VoIP(Voice over IP) Security Dayanand Prabhakar
Project scope• Understanding VoIP• Threat profiling of VoIP application• Develop the test case and Methodologies to test VoIP application• Sample testing of one VoIP application and report presentation• Mitigation strategies• Conclusion
What is VoIP? Routingof voice conversations over the Internet or through any other IP-based network.
Benefits VoIP enables convergence of data, voice, and video onto single network. Attractive opportunities – Reducing costs – Reducing complexities – Enabling progressive business gains
VoIP implementations Business-grade VoIP telephony – Designed specifically for business grade usage Softphones – X-lite, 3cx , Express Talk Instant Messaging voice services – Application such as AIM, MSN, Apple iChat offer ‘voice chat’ functionality Mobile VoIP – Requires mobile telephone with 3G or wireless connectivity – Using a mobile version of a Softphone mobile devices and telephones are capable of offering VoIP services VoIP handsets – Requires a VoIP handset from the service provider – Offer call functionality and services similar of typical PSTN services
Protocols Signaling Protocol – Create, modify, and terminate sessions with participants – Conferences – Proxies – Authentication Transport /Carrier Protocol – Manages the actual voice data
Protocols Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) – Signaling protocol – Session Initiation Protocol – Application layer control protocol for initiating VOIP sessions – Currently most favored protocol for new systems
Protocols H.323 – One of the earliest sets of VoIP standards by ITU-T – Handles voice, video and data conferencing – Some limitations, but most VoIP traffic utilizes this today Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP) – Used for media transfer by other protocols – Fast, scalable and efficient – RTP uses UDP
Most Common VOIP SecurityMistakes1. Treating VOIP security the same way as Network security2. Not treating VOIP security the same way as Network security How it’s the Same How it’s Different • Uses mostly the same • Some unique protocols protocols • Traditional Security devices • Uses mostly the same (Firewalls can disrupt service) Operating Systems • People treat it like the old phone • Many of the same system threats
Mitigation Strategies Create VOIP Specific Security Policies Segmentation as appropriate – Utilize separate VLANs for voice and data Device Hardening – Do not use default passwords – Turn off unnecessary services – Apply vendor supplied patches in a timely manner – Perform vendor installation security checklist to harden applications Pay attention to Security Risk Assessments and planning against the VOIP infrastructure
Key Mitigation Strategies Apply Encryption where possible Use tools to test the network Utilize VoIP aware Firewalls, Intrusion Prevention Systems Continue to protect against traditional system attacks (Toll Fraud, Modem Security, Social Networking Attacks & etc.) Avoid Single point of failure
Conclusion VoIP is established as the future of telephones Security is critical when designing, implementing and maintaining VoIP systems VoIP technology should there by provide a balance between security and business needs .
References VOIPSA – http://www.voipsa.org/ The VOIP Dilemma SANS Institute – http://www.sans.org/rr/whitepapers/voip/1452.php NIST - Security Considerations for Voice Over IP Systems, – http://csrc.nist.gov/publications/nistpubs/800- 58/SP800-58-final.pdf IP Telephony & VoIP: Security technical implementation guide – http://csrc.nist.gov/pcig/STIGs/VoIP-STIG-V2R2.pdf