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Mr. Dinabandhu Barad, MSC TUTOR, SNC,SOA,DTU
CONGENITAL
ANOMALY OF
GENITOURINARY
SYSTEM
Mr. Dinabandhu Barad, MSC TUTOR, SNC,SOA,DTU
BY:
Dinabandhu Barad
MSC TUTOR, SN...
EPISPADIASIS
Mr. Dinabandhu Barad, MSC TUTOR, SNC,SOA,DTU
• Epispadias is a congenital malformation in which the opening of the
urethra is on the dorsum of the penis.
• In boys wit...
ETIOLOGY
• There are several etiological factors have been proved to be
strongly associated with Hypospadias.
• few of the...
CAUSES
• Unknown
• Related to improper development of the pubic bone
• Failures of abdominal and pelvic fusion in the firs...
CLASSIFICATION
Classification of epispadias is based on the location of the meatus the penis. It can
be positioned:
A. ANT...
CLASSIFICATION
CLASSIFICATION OF EPISPADIAS IS BASED ON THE
LOCATION OF THE MEATUS IN FEMALE
A. Bifid clitoris with no inc...
•The position of the meatus is important because it predicts the degree
to which the bladder can store urine (continence)....
SYMPTOMS
In males:
• Abnormal opening from the joint between the pubic bones to the
area above the tip of the penis
• Back...
In females
• Abnormal clitoris and labia
• Abnormal opening where the from the
bladder neck to the area above the normal
u...
DIAGNOSTIC MEASURES
• Prenatal diagnosis - rare
• Blood test to check electrolyte levels
• Intravenous pyelogram (IVP), a ...
TREATMENT
The primary goals of treatment of epispadias are to:
• maximize penile length and function by correcting dorsal ...
SURGERY
Management of epispadias is done by the surgical correction usually in
three stages:
1. First stage of surgery is ...
SURGERY
Management of epispadias is done by the surgical correction usually in
three stages:
2. Second stage operation is ...
SURGERY
Management of epispadias is done by the surgical correction usually in
three stages:
3. The third stage surgery is...
NURSING CARE
• Prevention of infection
• Emotional support for long-term management
• Routine pre and post operative manag...
EPISPADIAS (CONGENITAL ANOMALY OF GENITOURINARY SYSTEM)
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CONGENITAL ANOMALY OF GENITOURINARY SYSTEM. BY MR. DINABANDHU BARAD

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EPISPADIAS (CONGENITAL ANOMALY OF GENITOURINARY SYSTEM)

  1. 1. Mr. Dinabandhu Barad, MSC TUTOR, SNC,SOA,DTU
  2. 2. CONGENITAL ANOMALY OF GENITOURINARY SYSTEM Mr. Dinabandhu Barad, MSC TUTOR, SNC,SOA,DTU BY: Dinabandhu Barad MSC TUTOR, SNC,SOA,DTU
  3. 3. EPISPADIASIS Mr. Dinabandhu Barad, MSC TUTOR, SNC,SOA,DTU
  4. 4. • Epispadias is a congenital malformation in which the opening of the urethra is on the dorsum of the penis. • In boys with epispadias, the urethra generally opens on the top or side of the penis rather than the tip. However, it is possible for the urethra to be open along the entire length of the penis. • In girls, the opening is usually between the clitoris and the labia, but may be in the belly area. Mr. Dinabandhu Barad, MSC TUTOR, SNC,SOA,DTU EPISPADIASIS
  5. 5. ETIOLOGY • There are several etiological factors have been proved to be strongly associated with Hypospadias. • few of them are as follows : • Genetic • Endocrine • environmental factors. Mr. Dinabandhu Barad, MSC TUTOR, SNC,SOA,DTU
  6. 6. CAUSES • Unknown • Related to improper development of the pubic bone • Failures of abdominal and pelvic fusion in the first months of embryogenesis • Epispadias can be associated with bladder exstrophy, an uncommon birth defect in which the bladder is inside out, and sticks through the abdominal wall • Also occur with other defects Mr. Dinabandhu Barad, MSC TUTOR, SNC,SOA,DTU
  7. 7. CLASSIFICATION Classification of epispadias is based on the location of the meatus the penis. It can be positioned: A. ANTERIOR EPISPADIAS WITH NORMAL CONTINENCE • On the glans (glanular) • Along the shaft of the penis (penile) B. POSTERIOR EPISPADIAS ASSOCIATED WITH INCOMPLETE BLADDER NECK AND INCONTINENCE OF URINE • Near the pubic bone (penopubic). • Sub symphyseal Mr. Dinabandhu Barad, MSC TUTOR, SNC,SOA,DTU
  8. 8. CLASSIFICATION CLASSIFICATION OF EPISPADIAS IS BASED ON THE LOCATION OF THE MEATUS IN FEMALE A. Bifid clitoris with no incontinence of urine B. Subsymphyseal with incontinence of urine Mr. Dinabandhu Barad, MSC TUTOR, SNC,SOA,DTU
  9. 9. •The position of the meatus is important because it predicts the degree to which the bladder can store urine (continence). The closer the meatus is to the base of the penis, the more likely the bladder will not hold urine Mr. Dinabandhu Barad, MSC TUTOR, SNC,SOA,DTU EPISPADIASIS
  10. 10. SYMPTOMS In males: • Abnormal opening from the joint between the pubic bones to the area above the tip of the penis • Backward flow of urine into the kidney (reflux nephropathy) • Short, widened penis with an abnormal curvature • Urinary tract infections • Widened pubic bone Mr. Dinabandhu Barad, MSC TUTOR, SNC,SOA,DTU
  11. 11. In females • Abnormal clitoris and labia • Abnormal opening where the from the bladder neck to the area above the normal urethral opening • Backward flow of urine into the kidney (reflux nephropathy) • Widened pubic bone • Urinary incontinence • Urinary tract infection Mr. Dinabandhu Barad, MSC TUTOR, SNC,SOA,DTU SYMPTOMS
  12. 12. DIAGNOSTIC MEASURES • Prenatal diagnosis - rare • Blood test to check electrolyte levels • Intravenous pyelogram (IVP), a special x- ray of the kidneys, bladder, and ureters • MRI and CT scans, depending on the condition • Pelvic x-ray • Ultrasound of the urogenital system Mr. Dinabandhu Barad, MSC TUTOR, SNC,SOA,DTU
  13. 13. TREATMENT The primary goals of treatment of epispadias are to: • maximize penile length and function by correcting dorsal bend and chordee; and • create functionality and cosmetically acceptable external genitalia with as few surgical procedures as possible. • If the bladder and bladder neck are also involved, surgical treatment is required to establish urinary continence and preserve fertility. Mr. Dinabandhu Barad, MSC TUTOR, SNC,SOA,DTU
  14. 14. SURGERY Management of epispadias is done by the surgical correction usually in three stages: 1. First stage of surgery is done in about 1.5 to 2 years of age for • penile lengthening • Elongation of the urethral strip • Chordee correction Mr. Dinabandhu Barad, MSC TUTOR, SNC,SOA,DTU
  15. 15. SURGERY Management of epispadias is done by the surgical correction usually in three stages: 2. Second stage operation is done at least 6 months after the first stage surgery for urethral reconstruction Mr. Dinabandhu Barad, MSC TUTOR, SNC,SOA,DTU
  16. 16. SURGERY Management of epispadias is done by the surgical correction usually in three stages: 3. The third stage surgery is done about 3-4 years of age for bladder neck reconstruction . Cystoplasty can be done to enhance the bladder capacity after 2-3 years of 3rd stage surgery . Mr. Dinabandhu Barad, MSC TUTOR, SNC,SOA,DTU
  17. 17. NURSING CARE • Prevention of infection • Emotional support for long-term management • Routine pre and post operative management • Health maintenance • Promotion of growth and development by balance diet • Immunization • Hygienic measures • Parental guidance Mr. Dinabandhu Barad, MSC TUTOR, SNC,SOA,DTU
  • ElAlawi

    May. 30, 2021
  • puspanjalijena96

    Oct. 6, 2020

CONGENITAL ANOMALY OF GENITOURINARY SYSTEM. BY MR. DINABANDHU BARAD

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