a kata culture can then be established. 22
Brain: How We Learn New Things Learning something new Rearranging the way our brain works.Over repeated practices the neurons pathways are created and strengthened: FAST THINKING, HABIT (NEW BEHAVIOR), COMFORTABLE. Next slide contains a video illustrating how our brain works in terms of learning new things. 23
Learning by Deliberate PracticeDeliberate daily practice Learn new SKILLS to dealof IMPROVEMENT KATA with any change andand COACHING KATA adaptiveness.toward Goals (TargetConditions). Two powerful “PRACTICES” to make it happens 24
Why to adopt Kata approach? (Benefits)Kata is about Management and Leadership for: • Meet company’s goals • Define the “know- how” that people need to develop solutions and constantly adapt (not learn the Solutions, because the conditions are constantly changing) • Solve problems • Generate continuous improvement 25
IMPROVEMENT KATA 改善套路1 In consideration of a vision or direction…考虑愿景或者方向2 Grasp the current condition. 掌握现状3 Define the next Target condition. 确定下一个目标状态4 Move toward that target condition with PDCA, which uncovers obstacles that need to be worked on. 实施PDCA朝目标迈进， 在这个过程中会发现许多需要克服的障碍。 2 4 3 1 Current Target Vision Obstacles for Condition Condition Customer 现状 障碍 目标状态 愿景 26
DEVELOPING SOLUTIONS 解决方案 Obstacles 障碍 We are Plan is We want made here Here Unclear Territory to be here 在这里我们在这里 制定计划 next 不确定的区域 我们想要 This is a grey zone! 这是一个灰色区域 到达这里 27
In most processes there are many problems, wastes and opportunities to improve 绝大多数的流程中有许多的问题和浪费， 因此也存在大量改进的机会 Problems / wastes / opportunities 问题、浪费、机会 CurrentCondition 现状 28
We tend to ask, “What can we do to improve?” hunt for wastes or respond to problems, and work to eliminate them 在解决问题的过程中，我们会问:“能改善什么？” Current Condition 现状 Random Improvements! Don’t learn much! 29
The improvement kata is a different approach，we ask: ”What do we need to do?”“改善套路”采用一种不同的方式，当我们向下一个目标迈进 时，我们会问：“需要做什么？” Target Current Condition Condition 目标状态 现状 PDCA cycles toward the next target condition 通过PDCA循环向下一个目标迈进 30
Note the difference! 注意两者之间的不同点！ CurrentCondition 现状 Target Current Condition Condition 现状 目标状态 31
A LINEAR VIEW OF THE IMPROVEMENT KATA 改善套路的步骤 Setup for good PDCA 为PDCA做准备Understand Grasp the Establish the PDCA Toward to the Current Target Target Condition Direction Condition Condition理解企业的愿景 掌握现状 确定 通过实践PDCA向 目标状态 目标迈进 32
INGREDIENTS FOR LEARNING A NEW SKILL 学习新技能的要素 PRACTICE METHOD 练习 方法 The pattern or routine to Learner repeatedly be practiced 练习的模式 applies a pattern,following guidelines for The Improvement Kata effective practice 改善套路 学员根据教练的指导 持续地练习 COACHING 辅导 Learner receives guidance in practicing the pattern每日Daily 学员在练习过程中，会有教练 来辅导 33
Coaching KataCoaching Kata is the way to develop the leaders ascoaches who have the responsibility for teaching theimprovement kata every day. With the Coaching Kata the coach (teacher) guides the learner to move forward with the learning of the new way of thinking and acting (kata) as well as doing improvements by achieving target conditions. 34
THE FIVE QUESTIONS 5个问题1) What is the target condition?目标状态是什么？ 目标状态2) What is the actual condition now?现状是什么？ Target3) What obstacles are now preventing you from Condition reaching the target condition? Which one are you addressing now? 障碍是什么？正在解决 哪个问题？4) What is your next step? 下一步做什么？5) When can we go and see what we have learned from taking that step? 何时我们可以去 实地观察并看看结果，我们从中学到了什么？ 35
EACH STEP IS A PDCA CYCLE TOWARD THE TARGET CONDITION Next Target Condition Target Next Step Condition Next Step Next Step Use the five questions at each step Current 每步都问5个问题Condition 36
WHEN TO USE THE FIVE TK QUESTIONS Understand Grasp the Establish the PDCA Toward to the Current Target Target Condition Direction Condition Condition 理解企业的愿景 掌握现状 确定目标状态 通过实践PDCA向 目标迈进Coach Learner Coach Learner Coach Learner Coach Learner 教练 学员 教练 学员 教练 学员 教练 学员 37
THEREʼS AN OVERLAP OF RESPONSIBILITY BETWEEN COACH AND LEARNER 教练和学员的职责相互连贯 学员负责实践 The learner is responsible for the DOING. 教练的职责是保证结果，但又不能直接给学员解决方案 The coach is responsible for the RESULTS, but cannot give content solutions to the learner. 这种相互依赖的关系促成了教练和学员之间的合作，像 图中两个人跑步。学员思考达到目标状态的步骤，教练 思考如何教导学员达成目标状态 This overlap creates a dependency bond between the coach and learner, like two runners in a three- legged race. The learner is thinking about the steps to the target condition, while the coach is thinking about how the learner is approaching it. 38
教练要检查学员是否在“改善的轨道”上 The coach is checking that the learner is using the improvement kata correctly Is the learner here? Thinking & Acting 学员在正确的轨道上吗？ 思考并行动 Corridor of Improvement Kata 改善套路的轨道If not 1. Go & See when any doubt in mind. 有疑问时，到现场去观察如果不在 2. Gather more facts or collect data. 收集更多的事实和数据 39
STEPS TO APPLY LEAN KATA 应用精益套路的步骤 READ 阅读 LEAN KATACOURSE 参加精益套路的课程 SKILL-BUILDING PRACTICE 培养技能的训练Focused practice重点练习:-Grasp CC 掌握现状-Define TC 确定目标状态-PDCA cycles PDCA循环 Reference: 通过“精益套路”或者”Toyota Kata at UM”，亲身体DAILY PRACTICE 验套路的实践。 每天练习 40
WHAT IMPROVEMENT KATA GIVES TO YOU 套路可以带来什么 A way of practicing PDCA and continuous improvement 一个能够把PDCA持续下去的模式 Makes people more capable of improving processes and meeting challenges 克服挑战时必备的思想和做事的模式 Generates better teamwork - because people focus on target condition and share common method 更有效的团队合作 -因为员工都关注共同的目标，并使用相同的 方法 41
HOW TO START WITH LEAN KATA 如何启动精益套路1. Start with a small group (3-5 people) 从小范围开始（3-5人）2. Select one process to practice 选择一个流程进行练习3. Apply disciplined daily practices 有规则的每天练习4. Periodical external coaching 可以聘请外部顾问指导5. Increase the number of people and other processes as you evolve with the Kata skills. 当你掌握套路后，增加参加的人数，扩展到其他流程 42
Feedback from Lean Kata Workshop 精益套路学员反馈 科学的改善实践 Kata is a scientific method to implement kaizen 先做再想 take quick actions to check out before too much analysis 好的习惯走向成功 this is a good habit to march toward success 传统改善的点 VS 精益改善的面 The traditional point kaizen Vs lean Kata: broader scope of learning 改善可以积少成多 you can accumulate many small Kaizens and thenmake big achievement 43
Quick Reflection •Think about your lean journey until now. • Any reflection? • What Kata can bring to you?
EXAMPLE OUTPUT OF A PROCESS ANALYSIS 流程分析的例子—我们也会做同样的练习 Line Pace 生产节拍 Overview 概览 (first impressions) Machine capacity 设备产能Process stability 流程稳定性 Necessary # of operators 操作者的数量 53
EXAMPLE OF IMPLEMENTATION ORIENTATION Typical Action-List Such lists and plans = deciding in advance how we will get there Yet the situation changes as we move forward! So we are not experimenting and learning.This is not an effective way of stimulating our ingenuity! 54
YOU HAVE TO PERSONALLY & REPEATEDLY GO and SEE 必须亲身不断地到现场去观察 55